William Stoughton (1631–1701), Dominion Councillor, Member of the Council for the Safety of the People and Preservation of the Peace. Portrait by an unknown artist. Harvard University Portrait Collection.
1. For the former struggles see Perry Miller, Orthodoxy in Massachusetts 1630–1650 (reprinted, Boston, 1959), Chapter VII. Excellent accounts of this period are also to be found in T.H. Breen, The Character of the Good Ruler: Puritan Political Ideas in New England 1630–1730 (New Haven 1970) 47–85 and R.E. Wall, Jr., Massachusetts Bay: The Crucial Decade, 1640–1650 (New Haven and London, 1972). Breen, Good Ruler, 91–92, 101–103, 118–122 treats some of the sermons relating to the charter.
2. See the interesting petitions in favor of the Massachusetts government from the colony’s towns in 1664 and 1665, M[assachusetts] A[rchives] 106: 104, 110, 111; and the paper by Edward Johnson, [c. 11 August 1663?], M.A., 106:80.
3. John Adams, “Novanglus” (1774) in Works, IV, (Boston, 1851), 128. See Theodore B. Lewis, “A Revolutionary Tradition, 1689–1774: ‘There was a Revolution here as well as in England,’” New England Quarterly, XLVI, no. 3 (1973), 424–438.
4. K.G. Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution 1770–1783, (Dublin, 1975), VIII, 205.
5. Paul R. Lucas, “Colony or Commonwealth: Massachusetts Bay 1661–1666,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, no. 1 (January, 1967), 88–107.
6. Voting figures for the 1680s may be found as follows: 1683: Thomas Hutchinson, Collection of Original Papers Relative to the History of Massachusetts Bay (Boston, 1769) 541. 1684: Massachusetts Historical Society, Miscellaneous Bound Manuscripts, 8 April 1684. 1685: “Diary of Samuel Sewall,” c.132, 137. See also British Museum, Stowe Manuscripts, 746, 89a/b.
7. A recent excellent study of this period has a comprehensive bibliography: Richard R. Johnson, Adjustment to Empire: The New England Colonies 1675–1715 (New Brunswick, 1981). See also P.S. Haffenden, “The Crown and the Colonial Charters, 16751688,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, XV no. 3, 297–311, XV no. 4, 452–466.
8. Joseph Dudley (1647–1720). Born Roxbury, Massachusetts; Assistant, 1675–1685; President of the Council of New England in 1686; Council member under, supporter of, and imprisoned with Andros.
9. William Stoughton (1630–1701). An assistant from 1671–1686 under the old charter.
10. Edmund Andros (1637–1714) first and only governor-general of the Dominion of New England. Arrived in Boston in December 1686. Imprisoned in 1689, he was sent back to England in 1690. He later became governor of Virginia.
11. Discussions of the divisions existing in Massachusetts in the 1680s may be found in the following: Bernard Bailyn, The New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge, Mass., 1955), 159–192; Breen, Character of the Good Ruler, chapt. 4; M.G. Hall, Edward Randolph and the American Colonies 1676–1703 (Chapel Hill, 1960), 59–61, 80–83, 105, 122–126; and Johnson, Adjustment to Empire, 1–121.
12. I.K. Steele, “Communicating an English Revolution to the Colonies, 1688–9” Journal of British Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3 (July 1985), 333–357, suggests 16 February 1689 as the date when definite news of William of Orange’s invasion of England first arrived in Boston.
13. For Cotton Mather, see two recent biographies, David Levin, Cotton Mather: The Young Life of the Lord’s Remembrancer (Cambridge, 1978) and Kenneth Silverman, The Life and Times of Cotton Mather (New York, 1984). Levin, 167–171 states Mather’s authorship and suggests parallels between the Declaration of 1689 and the Declaration of Independence. Silverman, 70–71 considers that “no evidence whatsoever exists that he wrote it,” stylistically or otherwise.
14. For the statement of the fifteen signatories and the “Declaration. . . ,” see above, 45–516.
15. Johnson, Adjustment to Empire, 96, note 59 states that only 15 more members were “admitted” to the Council on this date with 7 more admitted on 1 May. Yet 22 men “being invited. . . to be added unto them of the Council” “do Accept of the Said Invitation” according to the Court Records, above, 54. Several of these lived away from Boston and did not come to meetings and some may even have decided not to attend the Council at all. But I conclude that the “Some other Gentlemen of the Council” whose presence was sought on 1 May were probably not, as Johnson suggests, new members, admitted to broaden the basis of popular support, but were existing if absentee members.
16. Thomas Danforth (1622–1703). Deputy-governor of Massachusetts 1679–1686 and 1689–1692.
17. John Smith (d. 1695) of Hingham. Chosen an assistant in 1686.
18. James Russell (1642–1709). Assistant 1680–1686; appointed a royal councillor in 1691.
19. John Hathorne (1641–1717). Assistant 1684–1686; appointed a royal councillor in 1691.
20. Samuel Shrimpton (1643–1703). Appointed an Andros councillor. Uncle of Ephaphras Shrimpton.
21. Bartholomew Gedney (1640–1698). Assistant 1680–1683, appointed an Andros councillor, and a royal councillor in 1691.
22. Nathaniel Oliver (1652–1704). Boston merchant; freeman 1690.
23. Andrew Belcher (1647–1717). Prosperous merchant.
24. Peter Sergeant (d. 1714). Boston merchant, appointed royal councillor in 1691. Nephew to Sir Henry Ashurst.
25. For these men see Bailyn, New England Merchants.
26. Simon Bradstreet (1603–1697). Governor, 1679–1686; appointed but declined Andros councillorship. Appointed a royal councillor in 1691.
27. Elisha Cooke (1637–1715). Physician and politician. Assistant, 1684–1686. A life of Cooke is to be found in J.L. Sibley, Biographical Sketches of Graduates of Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass., 1873), I, 520–525. Cooke had been elected an assistant before 1686 because of his prominence in the struggle to preserve the charter. But he did not lead any overt movement for its resumption on or after 18 April 1689 and he signed the rejection of the first Convention’s call for this. Unfortunately, Cooke’s political papers have not survived.
28. Bradstreet had favored an accommodation with England before 1686 and was included in a list of men considered suitable for councillors under Dudley. Bradstreet’s refusal to serve in this capacity and Cooke’s implication that on 18 April 1689 he advocated an immediate resumption of the old charter (465), suggest that his position had modified. But after the revolt his conduct was conciliatory towards England.
29. For the sermons see Perry Miller, New England Mind From Colony to Province, (reprinted, Boston 1961), 130–134 and Bailyn, New England Merchants, 140–142.
30. See R.C. Simmons, “The Massachusetts Revolution of 1689: Three Early American Political Broadsides,” Journal of American Studies, II, No. 1, (1968), 1–12.
31. Ibid., 5–6 and R.C. Simmons, “Godliness, Property and the Franchise in Puritan Massachusetts: An Interpretation,” Journal of American History, LV, no. 3, (December 1968), 502.
32. The financial history of Massachusetts has received no modern treatment, although Bailyn, New England Merchants, 182–189, provides a useful discussion and bibliography. See also T.H. Breen, Puritans and Adventurers: Change and Persistence in Early America (1980) 87–90, 103–104.
33. M.A. Council Records VI, 31–32 and CVII, 151a.
34. Two Addresses from the Governor, Council and Convention of Massachusetts Colony in August 7, 1689 (London, 1689). Wing, M1025A.
35. Edward Randolph (1632–1703) Secretary and Registrar of the Dominion of New England. Imprisoned with Andros. For his career see Hall, Edward Randolph.
36. Randolph’s letters for this period have been admirably edited. See A.T.S. Goodrick, ed. Letters and Papers of Edward Randolph Vol. VI and VII (Prince Society, Boston 1909).
37. John Usher (1648–1726). Boston merchant; councillor and treasurer under Andros.
38. Francis Brinley (1632–1719), from a royalist family, had settled in Newport, Rhode Island in 1652. His son, Thomas (1657?–1693) of Boston was a leading Anglican; his second son William died in Boston in 1693.
39. Charles Lidget (1650–1698). Anglican merchant, brother-in-law of John Usher and partner of John Hull.
40. Thomas Graves (1638?–1697) of a well-established merchant family. Imprisoned for his opposition to the restored government in 1691.
41. Lawrence Hammond (d. 1699). Allied with and imprisoned with Thomas Graves in his opposition to the restored government.
42. Breen, Puritans and Adventurers, 90–91, 97–99, makes an interesting case for regarding Lawrence Hammond and some other Charlestown residents as “political brokers” whose role was threatened by increasing tax demands created by new military expenditures. This analysis, I believe, underplays the extent to which Charlestown was a center of “royalist” political opposition to the charter group. Evidence for this is found not only in the Calendar of State Papers but in a source relatively neglected by historians of this period, the records of the County Court, preserved in the Cambridge Court House. These show Hammond arguing, even as late as 1690, for the validity of commissions granted by Sir Edmund Andros and record a number of accusations against and trials for sedition of Charlestown men under the revolutionary government.
43. See their letters in C.S.P.C. 1689–1692, passim. See Brinley’s letter below (451).
44. These were immediately printed with the addition of a representation of a royal seal. A copy of the printed letter, in the Public Record Office, CO. 5/855, 147, shows the deception. See C.S.P.C, 1689–1692, 709X.
45. For the hearings of the “case” against Andros see 000 above and Theodore B. Lewis, ed., “Sir Edmund Andros’s Hearings before the Lords of Trade and Plantations, April 17, 1690: Two Unpublished Accounts,” American Antiquarian Society Proceedings, LXXXIII (1973), 241–250.
46. So, too, were the leading English critics of Massachusetts: see the correspondence of Sir Robert Southwell and William Blathwayt, 20, 22, 26 May 1686, Portland Papers (MSS) Nottingham University Library.
47. See Johnson, Adjustment to Empire, 185–190.
48. Thomas Oakes (1644–1719). Physician and politician. Speaker of the restored house of deputies in 1689; elected assistant in 1690.
49. No copy of it exists in the Public Record Office, although other papers of the same time from Massachusetts to England are well preserved.
50. John Nelson (d. 1734)Boston merchant and militia commander.
51. Further Queries on the Present State of New-England Affairs [?Boston, 1690] A.T. I, 195–208.
52. John Pynchon (1625–1703). Assistant, leading landowner, merchant, and military commander in western Massachusetts. See The Pynchon Papers, Vol. I, edited with an introduction by Carl Bridenbaugh, Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, (Boston, 1982), Vol. 60.
