◆   Anno Domini 1629   ◆

Mr.1 Allerton safely arriving in England, and delivering his letters, to their friends there, and acquainting them with his Instructions; found good acceptation with them, and they were very forward & willing, to Join with them in the partnership of trade, & In the charge to send over their Leiden people; a Company whereof, were already come out of Holland, and prepared to come over, and so were sent away, before Mr. Allerton could be ready to come. They had passage with the ships that came to Salem, that brought over many godly persons, to begin the plantations, & churches of Christ there, & in the Bay of the Massachusetts; so2 their long stay, & keeping back [164] was recompensed, by the Lord, to their friends here with a double blessing; ^In^ that they not only Joined them, now beyond their late expectation (when ^all^ their hopes seemed to be Cut off), but with them, many more godly friends & Christian Brethren, as the beginning of a larger Harvest unto the Lord; In the Increase of his churches, & people in these parts, to the admiration of many, and almost wonder of the world; that of so small beginnings so great things should Ensue, as time after manifested, and that here should be a resting place, for so many of the Lord’s people; when so sharp a scourge came upon their own Nation.3 But it was the Lord’s doing, & it ought to be marvelous in our eyes.4

But I shall here Insert some of their friends’ letters, which do best express their own minds in these their proceedings.

A letter of Mr. Sherley’s to the Governour, May 25, 1629.5

Sir, &c. Here are now many of your, and our friends from Leiden,6 coming over (who though) for the most part, be but a weak company,7 yet herein, is a good part of that end obtained, which was aimed at; and which ^hath^ been so strongly opposed, by some of our former adventurers. But God hath his working in these things, which man cannot frustrate. With them we have also sent some servants in the ship called the Talbot that went hence lately; But these come in the Mayflower.8 Mr. Beauchamp, & myself, with Mr. Andrews, & Mr. Hatherley9 are ^Joined^ with your love and liking Joined partners with you, &c.10 Your deputation we have received,11 and the goods have been taken up, & sold by your friend, & agent Mr. Allerton; myself having been near 3 2[nd] letter.months in Holland ^at Amsterdam^ & other parts in the Low Countries. [. . .] I12 see further the agreement, you have made with the generality; In which I cannot understand, but you have done very well, both for them, & you, and also for your friends at Leiden. Mr. Beauchamp, Mr. Andrews, Mr. Hatherley, & myself, do so like and approve of it, as we are will[ing]13 to join with you, and God directing, and Enabling us, will be assisting, and helpful to you, the best that possibly we can. Nay had you not taken this course, I do not see, how you should accomplish the end you first aimed at, and some others Endeavoured these years past. We know it must keep us from the profit, which otherwise by the blessing of God, and your Endeavours might be gained. For most of those that came in May; & these now sent, though I hope honest ^& good^ people; yet [are] not like to be helpful to raise profit, but rather, nay certain, must some while be chargeable, to you, & us; at which it is likely, had not this wise, & discrete course been taken, many of your generality would have grudged.14 Again you say well in your letter, and I make no doubt, but you will perform it; that now being but a few, on whom the burthen must be, you will both manage it the better, and set to it more cheerfully, having no discontents, nor contradiction, but so lovingly to join together, in affection and counsel, as ^God^ no doubt will bless, and prosper your honest labours, & Endeavors; And therefore in all respects I do not see, but you have done marvelously discretely, & advisedly; and no doubt but it gives all parties, good content. I mean that are reasonable, & honest men, such as make conscience of giving the best satisfaction they be able, for their debts; and that regard not their own particular so much, as the accomplishing, of that good end, for which this business was first Intended, &c. Thus desiring the Lord to bless, & prosper you, & all yours, and all our honest endeavors, I rest,

Lon[don], March 8, 1629.15

Your unfeigned, & ever-loving friend,

James Sherley [165]

That16 I may handle things together, I have put these 2 companies that Came from Leiden, In this place; though they came, at 2 several times yet they both came out of England this year.17 The former company (being 35 persons) were shipped in May, and arrived here about August.18 The Latter were shipped in the beginning of March, and arrived here the later end of May, 1630. Mr. Sherley’s 2 letters, the effect whereof I have before related (of ^as^ much of them as is pertinent), mentions both. Their charge as Mr. Allerton, brought it in afterwards ^on account^; came to above £550 beside their fetching hither from Salem, & the Bay where they and their goods were landed, viz. their transportation from Holland to England, & their charges lying there, and passages hither, with clothing provided for them. For I find by account for the one company 125 yards of kersey,19 127 ellons20 of linen cloth, shoes 66 pair with many other particulars. The charge of the other Company is reckoned on the several families, some £50, some £40, some £30, and so more or less, as their number, & expenses were. And besides all this charge their friends & brethren here were, to provide corn & other provisions for them, till they could reap, a crop which was long before; those that came in May, were thus maintained, upward of 16 ^or 18^ months, before they had any harvest of their own, & the other by proportion. And all they could do in the meantime, was to get them some housing, and prepare them grounds to plant on, against the season. And this charge of maintaining them all this while, was little less than the former sum. These things I note more particularly, for sundry regards.

The Leiden people being thus come over,21 and sundry of the generality seeing, & hearing how great the charge was like to be, that was that way to be expended; they began to murmur, and repine at ^it^; Notwithstanding the burden lay on other men’s shoulders; Especially at the paying of the 3 bushels, of corn a year, according to the former agreement, when the trade was let for the 6 years aforesaid. But to give them content herein also; It was promised them, that if they could do it in the time, without it; they would never demand it of them, which gave them good content. And Indeed It never was paid as will appear by the sequel.

