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_____The Church Music of William Billings. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1960; repr., New York: Da Capo, 1972.

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_____The Core Repertory of Early American Psalmody. (Recent Researches in American Music, 11–12.) Madison: A–R Editions, 1984.

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_____. “The Performance of William Billings’ Music,” Journal of Research in Music Education, XXI (1973), pp. 318–330; repr. as Appendix II in McKay, David P., and Richard Crawford, William Billings.

Crawford, Richard, and D. W. Krummel. “Early American Music Printing and Publishing,” in Printing and Society in Early America, ed. by William L. Joyce, et al. Worcester: American Antiquarian Society, 1983, pp. 186–227.

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_____. “Isaiah Thomas as a Music Publisher,” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, LXXXVI, part 2 (October 1976), pp. 321–341.

_____. “William Billings’s Anthem for Easter’: The Persistence of an Early American ‘Hit’,” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, XCVII, part 1 (October 1987), pp. 105–128.

_____. The Worcester Collection of Sacred Harmony and Sacred Music in America, 1786–1803. Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University, 1976.

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Martin, Benjamin. The Philosophical Grammar, 6th ed. London: J. Noon, J. Rivington, et al., 1762.

McCormick, David W. Oliver Holden, Composer and Anthologist. D.S.M. dissertation, Union Theological Seminary, 1963.

McKay, David P. “William Selby, a Musical Émigré in Colonial Boston,” The Musical Quarterly, LVII (October 1971), pp. 609–627.

McKay, David P., and Richard Crawford. William Billings of Boston. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975.

Make a Joyful Noise: Mainstreams and Backwaters of American Psalmody, 1770–1840. Performed by the Oregon State University Choir, Ron Jeffers, cond.; jacket notes by Richard Crawford. New World Records, NW 255, 1978.

Metcalf, Frank J. American Composers and Compilers of Sacred Music. New York: Abingdon Press, 1925; repr. New York: Russell & Russell, 1967.

[Mitchell, Nahum]. “William Billings,” Moore’s World of Music, I, no. 1 (1842), pp. 10–11.

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Nathan, Hans. “The Continental Harmony (1794),” American Choral Review, XVIII, no. 4 (October 1976), pp. 27–36.

_____. William Billings: Data and Documents. Detroit: Information Coordinators, 1976.

The New England Harmony, sung by the Old Sturbridge Singers, directed by Floyd Corson. Folkways Records, FA2377, 1964.

The New Grove Dictionary of American Music. 4 vols., ed. by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan, 1986, sv. “Bass Viol,” “Cole, John,” “Gram, Hans,” “Set-piece.”

The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 20 vols., ed. by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan, 1980, sv. “Performing Practice.”

Orbeck, Anders. Early New England Pronunciation. Ann Arbor: George Wahr, 1927.

The Oxford Companion to Music, 9th ed., ed. by Percy Scholes. London: Oxford University Press, 1955, sv. “Voice.”

Partch, Harry. Genesis of a Music, 2d ed. New York: Da Capo, 1974.

Playford, John. An Introduction to the Skill of Musick, 12th ed. London: E. Jones for Henry Playford, 1694; repr. New York: Da Capo Press, 1972.

Randel, Don M., ed. The New Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987, sv. “Combination tone,” “Notation.” “Prima prattica,” “Voice Exchange.”

Read, Daniel. An Introduction to Psalmody. New Haven: the Author, [ca. 1790].

Sacred Harp Singing, ed. by George Pullen Jackson. Library of Congress Records, AFS Lii, [ca. 1940].

Shipton, Clifford K. Isaiah Thomas. Rochester: Leo Hart, 1948.

Smith, Raoul N. The Language of Jonathan Fisher (1768–1847). (Publication of the American Dialect Society No. 72) University, Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1985.

Sonneck, Oscar G. Early Concert-Life in America, 1731–1800. Leipzig: Breitkopf and Härtel, 1907; repr., New York: Musurgia, 1949.

Tans’ur, William. The Elements of Musick Displayed. London: for Stanley Crowder, 1772.

_____. A New Musical Grammar. London: Jacob Robinson, 1746.

Temperley, Nicholas. The Music of the English Parish Church, 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

_____. Review of The Complete Works of William Billings, Vol. Ill, Journal of the American Musicological Society, XLI, no. 1 (Spring 1988), pp. 180–186.