53. William Phips (1651–1695). Boston ship’s carpenter and successful treasure hunter. Knighted 1687. First royal governor of Massachusetts under the charter of 1691.
54. Jacob Leisler (1640–1691). Emerged as leader of New York revolt against royal government in 1689. Executed for treason in 1691.
55. M.A., 36:231
56. Of the 13 influential members of the Council of Safety who agreed on 26 May 1689 to accept the authority of the restored government, only John Nelson and Richard Sprague were later to sign any of the anti-charter petitions.
57. Kenneth B. Murdock, Increase Mather (Cambridge, 1925), 190–210; Johnson, Adjustment to Empire 138–144. Calender of State Papers Colonial 1685–1688 (London, 1899), items 1860–2, 1878–7, 1913.
58. See William’s “First Declaration,” Journals of the House of Commons 1688–1693 (London, 1803), X, 4. For a brief treatment of English charters and the Glorious Revolution see, R.H. George, “A Note on the Bill of Rights: Municipal Liberties and Freedom of Parliamentary Election,” American Historical Review, XLII, (1937), 670–677.
59. Douglas R. Lacey, Dissent and Parliamentary Politics in England 1661–1689 (New Brunswick, 1969), 207–220. Lacey also provides biographies of most of the men contacted by Mather. However, an authoritative list of members of Parliament is now available in Basil D. Henning, The House of Commons 1660–1690 (London, 1983), 3 vols., which I have used.
60. Lacey, Dissent, 244–253; Michael G. Hall, ed., “The Autobiography of Increase Mather,” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, (October 1961), 327.
61. William Carstares (1649–1715). Chaplain to William and adviser on Scottish matters.
62. Probably George Melville (1636–1707) 4th Baron and 1st Earl of Melville, Secretary of State for Scotland 1689–1690, a zealous Presbyterian.
63. Jean (Wemyss) Gordon, Countess of Sutherland (d. 1715). Her son was John Gordon, Lord Strathnaver (1661–1733).
64. Richard Baxter (1615–1691). Leading Presbyterian minister and spokesman.
65. William Bates (1625–1699). Minister of a dissenting church in Hackney.
66. Mathew Mead (1630?–1699). Minister of a dissenting church in Stepney.
67. Lacey, Dissent, 246; Hall, “Autobiography,” 327–328. Also see the entries in Increase Mather, “Diary 1688–9,” s.v. 28 December 1688; 2–6, 9, 11, 17–19, 24–29 January; 1 February 1689.
68. Philip Wharton, 4th Baron Wharton (1613–1696). Leading Whig and dissenting politician.
69. Hall, “Autobiography,” 331.
70. For a discussion of the Thompson family and further references, see Johnson, Adjustment to Empire, 143.
71. Henry Ashurst (1614?—1680) had been treasurer of the New England Company. His sons were Sir Henry Ashurst (1645–1711), M.P. in 1689 and 1690, and Mathers fellow agent, a London merchant married to a daughter of Lord Paget; and William (1647–1720), also a prominent London merchant, sympathetic to the non-conformist cause, M.P. 1689 and later, whose wife was a daughter of Robert Thompson.
72. William Paget, 7th Baron Paget (1637–1713), brother-in-law to Sir Henry Ashurst and to Philip Foley, and connected by marriage to the Hampden family.
73. Paul (1645?–1699), M.P. for Hereford in 1689 and 1690, Philip (1648–c. 1716) M.P. for Stafford in 1689 and Droitwich in 1690, and Thomas (c. 1641–1701) M.P. for Worcestershire in 1689 and 1690 were sons of Thomas Foley (d. 1671) the wealthy non-conformist iron manufacturer.
74. Richard Hampden (1631–1695) was M.P. for Buckinghamshire 1681–1690, Wendover, 1690–1695; Chancellor of the Exchequer from 18 March 1690 to 1694. His wife was the daughter of William, 5th Baron Paget (1572–1628) and his son was John Hampden (1653–1696), extreme Whig, M.P. for Wendover, 1681–1690 and brother-in-law of the Foleys.
75. Hall, “Autobiography” 327; Lacey, Dissent, 375.
76. John Carswell, The Descent on England (London, 1969), 16.
77. Increase Mather, “Diary 1688–1689”, s.v. 28 December 1688.
78. Abraham Kick was a correspondent (see Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 4th ser. VIII, 569–9) and admirer of Increase Mather. His paper quotes extensively from Mather’s De Successu Apud Indos in Nova-Anglia Epistola. . . (London, 1688) written to the Dutch theologian, John Leusden.
79. Robert Sawyer (1633–1692), Attorney-General under James II; MP for Cambridge University, 1689–1692.
80. Roger Morrice (1628–1702), an ejected Church of England minister, became a London merchant. He left an extensive series of manuscripts relating to English church history, now in Dr. Williams’s Library, London.
81. Charles Talbot (1660–1713), 12th Earl and 1st Duke of Shrewsbury. Secretary of State for the Southern Department 19 February 1689–3 June 1690.
82. Daniel Finch (1647–1730), 2nd Earl of Nottingham. Secretary of State for the Northern Department 5 March 1689 to June 1690; sole Secretary of State, June to December 1690 and for the Southern Department, December to March 1692.
83. Charles Paulet (1630–1699), 5th Marquis of Winchester, created 1st Duke of Bolton on 9 April 1689.
84. R. S. Dunn, “The Imperial Pressure on Massachusetts and Jamacia 1675–1700” in A. G. Olson and R. N. Brown, eds. Anglo-American Political Relations 1675–1775 (New Brunswick, 1970). For a useful discussion of the administration of the war, see John Ehrmann, The Navy in the War of William III, 1689–1697 (Cambridge, 1953), 297–366.
85. “Diary of Samuel Sewall,” Collections of the Massachusetts History Society 5th series VI, (Boston, 1878), 261
86. Hans Wilhelm Bentinck (1649–1709), 1st Earl of Portland.
87. Henry Sydney (1641–1704), 1st Viscount and 1st Earl of Romney, Secretary of State for Northern Department, 26 December 1690–March 1692.
88. C. M. Andrews, The Colonial Period of American History (reprinted New Haven, 1964), IV, 368–390.
89. Common Journals, X, 17.
90. Hugh Boscawen (1625–1701) MP for Cornwall in 1689 and 1690. See Lacey, Dissent, 382–383; Mather “Diary 1688–1689,” 1 February 1689.
91. For a list of all the members of the Committee, see Commons Journals, X, 15.
92. William Jephson (c. 1647–1691), the King’s private secretary. Secretary of the Treasury 1689–91. M.P. in 1689 and 1690–1691 for Chipping Wycombe in Lord Wharton’s interest.
93. John Wildman (1621?–1693). Extreme whig; M.P. for Great Bedwyn in 1689. Served as Postmaster-General 1689–1691. His son John (c. 1648–1719) was M.P. for Wooton Bassett in 1689 and 1690.
94. Probably Richard, the more influential of the two. Mather wrote of seeing “Mr. Hampden,” Mather “Diary 1688–1689,” 11 January 1689. Both Richard and John Hampden were members of the committee.
95. William Love (c. 1620–1689) wealthy nonconformist, London merchant, and member of the New England Company. M.P. for London in 1689.
96. Sir Edward Harley (1624–1700) M.P. for Herefordshire in 1689. His son Robert Harley (1661–1724) was M.P. for Tregony in 1689 and New Radnor in 1690 and a brother-in-law of the Foleys.
97. Mather, “Diary 1688–1689,” 3, 14–15, 22, 25 February; 15, 16, 18 March 1689.
98. Samuel Sewall (1652–1730) of Boston. Arrived in England in early January 1689 and met Increase Mather in London on 17 January.
99. Thomas Papillon (1623–1702), merchant and M.P. for Dover, in 1689 and 1690. Members of the Papillon family lived in Boston.
100. Common Journals, X, 19, 25, 35, 41–42.
101. Ibid., X, 51.
102. Ibid., X, 12, 119, 233.
103. Hall, “Autobiography,” 339.
104. The Present State of the New English Affairs, (Boston, 1689). This is a version of his letter printed by the authorities; possibly it was changed from the original, which does not survive.
105. John Birch (1615–1691) M.P. for Weobley, 1689, 1690–1691. A presbyterian moderate.
106. Common Journals, X, 277, 294, 311–12, 323.
107. A clause originally introduced by William Sacheverell to exclude from municipal corporations for seven years certain categories of persons responsible for surrendering charters. It was later amended to operate more harshly and provoked violent debate.
108. Ibid., X, 329–330; Journals of the House of Lords, 1685–1691, (London, n.d.) XIV, 410.
109. William Blathwayt (1649?–1717), Clerk to Privy Council, served as Secretary to the Lords of Trade and Plantations, and as “Auditor-General of Plantations,” and in senior government offices.
110. Robert Southwell (1635–1702), Commissioner of Customs, April 1689, and Secretary of State, 1690–1702.
111. For tracts printed to influence Parliament and public opinion during the debates on the Corporations Bill see A.T., II, 113–123, 137–147, 151–170 and III, 3–9, 13, 16. Murdock, Increase Mather, provides a facsimile of [? Increase Mather], A Further Vindication of New England, Wing M1214, a similar tract, to the editor of the Andros Tracts.
112. Thomas Cullen. Probably a member of the merchant family, originally Flemish, whose head was Sir Rushout Cullen.
113. Charles Montagu (1661–1715). A clerk of the Privy Council, 1689–92; M.P. for Maldon, 1689–95.
114. John Birch (1615–1691) M.P. for Weobley, 1689, 1690–1691. A Presbyterian moderate.
115. H. C. Foxcroft, ed. Life and Letters of. . . . First Marquis of Halifax. . . (London, 1898), II, 244.
116. Historical Manuscripts Commission, Twelfth Report, Appendix Part VI (London, 1894), 422–429.
117. Hall, “Autobiography,” 342.
118. H. M. C, Twelfth Report, Part VI, 432.
119. Hall, “Autobiography,” 340, 342–343.
121. Increase Mather, “A Brief Account Concerning Several of the Agents,” A.T., II, 276.
122. Increase Mather, “Brief Account,” A.T., II, 276–277 states that three of the agents signed the petition but does not specify who they were. Cotton Mather, “Parentator . . .”, A.T. III, 155, a biography of his father based on Increase Mather’s papers and books, specifies that Mather signed “with two other agents which the Massachusetts colony had now joined with him” and neither he nor other contemporaries except Hinckley seem to have suggested that Cooke did not sign. The origins of the frequently stated assumption about Cooke seems to have first arisen with Thomas Hutchinson, The History of the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay (London, 1760), I, 408 and note. Cooke, however, wrote of our petition (519).
123. George Treby (1644?–1700). Solicitor-General to 4 May 1689; Attorney-General, May 1689 to 1692. M.P. for Plympton Erie 1689, 1690–2.
124. John Somers (1651–1716). Solicitor-General 1689–1692. M.P. for Worcester, 1689, 1690–1693.
125. Sir John Holt (1642–1710). Chief Justice of King’s Bench, 1689–1710, M.P. for Bere Alston, 1689.
126. Henry Pollexfen (1632?–1691). Attorney-General to 4 May 1689, then Chief Justice of Common Pleas. M.P. or Exeter, 1689.
127. Increase Mather, “Brief Account,” A.T., II, 277.
128. Sir Ferdinando Gorges (c. 1566–1647) was granted a proprietorial charter for Maine in 1639.
129. For Mather’s version of these events, see “Brief Account,” A.T., II, 277–286.
130. However there is no evidence that Mather had in fact read or been influenced by contemporary English political tracts of a radical kind or was aware of them.
131. See 488ff.
132. The later writings of Cotton Mather served a similar political purpose. See Peter H. Smith, “Politics and Sainthood: Biography by Cotton Mather,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series XX No. 2, (April 1963), 186–206.
133. See below, 138, 228.
134. Samuel Allen, London merchant and speculator, purchased the Mason family’s claims to New Hampshire in 1689 or 1690 from the grandson of the original proprietor, Captain John Mason (1585–1635). See David E. Van Deventer, The Emergence of Provincial New Hampshire, 1623–1741 (Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, 1976).
135. William Alexander (1557–1640), Earl of Stirling and colonial proprietor.
136. Richard, Lord Gorges, 2nd Baron of Dundalk (1620–1712) was the son of Edward, Lord Gorges, 1st Baron (c. 1582–1650), once President of the Council of New England, who invested heavily but not successfully in North America. Richard had been a Commissioner of Trade in the 1670s. His grandfather and Sir Ferdinando Gorges the elder (1566–1647) were brothers. Little conveniently accessible information is to be found about Ferdinando Gorges the petitioner and grandson of Sir Ferdinando, though diligent research could probably reveal more.
137. William Paterson (1658–1719). Financier and promoter; a founder of the Bank of England.
138. Thomas Hinckley (c. 1618–1706). Governor of Plymouth colony 1681–1686 and 1689–1692.
139. Ichabod Wiswall, (c. 1637–1700). Minister at Duxbury, agent from Plymouth, sailed to England on the same ship as Andros and the other prisoners on 10 February 1690.
140. Ichabod Wiswall to Thomas Hinckley, 6 July and 5 November 1691, Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 4th series, V: 285–286, 299–301 (Boston, 1861). The Plymouth government, for reasons of internal weakness, had found it impossible to support their own claims to independence in England. Many of its members were resigned to a union with Massachusetts. See George Langdon, Pilgrim Colony: A History of New Plymouth 1670–1691 (New Haven 1969), 224–246 and R. C. Bowen, “The 1690 Tax Revolt of Plymouth Colony Towns,” New England Historical and Genealogical Register, CXII (1958), 4–14.
141. William Johnson (d. 1704) of Woburn. Assistant 1684–6.
142. Peter Tilton (d. 1696). Hadley deacon and assistant.
143. Isaac Addington (1645–1715). Assistant in 1686. Clerk of Council of Safety; appointed Secretary of Province.
144. John Foster (d. 1711). Merchant. Appointed royal councillor in 1691.
145. Adam Winthrop (1647–1700). Grandson of Governor John Winthrop. Appointed royal councillor in 1691.
146. John Richards (d. 1694). Assistant before 1686. Appointed royal councillor in 1691.
147. Stephen Mason was a London merchant of Canon Street, active in the New England trade and interested in New England affairs, probably with strong religious convictions. He helped Mather financially at this period. He later worked against Joseph Dudley and signed petitions in 1705 and 1707. Richard R. Johnson kindly provided me with detailed references to Mason and suggests that more work in the London archives might well add to the little now known about him.
148. The following document was not included in the material that Robert Moody prepared for this volume. We include it here, at the suggestion of Professor Michael G. Hall of the University of Texas at Austin, as an admirable introduction to the Glorious Revolution in Massachusetts. As Professor Hall says, “It is the one document which clearly stands at the head of all those that followed.”
The text is taken from Andros Tracts, (Published by the Prince Society, Boston, 1868), I, 11–20.
The editor of the Andros Tracts included the following note in explanation of the Declaration:
We are indebted to the kindness of J. Hammond Trumbull, Esq., for the information that this Declaration was issued on a pot-folio sheet, measuring 12 1–4 by 8 12 inches. It covers three pages and the first quarter of the fourth page, double columns. The heading is the same as in the text, and the imprint is “Boston, Printed by Samuel Green, and Sold by Benjamin Harris at the London Coffee-House, 1689.” Hutchinson (i. 381) says of it: “A long declaration was read from the balcony or gallery of the town-house. This is printed at large in Neale and other writers. There would be room to doubt whether this declaration was not a work of time and prepared beforehand, if it did not appear, by the style and language, to have been the performance of one of the ministers of Boston (Mr. Mather) who had a remarkable talent for very quick and sudden composures; besides, it was not printed till several days after, and perhaps was corrected and enlarged.”
149. A copy of a printed broadside of this letter (printed by Samuel Green) is in Massachusetts Archives (hereafter MA) 3:365. See also Massachusetts Historical Society (hereafter MHS) Proceedings, ser. 2, 9:478; Worthington C. Ford, Broadsides, Ballads, &c. Printed in Massachusetts, 1639–1800, MHS, Collections, vol. 75, Boston, 1922 no. 142 (hereafter “Ford”). The MHS copy has interleaved ms. additions. Also, American Bibliography: A Chronological Dictionary of All Books, Pamphlets, and Periodical Publications Printed in the United States of America, 1639–1800, comp. Charles Evans and others, 14 vols., (Chicago and Worcester, 1903–1959), no. 481 (hereafter “Evans”).
150. The ms. reads “1690,” obviously a slip of the pen.
151. This name is “Uncton Deering” in MA, 107:10.
152. A list of the persons committed to prison is in Thomas Hutchinson, The History of the Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay, ed. L. S. Mayo, 3 vols., (Cambridge, 1936), 1:320n; also in The Andros Tracts, Being a collection of the pamphlets and official papers, Issued during the period between the overthrowing of the Andros Government and the Establishment of the Second Charter of Massachusetts, ed. W. H. Whitmore, 3 vols., (Boston, 1868–1874), 3:94.
153. This order to the Constables is the first item in Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing based upon the accounts of his deceased brother, Samuel Green. Ford, 125; Evans, 481. His complete bills for 1689–1691 may be found in MA, 58:137–139.
154. This order appears in Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing; no printed copy is known. Ford, 126; Evans, 477. For a copy entered into the Haverhill Town Records, see below, 361.
155. Since the appointment for a Fast on 7 May was revoked, it is likely that, if printed at all, all unsent copies were destroyed.
156. Some of the towns which received the first letter answered it. Such replies reflect the difference between the two “significations.” For the towns’ returns, see below, 000.
157. A peterara was a flat-bottomed boat. “Chamber” in this sense probably means “chamber-piece”, a kind of short cannon or mortar.
158. The name is “Champney” in MA, 107:10.
159. The three absent assistants were Nathaniel Saltonstall, Peter Tilton, and John Hathorne. Robert Pike was present but left early.
160. This is probably the Act of Council for the Representatives mentioned in Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing, 30 May 1689. No printed copy is known. Ford, 128; Evans, 478. Besides the Council’s answer to the Representatives, the Declaration of the Representatives must also have been included in the printing. The Dorchester town meeting of 20 May Copies the “Declaration” in toto as the item of town business to be voted on. By contrast the town of Boston drew up two articles, one confirming the addition of assistants, and the other confirming the election of Wait Winthrop as Major-General. See below, 382, 391.
161. The Act for a Fast, printed by Samuel Green, is in Bartholomew Green’s bill, 3 May 1689. No printed copy is known. Ford, 127; Evans, 477.
162. Capt. John Wincol. Former justices of the peace in the Province of Maine not included here were Walter Gendall and George Turfrey. See below, 86, note.
163. George Hescott, master of the sloop Exchange. MA, 107:116–117.
164. This petition, dated 11 May and signed by eight Pemaquid men, states that Martin Williams and Samuel Bowles with several others took into custody the commission officers of the fort on 11 May and that at their suggestion, the subscribers ask that Lieutenant Weems stay on as commander. MA, 107:34, 35a; see also Documentary History of the State of Maine, 6:478–479.
165. The Address sent to England is in the Public Record Office, London, C.O. 5:855, 9; entered C.O. 5:905, 111–114.
166. These fifteen words are omitted in PRO copy.
167. “Ancient” in PRO copy.
168. The names Dudley Bradstreet, Oliver, Waterhouse, and Nelson are in the margin.
169. Newton, Massachusetts.
170. For John King’s unsuccessful efforts to get his pay for his expenses at this session, see J. R. Trumbull, History of Northampton, Massachusetts, 2 vols., (Northampton, 1898), 1:410.
171. See below, 362–392.
172. Robert Pike’s attendance, omitted in the records, is noted in MA, 107:27 and also in a printed copy described in note 3, below.
173. This is the declaration known only in the printed broadside, below, 392–395.
174. Printed as a broadside, The Answer of the Subscribers to the Declaration given by the Representatives of the several Towns of the Colony of the Massachusetts, which was Publickly Declared at the Town-House, Boston, May 24, 1689. Printed for Benjamin Harris, 1689. (Bristol 1689). P.R.O., C.O. 5:855, no. 17V; Cushing, 3:645.
175. The repetition of John Smith’s name is undoubtedly a slip of the pen.
176. MA, 107:81.
177. George Turfrey, Boston merchant with business interests in Saco in the Province of Maine, had been a justice of peace there, 1687–1688, under the Dominion of New England. Noyes, Libby and Davis, Genealogical Dictionary of Maine and New Hampshire, (Portland, 1928–1939), 699–700.