Temperley, Nicholas, and Charles G. Manns. Fuging Tunes in the Eighteenth Century. Detroit: Information Coordinators, 1983.

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The American Musical Magazine. New Haven: Amos Doolittle and Daniel Read, [1786–1787]; repr. Scarsdale, New York: Annemarie Schnase, 1961.

Arnold, John. The Compleat Psalmodist, 4th ed. London: Robert Brown, 1756; 5th ed. London: Robert Brown, 1761.

Atwill, Thomas H. The New-York Collection. Lansingburg [i.e., Walpole, New Hampshire: Thomas and Thomas], 1802.

_____. The New York and Vermont Collection, 2d ed. Albany: Backus & Whiting, [1804].

Barlow, Joel. Dr. Watts’ Imitation of the Psalms of David, Corrected and Enlarged by Joel Barlow; to which is Added a Collection of Hymns. Hartford: Barlow & Babcock, 1785.

Bayley, Daniel. The Essex Harmony, or Musical Micellany. Newburyport: Daniel Bayley, 1785.

Belcher, Supply. The Harmony of Maine. Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1794.

Belknap, Daniel. The Middlesex Collection of Sacred Harmony. Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1802.

_____. The Village Compilation of Sacred Musick. Boston: J. T. Buckingham, 1806.

Belknap, Jeremy. Sacred Poetry; Consisting of Psalms and Hymns . . . Selected from the Best Authors. Boston: Joseph Belknap, 1795.

Benham, Asahel. Federal Harmony. New Haven: A. Morse, 1790.

_____. Social Harmony. [Wallingford, Connecticut: n.p., 1798].

Benjamin, Jonathan. Harmonia Coelestis. Northampton: Andrew Wright, 1799.

Bentley, William. A Collection of Psalms and Hymns for Public Worship. Salem: Dabney and Cushing, [1789?].

Billings, William. The Complete Works of William Billings, Vol. I, ed. by Karl Kroeger (1981); Vol. II, ed. by Hans Nathan (1977); Vol. Ill, ed. by Karl Kroeger (1986). Published by the American Musicological Society and The Colonial Society of Massachusetts.

_____. The Continental Harmony. Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1794; repr. ed. by Hans Nathan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961.

_____. Music in Miniature. Boston: the Author, 1779.

_____. The New-England Psalm-Singer. Boston: Edes and Gill, [1770].

_____. The Psalm-Singer’s Amusement. Boston: the Author, 1781; posthumous ed. with additional music, [n.p., ca. 1804].

_____. The Singing Master’s Assistant. Boston: Draper and Folsom, 1778; 4th ed., Boston: E. Russell, [1786–1789].

_____. The Suffolk Harmony. Boston: John Norman, 1786.

The Billings and Holden Collection of Ancient Psalmody. Boston: Marsh, Capen, and Lyon, 1836.

The Boston Collection. Boston: William Norman, [ca. 1799].

Brady, Nicholas, and Nahum Tate. A New Version of the Psalms of David. London: J. Roberts, 1749.

Brownson, Oliver. A New Collection of Sacred Harmony. Simsbury, Connecticut: the Author, 1797.

_____. Select Harmony. [Connecticut, n.p.], 1783.

Bull, Amos. The Responsaiy. Worcester: Isaiah Thomas, 1795.

Bushnell, John. The Musical Synopsis. Northampton: Graves and Clap, 1807.

Byles, Mather. Poems on Several Occasions. Boston: Kneeland and Green, 1744.

Cole, John. The Beauties of Psalmody, 2d ed. Baltimore: Cole and Hewes, 1805.

The Cumberland Melodist. Philadelphia: William M’Culloch for John M’Carrell, 1804.

Davisson, Ananais. The Kentucky Harmony, [n.p.], 1816.

Dwight, Timothy. Hymns Selected from Dr. Watts, Dr. Doddridge, and Various other Authors. Hartford: Hudson and Goodwin, 1801.

LXXX [Eighty] Psalm and Hymn Tunes. Boston: Manning and Loring, 1810.

Evangelical Psalms Hymns, and Spiritual Songs. Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1792.

Fobes, Azariah. The Delaware Harmony. Philadelphia: William M’Culloch, 1814.

French, Jacob. Harmony of Harmony. Northampton: Andrew Wright, 1802.