178. MA, 107:85b.
179. MA, 107:85a
180. MA, 107:103
181. This is probably one of the “2 Acts of the Council about the militia” noted under date 14 June 1689 in Bartholomew Green’s bill. Ford, 129; Evans, 479. If so, Ford is in error in suggesting that his no. 130 is one of these two. See below, 101, note 2 for second Act about the Militia.
182. MA, 107:98a.
183. This motion did not pass the magistrates. It was not until 22 March 1689/90 that “Sir William Phipps, Knt., Maj. General Wait Winthrop, Lt. William Bond, Daniel Andrews, Peter King, and Ebenezer Prout [the clerk of the Representatives], admitted to be freemen, were Sworn.” From this date until April 1691, about six hundred freemen were admitted.
184. MA, 107:99.
185. This bill [MA, 107:108] was in answer to Dudley’s petition for his release. The deputies not approving this bill, Dudley petitioned further on 17 June 1689, stating that he understands the Court has under consideration the release of several persons under restraint. What may be said “in law for my deliverance from this strange sort of Captivity, which I hope you will please take the Consideration of,” he continued, saying that seven weeks had passed of his confinement which had been a great crime to his unsteady health and that he cannot hope to live in the heat of the weather. Having a great family to support and many occasions of husbandry and hoping that the Court will have a Christian consideration, he concluded: “Gentlemen, I can forget all my past hardships and love and serve my country if it may have acceptance.” (MA, 107:119).
186. MA, 107:96 b.
187. MA, 107:100, 101.
188. Lidgett’s bond of 3000 pounds current money of New England is in MA, 107:102.
189. MA, 107:108.
190. MA, 107:97b.
191. John Usher, Boston merchant, son of Hezekiah Usher, was treasurer of the Dominion of New England and in that capacity had issued the warrants.
192. MA, 107:108 13th June 
193. Weems was restored to his command by order of 20 May (above, 00 and note 0) with the promise of the “King’s Pay from this time forward till further order.” The fort at Pemaquid, inadequately defended by a mutinous militia, fell to the French on 2 August 1689 in an assault in which Weems was seriously injured. He was still trying to collect his back pay in 1700. Doc. Hist. of Maine, 5:179–183, 486–487, 489, 521–522; 6:476–7.
194. One of the “2 Acts of the Council about the Militia” in Bartholomew Green’s bill. No printed copy is known. Ford, 129; Evans, 479.
195. The name is “Winchcombe.” See below, 121.
196. MA, 107:114.
197. MA, 107:115
198. MA, 107:127b.
199. MA, 107:126a.
200. The Clerk (John Spaulding) and Committee (Joseph Foster, Nathaniel Hill, John Wilson, and John Manning) of the Billerica Troop of Horse, acting upon the order of 14 June 1689 (see above, 00) reported on 21 June not only the officers here confirmed but also “Jerathmall Bowers Leftenant” who was left out of the vote of confirmation. Bowers, the rejected lieutenant, and Spaulding, the clerk, were Chelmsford men. MA, 107:133.
201. This declaration was printed; copies are in MA, 107:94b, and Hutchinson Papers 3:372, MA, 242:372. Ford, 130; Cushing, Colonial Laws, 3:647.
202. MA, 107:136
203. MA, 107:151
204. The letter is in MA, 107:144 (27 June 1689). The messenger was delayed at the Newbury ferry, and the over-confident, unwarned Waldron, his garrison, and others at Cochecho (Dover) were taken by ruse on 28 June. Twenty three persons, including Waldron, were killed and twenty nine taken into captivity. Coffin and his family were spared. Jeremy Belknap, The History of New Hampshire, ed. John Farmer, (Dover, 1831), 126–130; New Hampshire Historical Society, Collections, 8:377; MA, 107:108.
205. This resolve and that of 22 June above were bundled together in the files and endorsed: “Representatives Resolves as to Sr. Edmund Andros and others under confinement, not Baleable. 22th and 28th June 1689.”
206. MA, 107:151a
207. This approach to Major Church is the beginning of his eastern expedition made even more urgent by the fall of Pemaquid on 17 September 1689. His campaign had no appreciable results except that some officers and men were left in such strategic places as Falmouth, Scarborough, and Saco. Major Church returned to Boston in January 1689/90, where he found considerable commotion about the return of Andros and other officials to England. MA, 107:217; 35:81, 84, 84a; Benjamin Church, Eastern Expeditions, ed. H. M. Dexter, 2 vols. (Boston, 1867), 2:60–67.
208. According to MA, 81:1, Isaac Addington was also present on 3 July.
209. The name is “Robert Kinsman” in MA, 107:70 and 81:1.
210. MA, 107:163, 164 (2 July 1689). For the Charlestown militia and Captain Lawrance Hammond, who refused to concede the illegality of his commission issued by Andros, see MA, 107: 165, 180–181, 196, 197a, and 200. Hammond’s submission to the jurisdiction of the revolutionary government is in MA, 35:110. See also below, 000 and note.
211. While expressing appreciation for this supply, the Dunstable men further petitioned on 23 July (MA, 107:230) for 20 additional men for the space of a month to scout the woods about the town while they got in their hay. Food, they added, was scarce, especially meat, because of the billeting of men there the previous winter. And on 30 July, they asked for men to secure the corn mill of Samuel Adams, without which they could not remain. MA, 107:242.
212. This order was passed by the deputies on 27 June 1689 with no mention of a present. A second unanimous and importune vote on 2 July prompted the Council to act. MA, 107:161a, 168.
213. At the Rowley company’s meeting on 28 June Lieutenant Nelson refused to serve as lieutenant. On 13 July John Trumble was nominated lieutenant and Abel Plats ensign. MA, 107:234. Neither man’s name appears in the Court records. Trumble’s name does however appear as “insign” on a military document of 22 July 1689. MA, 107:230.
214. MA, 81:83
215. MA, 81:18
216. MA, 81:5
217. The report of these nominations from Beverly, dated 3 July 1689, says: “Those that were the Commission officers of the said Troops in 86 not manifesting a freenesse to act on those Commission they were then invested with.” MA, 107:173.
218. John Whitmarsh Senr., the first nominee for lieutenant, was not “allowed of”.
219. MA, 81:5
220. MA, 81:7.
221. Supplied from MA, 81:7.
222. MA, 81:8. No printed copy is known; in Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing under date 6 July 1689 there appears the item: “An Act of half a sheet about the Militia.” Ford, 132.
223. MA, 81:8. If this order was printed, no copy is known; it does not appear in Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing. See MA, 81:8.
224. MA, 81:9.
225. Joshua Brodbent was provost marshal of New Hampshire in the Dominion of New England. Noyes, Libby and Davis, Gen. Dict, of Maine and N.H., 111.
226. This intriguing combination of “appearance” and “bearing” seems to have no dictionary authority.
227. The commission of Thomas Swift for the regulation of the Indians at Natick and Punkapaug is in MA, 30:316.
228. MA, 81:10.
229. MA, 81:10.
230. MA, 81:10.
231. MA, 81:11.
232. MA, 81:12.
233. Major John Pyncheon of Springfield, in a postscript to a letter of 30 July 1689, reported his efforts to provide for the defense of Northfield by placing twenty men in garrison there “til you may send supply and further orders” and asks the Council to issue a warrant to gather that number from the country, excluding Deerfield, which also needs supply. MA, 107:241.
234. MA, 81:12.
235. MA, 81:12, 13
236. MA, 107:185. Unlike the Hammond- Charlestown militia controversy (see above, 119, note 2) the Woburn situation stemmed from the rivalry of local groups, each supporting its own candidates for militia officers. The case may be followed in MA, 107:159 (1 July 1689), 201 (13 July), 209 (15 July). The nomination and allowance of William Johnson as Captain and James Converse as Lieutenant ended the debate on 17 April 1690. See below, 237, note 1.
237. MA, 81:13.
238. MA, 81:14.
239. Appleton’s letter to the Council, dated Cochecho 14 July 1689 states that when he left Ipswich for New Hampshire in early July, two of his children had died, and that now he has just had news of the death of a third, the illness of a fourth, and the “indisposition” of his wife. T. F. Walters, Ipswich in the Massachusetts Bay Colony 2 vols. (Ipswich, 1905), 1:302, prints the letter from MA, 107:205. Appleton returned home prior to 22 July.
240. MA, 81:14, 15
241. MA, 81:15.
242. MA 81:15
243. “Captn. Marshall hath laid down his offices being incapacitated thereunto by reason of his age and many infirmities.” MA, 107:191a.
244. MA, 81:16
245. Manning, appointed captain of a company of militia at Pemaquid by Governor Andros on 14 March 1687/8, was recalled and jailed by the Council for Safety on 20 April 1689. On 8 June 1689 he petitioned the Council for his release, detailing his considerable losses and his desire to return to Pemaquid to preserve his cattle and other estate. MA, 107:89.
246. MA, 81:16
247. MA, 81:17
248. Woodstock, Connecticut.
249. The Charlestown Militia Company on 12 July nominated Lawrence Hammond, captain, Nathaniel Dows, lieutenant, and Nathaniel Rand, ensign, “by two-thirds of their Voats.” The action of the Representatives, consented to by the Governour and Council, reads: “The above nomination Not Consented to but the Representatives do allow & approve of the persons in Commission on the twelfth of May 1686 confirming them In their respective offices. July 13th. 1689. Ebenezer Prout, Clerk.” MA, 107:200. Since Hammond was the captain on that date, the General Court, by this means, is evidently trying to force Hammond to deny his commission under Governor Andros.
250. No printed copy of this bill has been found. It is in Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing. Ford, 133; Evans, 484.
251. See MA, 107:04
252. The return of the Troop of Salisbury, Haverhill, and Amesbury, of which Robert Pike was captain and upon which no action of the Council is indicated, is in MA, 107:224a.
253. See MA, 107:210a
254. MA, 107:223a.
255. MA, 107:233.
256. For Falmouth and North Yarmouth, see MA, 107:272–273, 274, 274a, 294.
257. MA, 107:263, 264.
258. MA, 107:266a.
259. MA, 107:268.
260. MA, 81:452.
261. In the “Council Minutes”, “Adam Winthrop” is struck out, “Edward Bromfield” is inserted after “Foster,” “John Eyre” is struck out, and “Joseph Parsons” is written over. MA 107:271.
262. Thomas Danforth was President of the Province of Maine, newly reestablished by the revolutionary government of Massachusetts following the formula set up in 1680 after the purchase of the Province by Massachusetts Bay Colony from the heirs of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, the proprietor of the province under the charter of 1639. The first record of the Province of Maine after the Revolution of 1689 is of a meeting of the Deputy President, John Davis, and the Justices on 20 Dec. 1689. Province and Court Records of Maine, ed. by C. T. Libby, R. E. Moody, and N. W. Allen, 6 vols. (Portland, Maine, 1928–1975), 3:287.
263. MA, 81:46.
264. MA, 81:46
265. For Pound and the other pirates see below, 211–212.
266. The Resolution, often in the government service, had just been made ready for a voyage to England. Her use against the pirates was made necessary by the murder of Captain Pease of the sloop Mary.
267. MA, 107:276b
268. MA, 81:47
269. The instructions are in MA, 107:281.
270. MA, 107:276.
271. MA, 81:48.
272. MA, 107:278, 279.
273. MA, 81:50.
274. MA, 81:50.
275. MA, 107:284–286. The letter to the Commissioners is in MA, 107:281–282, and the letter about funds for the journey in 107:283.
276. The Treaty of Breda, 1667.
277. Also spelled Onagunges, Annagongue, and many other ways. MA, card index under “Eastern Indians.”
278. A reference to the attack on Cochecho and the killing of Waldron and others.
279. MA, 81:50.
280. MA, 81:51.
281. MA, 81:52
282. M.A. 107:287a
283. MA, 81:53
284. MA, 107:287
285. MA, 81:55.
286. Note in the margin: “This Order Read again Augt. 30th and Voted anew.” The printed item is probably the “broad-side for Subscriptions” under date 6 September 1689 in Bartholomew Green’s bill. No copy is known. Ford, 135.
287. MA, 107:290c.
288. Capt. Swayne’s instructions, 14 Sept. 1689, refer to the distribution of forces about Groton, Haverhill, and Newichawannock. Recognizing the appointment of Major Church to lead an expedition based on Casco, the instructions direct Swayne to “maintain a correspondence by intelligence . . . with Major Church, Commander in Chiefe of the Forces gone farther Eastward, and to yield mutual Assistance. . .” MA, 107:323.
289. MA, 81:61.
290. The companies of Hall and Willard were specifically placed under Major Benjamin Church.
291. The distribution recommended by the Representatives was not followed in every case.
292. MA, 107:303.
293. Perhaps the “warrant for the Treasurer” listed under 7 Sept. 1689 in Bartholomew Green’s bill. Ford, 137.
294. MA, 107:307a.
295. For the order for the provisions see MA, 107:308.
296. This item is in Bartholomew Green’s bill. Ford, 138; Evans, 482. A copy is in MA, 242:379 (Hutchinson Papers.) See also Cushing, 3:649.
297. The notation “3d” here and also after “Smith” and “Corwin” indicates a delay in their attendance until 3 October.
298. MA, 35:35b.
299. Struck out: “by such as are and.”
300. Blank space.
301. Struck out: “to be in constant pay and to attend to their duty.”
302. MA, 35:41
303. The petition says that no fire can be made in the room at the Castle occupied by Palmer, Andros, and Graham. MA, 35:42.
304. MA, 35:42a.
305. MA, 35:46
306. Thomas Danforth.
307. Struck out: “Mr. Joseph Dudley, Mr. Edward Randolph, Mr. John West [blank] Sherlock and such other.”
308. Struck out: “King.”
309. Struck out: “shall direct.”
310. MA, 35:49. This “Prison Keepers order 1689” appears also under the date 10 October in MA, 35:51.
311. MA, 107:290.
312. MA, 35:52
313. MA, 35:51a.
314. MA, 35:49A.
315. MA, 35:52.
316. This order bears the date 11 Oct. 1689 in the original vote (MA, 35:53) and the one immediately following.
317. The Representatives’ vote reads: “Except a ship from England then within three days after the arrival of said Ship . . .” MA, 35:52a.
318. MA, 35:62
319. MA, 35:70a.
320. This bill marks the end of Major Benjamin Church’s eastern expedition. Church held councils of war at Scarborough on 11 November and at Falmouth on 14 November which provided for the distribution of forces for the defense of Maine. MA, 35:81, 84a.
The heading and date for this entry are taken from the original vote in MA, 35:72.
321. MA, 35:71.
322. MA, 35:75a
323. M.A, 35:78a.
324. According to the Records of the Court of Assistants of the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay, 1630–1692, 3 vols., (Boston, 1901–1929), 3:301–302, that Court was adjourned from 3 September to 24 December 1689. During this period the Governor and Council had been handling some of the business usually conducted by them as a separate court. It may be that the number of appeals from the county courts, now that they had begun to function again, made it advantageous to go back to the previous custom of the magistrates acting as a court of law, keeping its records apart from the council records. The Court of Assistants records for this period are for the most part in the hand of the Secretary Isaac Addington.
325. This warrant is in Bartholomew Green’s bill. Ford, 139.
326. MA, 35:68a, 80a.
327. MA, 35:82a.
328. The King’s Letter of 12 August 1689 was printed by Richard Pierce for Benjamin Harris, 1689. Copies are in the New York Public Library and P.R.O. Ford, 146.
329. This order, known only from Bartholomew Green’s printing bill, 3 Jan. 1690/91, was printed as a half-sheet broadside by Samuel Green. Evans, 527; Ford, 149. For the disbursement of the money collected see below, 000.
330. Sewall notes Governor Bradstreet’s attendance and that “Deputies treated us at Wing’s after Lecture. . . .” Diary, 1:247.
331. MA, 35:104a
332. A broadside proclamation was issued “By the Governour and Council and Representatives . . . Convened at Boston, the third day of December, 1689” (n.p. n.d.) citing the King’s letter of 12 August and calling on “all their Majesties Subjects” to “Yield Obedience unto the said Government: Accordingly as they will answer the Country at their Peril.” Cushing, 3:651
333. MA, 35:104.
334. The manuscript is in MA, 11:46. No printed copy is known, but it is in Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing. Evans, 485; Ford, 141. Cushing, 3:655
335. If printed, no copies are known. It is not in Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing.
336. MA, 35:108a.
337. The record of the original vote of the deputies reads:
A Committee to Grant Deentures
Dec. 13th. 1689
The Representatives Consent to the Bill abovesaid [struck out: provided the Castle Soldiers prison Keeper and the Souldiers Lately impressed in the Indian war be paid in or as mony in their severall Townes they belong unto.]
Ebenezer Prout Clerk
MA, 35:111, 113.
The broadside of this act, dated “Decemb. 10th. 1689,” no place, no printer given, adds “The Committee have appointed to Meet at the Town-House in Boston upon Wednesdays and Frydayes, from nine of the Clock in the Morning to twelve, and from two to four in the afternoon for this Service.” MA, 242:402 (Hutchinson Papers); Ford, 170; Cushing, 3:655.
338. For the response of Dudley et al, MA, 35:110a.
339. MA, 35:118a.
340. See MA, 35:125.
341. A large number of the elaborately careful allegations of misdeeds of various members of the Andros government, including some like William Stoughton who were early in the Convention, are in MA, 35:254 et seq. and printed in Andros Tracts, 1:149–172.
342. Printed as a broadside: By the Governour, & Council And Representatives of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay in New-England, Convened at Boston, the third Day of December, 1689, no printer, no date, signed: “By Order, Isaac Addington, Seer.” The copy in P.R.O is reproduced in Cushing, 3:651.
343. MA, 35:126.
344. This embargo on shipping served a dual purpose: it allowed the Governour and Council to select its means of conveying its messages, and also prevented the news of Massachusetts’ activities reaching England before the answer to the King’s letter was received by the government there.
345. MA, 35:142.
346. MA, 35:142a.
347. The “information” (MA, 35:187–192) was printed: A Narrative of the Proceedings of Sir Edmond Androsse and his Complices, who Acted by an Illegal and Arbitrary Commission from the Late K. fames, during his Government in New England. By several Gentlemen who were of his Council. Printed in the year 1691 [To the Reader dated Feb. 4. 1690/1]. Also in Andros Tracts, 1:133–147. It is signed by William Stoughton, Thomas Hinckley, Wait Winthrop, Barthol. Gedney, Samuel Shrimpton. The name of William Browne, who was appointed one of the committee, does not appear.
348. MA, 35:153.
349. MA, 35:160a.
350. MA, 35:160.
351. The original vote on Dudley’s motion, passed on 3 Jan. 1689/90, has the notation “Not consented to by the Representatives, Ebenezer Prout Clerk.” MA, 35:155a. The same vote, dated the same day and signed “per order Penn Townsend,” has the appended note “The Representatives do leave it to the Councill to apoint the guard abovesaid. Dated as above Ebenezer Prout Clerk.” MA, 35:158. Also on 3 Jan., it was “Ordered by the Representatives that the prisoners be sent in the ship Commanded by Capt. Martin. In pursuance of his Majesties order, and in answer to their Request. Desiring the Honourable Magestrates Consent. Ebenezer Prout Clerk.” MA, 35:157b.
352. The original vote on Dudley’s motion, passed on 3 Jan. 1689/90, has the notation “Not consented to by the Representatives, Ebenezer Prout Clerk.” MA, 35:155a. The same vote, dated the same day and signed “per order Penn Townsend,” has the appended note “The Representatives do leave it to the Councill to apoint the guard abovesaid. Dated as above Ebenezer Prout Clerk.” MA, 35:158. Also on 3 Jan., it was “Ordered by the Representatives that the prisoners be sent in the ship Commanded by Capt. Martin. In pursuance of his Majesties order, and in answer to their Request. Desiring the Honourable Magestrates Consent. Ebenezer Prout Clerk.” MA, 35:157b.
353. MA, 35:171a
354. “etc.” omitted in C.O. 5/855, 149, 150.
355. “You” in same.
356. “Anno domini” in C.O. 5/855, 149, 150.
357. The word is “mischievous” in MA, 35:181
358. In MA, 35:181 “in the obtaining of.”
359. On Saturday, 2 August 1690, according to Sewall (Diary, 1:326), news came to Boston that the General Court’s addresses of 24 and 29 January, 1689/90 had been presented at Court.
360. On 24 Jan. 1689/90, John Fayerweather and Nathaniel Williams gave an account of the accommodations which had been provided for Sir Edmund Andros and the other imprisoned Gentlemen. MA, 35:98.