_____. The New American Melody. Boston: John Norman, 1789.

_____. The Psalmodist’s Companion. Worcester: Leonard Worcester for Isaiah Thomas, 1793.

Gram, Hans. Sacred Lines for Thanksgiving Day. Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1793

Gram, Hans, Samuel Holyoke, and Oliver Holden. The Massachusetts Compiler of Theoretical and Practical Elements of Sacred Vocal Music. Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1795

Harmon, Joel. The Columbian Sacred Minstrel. Northampton: Andrew Wright, 1809.

Harrison, Ralph. Sacred Harmony. London: the Author, 1783.

Hartwell, Edward. The Chorister’s Companion. Exeter: C. Norris and Co., 1815.

Holden, Oliver. The American Harmony. Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1792.

[_____.] Sacred Dirges, Hymns, and Anthems. Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1800.

_____. The Union Harmony, or Union Collection of Sacred Music, 2 vols. Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1793.

The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments Together with the Apocrypha. Worcester: Isaiah Thomas, 1791.

The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments. Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1814.

Holyoke, Samuel. The Christian Harmonist. Salem: Joshua Cushing, 1804.

_____. The Columbian Repository of Sacred Harmony. Exeter: Henry Ranlet, [1803].

_____. Harmonia Americana. Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1791.

Howe, Solomon. Worshipper’s Assistant. Northampton: Andrew Wright, 1799.

Ingalls, Jeremiah. The Christian Harmony. Exeter: Henry Ranlet, 1805.

Janes, Walter. The Harmonic Minstrelsey. Dedham: H. Mann, 1807.

_____. The Massachusetts Harmony. Boston: Manning and Loring, 1803.

Jenks, Stephen. The Delights of Harmony. Dedham: H. Mann, 1805.

_____. The Harmony of Zion. Dedham: Daniel Mann, 1818.

[Jocelin, Simeon]. The Chorister’s Companion. New Haven: Simeon Jocelin and Amos Doolittle, 1782; 2d ed., 1788.

Kimball, Jacob. The Rural Harmony. Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1793.

Lane, Isaac. An Anthem Suitable to be Performed at an Ordination. Northampton: Daniel Wright, 1797.

Law, Andrew. Select Harmony. [Cheshire, Connecticut: William Law, 1782].

[Lee, Thomas]. Sacred Harmony. [Farmington, Connecticut: n.p., ca. 1790–96].

Leslie, Benjamin. The Concert Harmony. Salem: the Author, 1811.

Lewis, Freeman. The Beauties of Harmony. Pittsburgh: Cramer, Spear, and Eichbaum, and Freeman Lewis, 1814.

Little, William, and William Smith. The Easy Instructor, [n.p.], 1801.

Lyon, James. Urania. Philadelphia, 1761; repr. New York: Da Capo Press, 1974.

[Madan, Martin]. A Collection of Psalm Tunes. London: The Lock Hospital, [1769].

Mann, Elias. The Massachusetts Collection of Sacred Harmony. Boston: Manning and Loring, 1807.

_____. The Northampton Collection of Sacred Harmony. Northampton: Daniel Wright and Co., 1797; [2d ed.], Northampton: Andrew Wright, 1802.

Marshall, Leonard. The Antiquarian. Boston: C. H. Keith, 1849.

Maxim, Abraham. The Northern Harmony. Exeter: Henry Ranlet, 1805; 2d ed., Exeter: Norris and Sawyer, 1808.

Moore, Henry. The Northern Harp, 2d ed. Concord, New Hampshire: Boyd and White, 1838.

The New Haven Collection of Sacred Music. Dedham: Daniel Mann, 1818.

Original Sacred Harp, Denson Revision. Cullman, Alabama: Sacred Harp Publishing Co., 1971.

Peck, John. A Description of the Last Judgment, 2d ed. Boston: E. Russell, 1773.

Pilsbury, Amos. The United States Sacred Harmony. Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1799.

Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States. The Book of Common Prayer. New York: Evert Duyckinck, 1809.

Read, Daniel. The American Singing Book. New Haven: the Author, 1785.

_____. The Columbian Harmonist, No. 1. New Haven: the Author, 1793.

_____. The Columbian Harmonist, 2d ed. Dedham: H. Mann, 1804; 3d ed., 1806; 3d ed. rev., 1807; 4th ed., 1810.

Rippon, John. A Selection of Hymns from the Best Authors. New York: William Durell, 1792 (first published in London, 1787).

Robbins, Charles. The Columbian Harmony. Exeter: Henry Ranlet, 1805.