361. The word “ill” is omitted in MA, 35:180a.
362. The words are “gracious favour” in same.
363. This vote of the representatives was not taken up by the Council until 20 Feb. 1689/90, when a much more elaborate vote was passed.
364. MA, 35:180a.
365. Captain Bant sailed from Boston on 10 Feb. 1689/90 with Andros, Randolph and the other “prisoners,” and anchored at Nantasket, “the wind corning southerly.” Capt. Richard Martin sailed from Boston the same day with Agents Cooke and Oakes, but “Anchored not but sail’s direct away.” On 15 Feb. 1689/90: “captain Bant, with Sir Edmund etc. is said to Sail from Nantasket for London.” “Diary of Lawrence Hammond,” 2 MHS Proceedings, 7:151–152.
366. Ford, 156.
367. Haverhill pled poverty (MA, 35:232b); Amesbury excused itself as a frontier town (35:227).
368. “A Sheet of Laws about voting for Election &c.” Feb. Boston. Printed by Samuel Green. It is in Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing. Evans, 525; Ford, 154.
369. This order has the date 12 Feb. 1689/90 in MA, 36:22, 27.
370. The Rev. John Emerson (1654–1712), Harvard College 1675, minister at Berwick, 1683–1689, chaplain under Major Swayne, 7 Sept. to 23 Nov. 1689. Gen. Diet, of Maine and New Hampshire, 220.
371. This proclamation, dated 12 Feb. 1689/90, described in Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing as “An Act for a fast printing twice over” was printed by Samuel Green. A copy is in the Massachusetts Historical Society. Ford, 152; Evans, 529. Facsimile in Cushing, 3:657.
372. Printed by Samuel Green in Feb. 1689/90, it is known only in Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing. Ford, 153; Evans, 524.
373. For the trial and conviction of these four men, charged with felony and piracy, see Records of the Court of Assistants, 3:319–321.
374. Presumably “an Act of the General Court for Constibles” under date 18 Feb. in Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing. Ford, 153; Evans, 524.
375. MA, 35:250
376. Thomas Hawkins, Thomas Pound (formerly pilot of the frigate Rose), Thomas Johnston, Eleazer Buck, John Smith, John Sickerdam, William Dunn, Richard Griffin (gunsmith), Samuel Watts, Daniel Lander, and Richard Warren were tried by the Court of Assistants on 17 Jan. 1689/90, on charges of piracy and felony, and in one case the murder of Capt. Samuel Pease of the sloop Mary, which had been sent out in pursuit of the pirates. All were sentenced to be hanged. Records of the Court of Assistants, 3:305–321; Suffolk County, Supreme Judicial Court, Early Files no. 2539 (Suffolk County Court House, Boston). G. F. Dow and J. H. Edmonds, The Pirates of the New England Coast, 1650–1730, (Salem, Mass., 1923), 54–72 gives fascinating details with biographical annotations. See also Sewall, Diary, 1:24–8n. Sewall’s reluctant agreement to the remitted sentences rested uneasily on his conscience, ibid, 1:248–250.
377. In the General Laws of Massachusetts, May 1676, Medfield, Sudbury, Concord, Chelmsford, Andover, Haverhill and Exeter were denominated “frontier towns” and as such to be free of impress. Cushing, 3:490–491.
378. In a letter to Major Walley dated 21 Feb. 1689/90, Sewall wrote: “Our folks have agreed to have an Election, and all who have six pounds, (Country pay,) per annum freehold Land or pay 4d to a single rate without heads, and be not vicious, may present themselves to the Generall Court to be admitted Electors. Opening of Nominations put off to the 6th of May. Mr. C. Mather to preach on the 28th.” Letter-Book of Samuel Sewall, MHS Collections, ser. 6, 2 vols., 1:105–106.
379. MA, 35:252b.
380. Printed by Samuel Green. It is in Bartholomew Green’s bill. Ford, 159; Evans, 530. See also MHS Proceedings, ser. 2, 9:486. A facsimile of the MHS copy is in Cushing, 3:659.
381. MA, 35:299a.
382. The petition was a joint one of John Cutler, Sr. and John Cutler, Jr., explaining that in the “hurries of the late Revolution during the unsettled State of our affaires where in the spirits of men were much discomposed and many rash and indeliberate things were don, yea even such as boare them most cordial goodwill to the peace and Settlement of this Government were diversely perswaded aboute the best and most proper cours of prudence to be attended in the present composing and managing of things until Such time as farther orders whould come from the Crown of England, Your Petitioners were concerned in an action which besides their intention has procured your displeasure and their not a little trouble.” MA, 35:342.
383. The acknowledgment was John Cutler, Jr’s. letter of regret, addressed to the Deputy Governor and General Court, dated 14 March 1689/90, that “att any time I have thru’ imprudence done or Said any thing where att you might be offended.” MA, 35:288a.
This did not end the case. Cutler’s appeal from the sentence of the Middlesex County Court of December 1689 was not taken up by the Court of Assistants until the session of 22 September 1691 and then deferred to March 1692 but there is no reference to Cutler in the records of that session. Further at the 19 June 1691 session of the County Court he was fined £20 “For Reproachful words by him uttered against the the present authority.” His appeal was heard by the Court of Assistants at its December session 1691, where the jury found him not guilty. Records of the Court of Assistants, 3:355, 359.
384. MA, 35:287, 288.
385. Warrants for the ten rates were printed by Samuel Green in April 1690. They are known only by Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing. Ford, 161.
386. MA, 35:317
387. According to Samuel Sewall (Diary, 1:315) the date was 18 March 1689/90. He writes that he gave the name Woodstock because, like the English town, it was near Oxford. It was broadly hinted that because of his interest, he ought to give the town a bell; apparently he did not. When the Massachusetts-Connecticut line was drawn, the township proved to be in Connecticut.
388. There is no further mention of Gedney in this capacity.
389. Sewall tells us (Diary, 1:255), 10 March 1689/90, that he, Stoughton, Major General Winthrop, and Capt. Noah Wiswall had consultation with William Hahaton (Ahanton) for the Punkapaug and James Rumney Marsh for the Natick Indians about the present settlement of the Friend Indians in order to pass a law for them.
390. The destruction of Salmon Falls, New Hampshire, on 18 March 1689/90, of which news came to the Council on the 19th, and the consequent further disruption of the New Hampshire and Maine towns, complicated but did not divert the design against the French in Nova Scotia.
391. The petition of inhabitants and train soldiers of New Hampshire, dated 20 Feb. 1689/90 is printed from MA, 35:228 in NEHG Register, 8: 233. Corrections of the names may be found in Gen. Diet, of Maine and New Hampshire, 12. The Council took prompt action, appointing, according to Sewall (Diary, 1: 252) on 28 Feb. 1689/90, Capt. Vaughan, Mr. Martyn, and Mr. Fryer “magistrates of the county of New Hampshire”, adding that “Mr. Vaughan took the oath.” These were all Portsmouth men. The addition of Gerrish of Dover and Wadloe of Exeter came later.
394. MA, 35:328a
395. MA, 35:321b.
396. MA, 35:344a.
397. For Hull’s petition requesting exemption, see MA, 35:318.
398. The broadside, dated March 24, 1689/90, carrying out this proposal is in MHS Proceedings, 2nd series, 9:481); it has manuscript additions: (1) “Seamen” after “All Gentlemen Soldiers,” (2) “At the Town House in Boston, Where mr. Henry Deering will attend this writ to Enter their names” after “to appear compleatly Armed,”, and (3) a fourth clause “4. In case of Loss of Limbs or Life considerable damage to any mans person, meet consideration shall be had out of the other halfe of the Plunder.” Cushing, 3:661. This order was repeated with significant additions on 20 June 1690.
399. The Committee had previously voted “to grant orders, and to make impresse”. The vote there recorded was revised to include this amendment, adding the Governor and Sewall to the committee.
400. MA, 35:346a.
401. For the vote of the deputies, 22 March 1689/90, to refer to the Governor and Council the petition of James Barton, ropemaker of Boston, and others for the return of the 45-ton sloop Speedwell, built by James Cooke, of which John Alden, Jr., was late commander, see MA, 35:354. Accounts of expenditures of the Speedwell are in MA, 35: 376, 376a, 377, 378.
402. One for 6 rates in November 1689 (Ford, 139), and another for one and a half rates (Ford, 140). They are known only from Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing.
403. It is interesting to note that Prout, as clerk of the deputies, signed the vote for his admission as freeman. The recommendation was by the selectmen of Medford, 12 March 1689/90. MA, 35:355a.
404. MA, 35:246.
405. Sewall wrote on 22 March 1690 that Major Townsend “relinquished with thanks”. “Sir William had been sent to at first but some feared he would not goe, others thought his lady would not consent. Court makes Sir William free, and swear him Major General, and several others.” Diary, 1:255.
406. MHS Proceedings, 2nd Ser., 13:334–335
407. Sewall and Stoughton set out on 21 April on their journey, overland to Newport, by boat to Oyster Bay, thence by land to New York. They arrived home on 9 May. Sewall, Diary, 1:256. Their agreement of 1 May was that New York should furnish 400 men, Massachusetts, 150, Connecticut, 135, and Plymouth, 60. The Documentary History of the State of New York, Edmund B. O’Callaghan, editor, 4 vols., Albany, 1887. 2:134135.
408. MA, 36:4. April 17th 1690
409. Under date 10 March 1689/90, the Woburn militia reported the nomination of Lieut. William Johnson as captain “in consideration that Ensigne Convers of late hath laid down his place,” thus ending the controversy in that town. MA, 35:286.
410. MA, 36:6.
411. The instructions to Phips, dated 18 April 1690, are in MA, 36:8–9. Capt. William Johnson, Mr. Joshua Moody and Capt. John Alden were “constituted and appointed to be of your Councill.”
412. Major Pyncheon’s protest that the original order of 60 men from Hampshire was too many was effective in having the number reduced to 40. MA, 36:56.
413. MA, 36:76.
414. For the period 28 May 1690 to 6 May 1692 records were kept by the successive clerks of the Deputies: Ebenezer Prout, Nehemiah Jewett, John Clark, Joseph Lynde, Christopher Osgood, and Joseph Pike. They are now in the Massachusetts Archives, vol. 81, folios 135–139, 90–134, chronologically in that order. These have been compared with the Court Records, volume 6, and additional items of legislative orders found there have been inserted in their proper chronological places.
415. MA, 81:137.
416. “Jur.” for “Jurat” (sworn),
417. MA, 81:138.
418. MA, 81:138.
419. Pike was instructed, 30 May 1689, to consult Major Vaughan and Major Frost “or other Gentlemen of the Province when you shall be favoured with their presence.” MA, 36:92.
420. A copy of Major General Wait Winthrop’s warrant (31 May 1690) to Capt. Brown, endorsed “Captne Tho. Brownes motion not granted,” has the notation “Ordered That the Treasurer pay Ten Shillings apeice to the Fifty Four persons of the Troop within named, for their Service. Isa. Addington Secry. not consented unto per the deputies Joseph Lynde per order. April 17. 1691” MA, 37:6a, 6.
421. The Billerica troop.
422. An invoice of the plunder is in MA, 36:123, 124, 124a.
423. Principally one from William Vaughn, dated at Portsmouth 28 May 1691 “ten at night” describing the destruction at Cochecho and Oyster River. MA, 36:87.
424. MA, 81:139.
425. Sewall noted on 16 June 1690, that notice was given by beat of drum of the sale of the soldiers’ part of the plunder to take place on the following Wednesday. Diary, I: 260.
426. For the commission, see below, 262–263. The instructions, dated 4 July 1690 are in MA, 36:149.
427. The five captains were: [?] Mellows, Thomas Gilbert, Thomas Carter, Joseph Parsons and Andrew Dclberry. Two other ships and about 26 other sail with about 3000 men composed the expedition. Letter to John Usher, 4 July 1690, Documentary History of Maine, 5:131–133.
428. MA, 36:117b
429. MA, 81:90.
430. The copy of the printed broadside in the Massachusetts Historical Society is described in 2 MHS Proceedings, 9:485. It is in Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing under date 20 June 1689. Evans, 520; Ford, 162; Cushing, 3:663. This copy has the manuscript notation: “this was Plemey [sic] upon the Last fridey Being the 20 day of this Instant June and thay are preparing to goe against Canaday with 5 shipes of ware some with 40 guns and some withit [sic] 30 and the Rest of them with 20 od [sic]”
431. Jacob Moor “doth wholly Refuse to except the place.” MA, 36:136.
432. MA, 81:90
433. MA, 81:90
434. This item is known only from its inclusion in Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing (30 June 1690). Evans, 531; Ford, 163.
435. Emms was captain of the sloop Resolution in November 1689 when ordered to go after the ketch Elinor, which was piratically seized in the harbor of Nantasket on 20 November. MA, 35:91.
436. MA, 81:91.
437. Sewall wrote on 8 july 1690, that he was alarmed by a Post who brought a relation of French men being landed at Cape Cod and marched within 10 miles of Eastham. Diary I: 261.
438. When sent up by the Deputies, this vote was in three separate motions. MA, 81:92; 36:159, 159a, 159b.
439. The Deputies first voted three shillings. MA, 81:93.
440. On July 16, the Deputies passed the measure as the Council rewrote it. MA, 81:94. 15 July 1690
441. MA, 81:92.
442. MA, 81:95.
443. MA, 81:96.
444. MA, 81:95.
445. MA, 81:97.
446. Sewall noted on 25 July 1690 that Major Nathaniel Saltonstall came no further than Charlestown on account of the smallpox and that he and Major Hinchman stated to the Council that if the press for Canada took the number mentioned, the frontiers would draw in. Diary: I, 262.
447. The deputies’ vote reads “under Capt. Moses Broadstreet and Leut. John Trumble.” MA, 81:96.
448. MA, 81:99.
449. MA, 81:99.
450. This was printed according to Bartholomew Green’s bill (20 August 1690), “An Order for a Fast a Large one.” No printed copy is known. Evans, 532; Ford, 167.
451. MA, 11: 57.
452. This order of the Council, not in the Court Records, is taken from the printed broadside. Evans, 533; Ford, 169. See also MHS Proceedings, ser. 2, 9:489 and AAS Proceedings, 9:457A unique copy in the Public Record Office has often been reproduced. Cushing, 3:665. Sewall remarks (Diary, 1:332), 25 Sept. 1690 that the “Printed sheet about Publick Occurrences gives much distaste because not licensed and because of the passage referring to the French King and to the Maquas,” and, 1 October, “the Print of the Governor and Council comes out showing their disallowance of the Public Occurrence.” (333).
453. MA, 81:100
454. MA, 81:100
455. “Champney” in the deputies’ records. MA, 81:102.
456. The original vote of the deputies, consented to by the magistrates (MA, 36:190a), has the date 22 October 1690. See also 81:104.
457. MA, 81:105.
458. MA, 81:106.
459. MA, 81:106.
460. MA, 81:106.
461. The original order (MA, 81:107) of the Deputies, which was not approved by the Governour and Council, did not contain the restrictions as to chargem ammunition, and length of voyage imposed in the final vote.
462. “Cutting Noys” and “Joseph Knight” in the deputies minutes. MA, 81:109.
463. MA, 81:110.
464. MA, 81:110.
465. Sir William Phips sailed for England in January 1690/91, “to solicit an expedition from thence against Canada, the government at the same time sending their humble address to their Majesties, shewing the necessty of it.” Hutchinson, History (3d. ed.) I: 357. It may be noted that in his representation to the King, Phips said that he lost at Quebec not above fifty men by the enemy; he failed to mention the loss by sickness. Ibid., 1:356n.
466. A printed broadside of this order dated 10 December 1690, with a fine impression of the colony seal (Cambridge: Printed by Samuel Green) is in the Hutchinson Papers, 3:402 MA, 242:402; Ford, 170; Cushing, 3:667.
467. These were the “first bills of credit ever issued in the colonies, as a substitute for money,” wrote Thomas Hutchinson (History, 1:356), who gives (357 note) their history. Andrew McFarland Davis, Currency and Banking in the Province of Massachusetts-Bay, 2 vols., (New York, 1901) 1:8–17, is the standard authority.
468. MA, 81:110.
469. MA, 81:110.
470. MA, 81:110
471. MA, 81:110.
472. MA, 81:111.
473. MA, 81:111.
474. MA, 81:111.
475. Davis’ undated petition (MA, 36:258) with the actions indicating approval by the deputies on 22 December and of the Governor and Council on 24 December, details Davis’ service as commander of the “fort and town” at Casco from 23 April 1689 until its surrender to the French and Indians on 20 May 1690; as “Chyrusgeon about eleven months time;” “Commissary” about four months, maintenance of a “Drum and Drummer about thirteen months for the service of the fourt, and all the Marching fources that was sent to that place from time to time,” and also asks for the payment of his servant, Wiliam Parker, now in captivity, who served as a soldier about ten months. Not satisfied with the sum granted, Davis petitioned further on 20 Feb. 1690/91 for an additional grant.
476. MA, 81:111.
477. MA, 81:111.
478. MA, 81:111.
479. MA, 81:112.
480. MA, 81:112.
481. MA. 81:112.
482. The vote for Pierce alone was passed by the deputies on 22 December 1690. MA, 81:110.
483. Sewall wrote on 27 January 1691 of an unrecorded meeting of the Council, “Major General comes not, so that had much adoe to persuade Major Hutchinson to hold the Court, it seems so odd for only three freshmen to hold it when seven or more of the chiefest and ablest used to keep Court, by that means begun not till past noon.” Diary, I: 275.
484. MA, 81:113
485. There is no record of a printed proclamation for a Thanksgiving on 26 February 1690/1.
486. MA, 81:43.
487. MA, 81:114.
488. The Middlesex County Court, sitting at Cambridge, 15 April 1690, decided in the case of the Town of Watertown that uncollected rates should be put into the hands of the present constables. An attested copy of the decision is in MA, 36:381a, and an explanation of it by the clerk, Samuel Phipps, is in 36:382.
489. MA, 36:381.
490. The instructions are in MA, 37:13; the commission, 37:14–20; the agreement with the Indians, 1 May 1691, 37:18–20. The failure of the Indians to keep the agreement is detailed in a letter from Wells, 25 May 1691. MA, 37:32a.
491. William Buswell, Senior, was nominated for captain of the Salisbury foot company on 2 September 1689 but no record of his confirmation by the General Court appears. MA, 107:304.
492. MA, 81:114
493. “Mary” in Deputies minutes. MA, 81:115.
494. MA, 81:114
495. “Manaseth” (that is, “Mannassah”) in deputies minutes. MA, 81:117, 124.
496. “Champnye” in deputies minutes. MA, 81:117.
497. On 21 May 1691 Sewall noted that he, with Deputy Governor Danforth and Major General Winthrop, went to “speak to Mr. Stoughton desiring him to accept the place he was called to.” Sewall went to Stoughton again on 29 May with Secretary Addington and notes that Stoughton took the oath on 30 May. Stoughton’s attendance is not again recorded at the General Court until 14 October 1691. See below, 000. Sewall, Diary, 1:278, 279.
498. Sewall particularly noted that Hutchinson and Addington were not sworn on 20 May. Diary, I: 278.
499. Green died on 3 March 1690/1, and the Court of Assistants appointed Gookin to the place of marshall general on 5 March until the “sitting of the General Court.” Samuel Sewall, Diary, I: 275. See also Records of the Court of Assistants, 1:342 (Session of 3 March 1690/1).
500. MA, 81:118.
501. M.A., 81:115
502. MA, 81:112.
503. The committee’s report, with recommendations for specific payments, dated 11 June 1691, and approved by the Governor and Council on 26 June, is in MA, 37:61a, 62, 63.
504. The petition of the inhabitants and train soldiers of New Hampshire has been printed in NEGH Register, 8:233–235 from MA, 35:218. Corrections may be found in Noyes, Libby, and Davis, Genealogical Dictionary of Maine and New Hampshire, 12.
505. MA, 81:123.
506. MA, 81:123.
507. MA, 37:35–36.
508. The original manuscript is in MA, 37:171. It is addressed: “To the Right Worshipfull Sr. Henry Ashurst Baronett And the Rest of the Gentlemen concerned with him in the Agency for the Massachusetts Colony or Either of them, In London.” It has two endorsements: (1) “Massachusetts Address to King Wm. and Queen Mary 1691 from Gov Bradstreet,” and (2) “rec’d Febry. 26. 1691 [/2] per Capt. Richd. Foster.” No copy has been found in P.R.O.