Sacred Harmony. Boston: C. Cambridge, [1786–1788].

The Salem Collection of Classical Sacred Musick. Salem: Joshua Cushing, 1805.

Sanger, Zedekiah, et al. The Meridian Harmony. Dedham: H. Mann, 1808.

Shaw, Oliver, Amos Albee, and Herman Mann. The Columbian Sacred Harmonist. Dedham: H. Mann, 1808.

Shumway, Nehemiah. The American Harmony. Philadelphia: John M’Culloch, 1793.

Stickney, John. The Gentleman and Lady’s Musical Companion. Newburyport: Daniel Bayley, 1774.

The Stoughton Musical Society’s Centennial Collection of Sacred Music. Boston: Ditson and Co., 1878.

Symphonia Grandaeva Rediviva. Ancient Harmony Revived. Hallowell, Maine: Masters, Smith, 1847; 3d ed., Boston: Perkins and Whipple, 1850.

Tans’ur, William. The Royal Melody Compleat. London: R. Brown for J. Hodges, 1755.

Walter, Thomas. The Grounds and Rules of Musick Explained. Boston: J. Franklin for S. Gerrish, 1721.

_____. The Grounds and Rules of Musick Explained. Boston: Thomas Johnston, 1764.

Watts, Isaac. Horae Lyricae, 10th ed. New York: Hugh Gaine, 1762 (first published in London, 1706).

_____. Hymns and Spiritual Songs in Three Books. London: J. F. and C. Rivington, 1788 (first published in London, 1707–1709).

_____. The Psalms of David Imitated in the Language of the New Testament. London: J. F. and C. Rivington, 1788 (first published in London, 1719).

_____._____. Boston: Kneeland and Adams, 1767.

White, B. F., and E. J. King. The Sacred Harp. Philadelphia: S. C. Collins, 1860; repr. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1968.

Whitefield, George. A Collection of Hymns for Social Worship. London: William Strahan, 1753.

Williams, Aaron. The Universal Psalmodist. London: the Author, 1763; 2d ed., London: Joseph Johnson, 1764.

_____. The New Universal Psalmodist. London: for the Author, 1770.

Wood, Abraham. Divine Songs. Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Co., 1789.

The Worcester Collection of Sacred Harmony. Worcester: Isaiah Thomas, 1786; 2d ed., 1788; 3d ed., Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1791; 4th ed., 1792; 5th ed., 1794; 6th ed., 1797; 8th ed., 1803.

Wyeth’s Repository of Sacred Music. Harrisburg: John Wyeth, 1810.

Wyeth’s Repository of Sacred Music, Part Second, 2d ed. Harrisburg: John Wyeth, 1820; repr. ed. by Irving Lowens, New York: Da Capo Press, 1964.


A manuscript supplement to Thomas Walter. The Grounds and Rules of Musick Explained. Boston: for Samuel Gerrish, 1746, at the Watkinson Library of Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut. (CtHT-W Ms)

A manuscript supplement to William Billings. The Singing Master’s Assistant. Boston: Draper and Folsom, 1778, at the William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. (MiU-C Ms 2)

A manuscript supplement to [Daniel Bayley]. The American Harmony, 8th ed. [Newburyport: Daniel Bayley, 1773] at the Music Division, New York Public Library. (NN Ms)

Musical additions to a manuscript orderly book written by Eleazer Everett in Francestown, New Hampshire, at the William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. (MiU-C Ms 3)

Read, Daniel. Letterbook. Ms at the New Haven Colony Historical Society, New Haven, Connecticut.

A separate music manuscript entitled “Ms music by Shepard Fish, 1730” at the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston. (MHi Ms)

A separate music manuscript entitled “Sukey Heath’s 1st July 1782 Collection from Sundry Authors” in the possession of Mrs. Dorothy Waterhouse, Boston, Massachusetts. (Waterhouse Ms)

Thomas, Isaiah. The Isaiah Thomas Papers. Ms collection at the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts.


Columbian Centinel, Boston. [1794–1797]

The Eagle, or Dartmouth Centinel, Hanover, New Hampshire. [1794–1797]

Eastern Herald, Portland, Maine. [1794–1797]

Greenfield Gazette, Greenfield, Massachusetts. [1794–1797]

Independent Chronicle, Boston. [1794–1797]

The Massachusetts Magazine, Boston. [1793–1795]

The Spectator, London. [1712]