509. The address of January, 1691
511. MA, 81:125.
512. Reed, of Charlestown, in his petition stated that in the Narraganset war sixteen years previous he was wounded by a shot still in him that required continual change of dressing. His wife earned their living by keeping an inn and selling liquors, but her license not being renewed, she was jailed for selling without license. Reed asks for a pension which the statute 43 Elizabeth grants. MA, 37:170.
Capt. Lawrence Hammond’s indignant comments on this case are in his Journal under date 19 May 1691 (MHS, Proceedings, ser. 2, 7:156–157).
513. MA, 81:125.
514. MA, 81:125.
515. The selectmen were: Captain Richard Sprague, Sarjeant Richard Lowden, Captain Samuel Hunting, Peter Fowler, James Miller, Nathaniel Rand, Edward Willison; constables: John Waite, Hopewill Davies, Jacob Waters. MA, 81:126.
516. MA, 37:183a.
517. MA, 81:126.
518. MA, 81:127.
519. Nathaniel Williams.
520. The printing of this proclamation is known only from Bartholomew Green’s bill for printing under date 27 October. Evans, 558; Ford, 184. Ford gives the date 7 November; the record states 5 November.
521. MA, 81:128
522. “Mineot” in Deputies’ minutes. MA, 81:130.
523. MA, 112:421B gives the name as “Newton.”
524. The is no record of the consent of the Governour and Council. In fact, the tract called “Nashoba” did not become a township, called Littleton, until 3 December 1715. Acts and Resolves, 9:435.
525. MA, 81:132.
526. Sewall noted (Diary, 1:284) that the Governor was not abroad today. On 18 November he recorded that the Governor was “taken with the Stone” the previous evening, so the Council met at the Governor’s house.
527. This order was printed at the bottom of the second page of the broadsheet containing the schedule of duties imposed by the General Court on imports.
528. MA, 81:132
529. Copies of the printed broadsheet are in MA, 37:342, the Massachusetts Historical Society, and the Public Record OFfice, London. Evans, 554; Ford, 186; 2 MHS. Proceedings, 9:490; Cushing, 3:106.
530. MA, 81:133
531. MA, 37:299
532. Sewall took the place of Secretary Addington on this day, the latter having asked to be excused on account of the death of Mrs. Penn Townsend. Diary, 1:288.
533. MA, 81:132.
534. MA, 37:326.
535. The names of all those present, assistants and deputies, are in the margin of the manuscript.
536. 4 May 1692. “An election held at Boston, the only change made, was, Mr. Wm. Johnson of Wooburn left out and Majr. Jno. Richards taken in.” MHS, Proceedings, id. ser., 8:161.
537. No copy is known. Colonial Society of Massachusetts, Publications, 1:451.
538. MA, 81:134.
539. There is no record of an order for a Fast to be printed probably because the new governor, Sir William Phipps, had arrived on 15 May 1692.
540. John Phillips of Charlestown had been a representative under the old Charter. He was Cotton Mather’s father-in-law and was named a province councillor in 1692.
541. Benjamin Davis (d. 1724) Boston merchant, later signed Boston petition of early 1691, a founder of the Brattle Street Church.
542. Edward Hull, nephew of John Hull, Boston merchant and mintmaster.
543. Of Marlborough. Admitted freeman in 1690.
544. Of Marlborough. Formerly an apprentice; admitted freeman in 1690.
545. Born c. 1642, d. 1717. Of Marlborough. Admitted freeman in 1690.
546. Of Marlborough. Admitted freeman in 1690.
547. A Thomas Bird of Dorchester was admitted freeman in 1690. Born 1640, d. 1710. Another Thomas Bird was a Marlborough selectman in 1690 (M.A., 36: 27A).
548. Of Marlborough. Admitted freeman in 1690, when probably 35 years old.
549. Of Marlborough, born c. 1642, d. 1717. Admitted freeman in 1690.
550. Of Marlborough, born 1648[?]. Admitted freeman in 1690.
551. Of Marlborough.
552. Of Marlborough, born 1662. Admitted freeman in 1690.
553. A James Hosmer of Concord was born in 1660.
554. Presumably that by Sylvanus Davis of Maine, also mentioned later in this letter. See. M. A., 36: 203–216.
555. Louis Count Frontenac (1622–1698), governor and commander-in-chief of New France.
556. See 413 n. 1, above.
557. See M. A., 36: 97–99 (reprinted in Andros Tracts, II, 127–134) for a copy of the agents’ reply to Randolph’s account of irregular trading. M. A., 36: 293–294 relates to the ship Conclusion accused of trading directly from St. Malo to New England.
558. Not found in Court records.
559. This date (26 ii 1690) has been transcribed as 26 April 1690 by some editors. The reading of 26 ii 1690/1 is suggested not only by usual 17th-century dating conventions but because of other evidence, e.g. Wiswail’s arrival in England in April 1690.
560. Henry Sloughter was appointed governor of New York in late 1689 but did not reach the colony until 1691.
561. The various disputes with New York over guns, a sloop, and the like may be followed in the Court Records and in the C.S.P.C. 1689–1692.
562. See 327, above.
563. The London edition of the The Humble Address (see above, 414) had the words “cum multiis aliis” after the printed signatures.
564. Cotton Mather, Early piety exemplified in the life and death of Nathaniel Mather . . . (London, 1689 and Boston, 1690).
565. For this and subsequent parliamentary references see the Introduction.
566. Robert: Treat (1612?—1710) Governor of Connecticut 1683–6, Andros councillor, restored as governor in 1689 by popular action.
567. Walter Clark (1640–1714) Governor of Rhode Island, Andros councillor.
568. John Lovelace, 3rd Baron Lovelace (1638–1693).
569. John Hull (1624–1683), leading Boston merchant.
570. Hannah Hull (1658–?).
571. Dr. Daniel Coxe, who owned the government of West Jersey. See J. Pomfret, The Province of West New Jersey, 1609–1702 (Princeton, 1956).
572. Elisha Hutchinson (1641–1717). Boston merchant, served as Assistant before 1686.
573. Samuel Appleton (c. 1624–1696). Representative and councillor before 1686. Imprisoned by Andros.
574. Not found.
575. Francis Nicholson, lieutenant-governor of New York under Andros, had fled to England in 1689.
576. Henry Booth, 2nd Baron Delamere, was Chancellor of the Exchequer from April 1689 to March 1690.
577. Probably Thomas Cooper, Boston merchant, founder of Brattle Street Church (d.c. 1706).
578. Crossed out in original.
579. Ephaphras Shrimpton, of Charlestown. Son of Edward Shrimpton, London merchant, whose brother, Henry, founded the Shrimpton mercantile family in Massachusetts.
580. Sir John Somers.
581. Sir George Treby.
582. Jahleel Brenton (d. 1732), son of a wealthy Rhode Island merchant.
583. i.e., Cotton Mather.
584. John Palmer, Andros councillor and attorney-general, had served previously in New York.
585. James Sherlock of Portsmouth, N.H. had been appointed Sheriff of Suffolk County, Massachusetts, by Andros.
586. George Farewell of Salem was a lawyer. He claimed not to have held any office under Andros but to have acted only as an occasional prosecutor.
587. John or Joshua Pepoon, or Pippin, had served as ensign under Andros.
588. Probably Heath Nicholson, mentioned below. Not identified.
589. John West, Andros official, had served previously in New York.
590. Probably Epaphras Shrimpton, an English nephew of Samuel Shrimpton, who was in New England in the 1680s and had now returned to London.
591. John Cotton (1640–1699), minister of the Plymouth Church.
593. Presumably the Reverend Samuel Arnold of Marshfield or his son, Seth, of Duxbury, Wiswall’s home.
594. Thomas Cushman (1607–91), ruling elder of the Plymouth Church.
595. It is not clear which petition this was; probably the merchants’ petition, below at 18 April 1691.
596. Edward Cranfield, lieutenant-governour of New Hampshire, 1682–1685.
597. See below, 491.
598. A merchant and customs Commissioner. The uncle of John Nelson of New England.
599. Martha Lockhart, lady-in-waiting.
600. John Blackwell was in Boston in the 1680’s, a would-be land speculator and promoter of a banking scheme.
601. Jean-Vincent de Saint Castin, Commander of French garrison at Acadia.
602. Probably David Kelly (b. 1674), mariner of Portsmouth and Newbury, son of Daniel of Boston.
603. William Wrafford was a merchant with interests in North American and West Indian trade.
604. See above, 471.
605. John Allyn (d. 1696), elected as Assistant many times after 1662, was appointed an Andros Councillor.
606. Peter Bulkeley (1644–1688). Leading politician, favoring conciliation with England.
607. Jonathan Tyng (1642–1724) merchant and politician.
608. John Hubbard (1648–1710), merchant of Boston and Ipswich.
609. Richard Wharton (d. 1689) of Boston. Active merchant, promoter of land and mining schemes.
610. See above, 471.
611. William Crouch (1628–1710). Quaker upholsterer, merchant, and writer of religious tracts.
612. Probably Edward Hutchinson, eldest son of Richard of London, whose brothers were Boston merchants.
613. See above, 446.
614. Abel Tassin D’Alone.
615. John Tillotson (1630–94), nominated as Archbishop of Canterbury on 22 April 1691, elected 16 May, consecrated 31 May.
616. William Cavendish (1640–1707), 4th Earl and 1st Duke of Devonshire, early supporter of William of Orange and friendly to noncofrmists.
617. Not identified.
618. Served under Andros at Pemaquid. See Court Records, passim. He was not paid for years (if ever) for his services in New England.
619. To the King’s most excellent majesty. . . . See headnote, 415.
620. Thomas Savage of Boston (1640–1705), head of a regiment at this period, was the author of An account of the late action of the New-Englanders . . . against the French at Canada (London, 1691) Wing S771. Perez Savage (1652–c.1695) went to London to be a merchant in 1690 or 1691. He died in Africa.
621. Not identified. Perhaps Major Robert Thompson’s son, or a member of that family.
622. See above, 418.
623. Cotton Mather’s The life and death of the renowned Mr John Eliot . . . (London, 1691) was first printed in Boston in 1691 as The triumphs of the reformed, religion in America. . . .
624. Probably Francis Charlton, extreme whig, implicated in Rye-House plot.
625. Presumably a mistake for 40 shillings.
626. Pencilled in by later hand.
627. “Bounds” in Entry Book.
628. S. Guillym, clerk to Sir George Treby.
629. For the report see C.S.P.C. 1677–1680 (London, 1896), 118–120.
630. Surveyor and member of the Navy Board.