Concerning Mr. Allerton’s proceedings about the Enlarging, & confirming of their patent, both that at home, & Kennebec;22 will best appear by another Letter of Mr. Sherley’s, for though much time, & money was expended about It, yet he left it unaccomplished this year, and came without it. See Mr. Sherley[‘s] ^letter ^.23

Most worthy & loving friends, &c.24

Some of your letters I received in July, & some since by Mr. Peirce, but till our main business the patent was granted; I could not settle my mind, nor pen to writing. Mr. Allerton was so turmoiled about it, as verily I would not, nor could not have undergone it, If I might have had a thousand Pounds; but the Lord so blessed his labours (even beyond expectation in these evil days) as he obtained the love, & favor of great men in repute, & place; he got granted from the Earl of Warwick, & Sir Ferdinando Gorge[s],25 all that Mr. Winslow desired in his letters, to me, & more also, which I leave to him to relate.26 Then he sued to the King, to confirm their grant, and to make you a Corporation; and so to Enable you to make, & Execute laws, In such large, & ample manner, as the Massachusetts plantation hath it.27 Which the king graciously granted; referring it to the Lord Keeper, to give order to the solicitor to draw it up, If there were a precedent for it. So the Lord Keeper furthered it all he could, and also the solicitor (but as Festus said to Paul, “With no small sum of money obtained I this freedom”);28 for by the way many riddles must be resolved, and many locks most be opened with the silver, nay the golden key. Then It was to come to the Lord Treasurer, to have his warrant, for freeing the custom for a certain time;29 but he would not do it, but referred it to the Council table. And there Mr. Allerton attended day by day, when they sat, but could not get his petition read. And by reason of Mr. Peirce his staying, with all the passengers at Bristol; he was forced to leave the further prosecuting of it, to a solicitor.30 But there is no fear, nor doubt but it will be granted, for he hath the chief of them to friend. Yet It will be marvelously needful for him to return by the first ship that comes from thence; for If you had this confirmed, then were you complete, and might bear such sway, & Government, as were fit for your rank, & place that God hath called you unto. And stop the mouths, of base, and scurrilous fellows, that are ready to question, & threaten you in every action you [167] do. And besides If you have the custom free for 7 years Inward, & 21 outward the charge of the patent will be soon recovered, and there is no fear of recovering it. But such things must work by degrees, men cannot hasten it as they would; Wherefore we (I write in the behalf of all our partners here) desire you to be earnest with Mr. Allerton to come,31 and his wife to spare him, this one year more; to finish this great, & weighty business, which we conceive will be much for your good, & I hope for your posterity, and for many generations to come.

Thus much of this letter. It was dated March the 19[th], 1629.32

By which It appears what progress was made herein, & in part what charge it was, and how left unfinished, and some reason of the same; but In truth (as was afterwards apprehended) the main reason was Mr. Allerton’s policy, to have an opportunity to be sent over again, for other regards; and for that end procured them thus to write. For it might then well enough have been finished (If not with the clause about the customs, which was Mr. Allerton’s, & Mr. Sherley’s, device, and not at all thought on by the Colony here, nor much regarded), yet It might have be ^been^33 done without It, without all question, having passed the king’s hand; nay It was conceived It might then have be ^been^34 done with it, If he had pleased, but covetousness never brings aught home, as the proverb is; for this opportunity being lost, It was never accomplished, but a great deal of money vainly, & lavishly cast away about it, as doth appear upon their account. But of this more in its place. [166v]

Title page of Thomas Morton, New English Canaan (1637)

Concerning the rest of Mr. Allerton’s Instructions, In which they strictly Enjoined him, not to exceed above that £50 In the goods before mentioned, not to bring any but trading commodities; he followed them not at all but did the quite contrary; bring^ing^ over many other sorts, of retail goods (selling what he could by the way, on his own account), and delivering the rest which he said to be theirs Into the store; and for trading goods brought but little In comparison; excusing the matter, they had laid out much about the Leiden42 people, & patent, &c. And for other goods they had much of them of their own dealings, without present disbursement & to like effect; And as for passing his bounds & Instructions, he Laid it on Mr. Sherley, &c., who he said, they might see his mind in his letters; Also that ^they^ had set out Ashley43 at great charge; but next year they should have what trading goods they would send for, If things were now well settled, &c. And thus were they put off; Indeed Mr. Sherley writ things tending this way, but it is like he was overruled by Mr. Allerton, and harkened more to him, than to their letters from hence.

Thus he further writes in the former letter. I see what you write In your letters concerning the overcoming, & paying of our debts, which I confess are great, and had need be carefully looked unto; yet no doubt but we Joining in love, may soon overcome them; but we must follow it roundly, & to purpose, for If we peddle out the time of our trade, others will step In, and nose us. But we know that you have that acquaintance, & experience in the country, as none have the like; wherefore friends, & partners be no way discouraged with the greatness of the debt, &c. But let us not fulfill the proverb, to bestow 12d on a purse, and put 6d [168] In it; but as you, and we have been at great charge, and undergone much, for settling you there, and to gain experience; so as God shall enable us let us make use of it. And think not with £50 a year sent you over, to raise such means, as to pay our debts. We see a possibility, of good If you be well supplied, and fully furnished; and chiefly if you lovingly agree. I know I write to godly, & wise men,44 such as have learned, to bear one another’s Infirmities, and rejoice at any one’s prosperities; And If I were able, I would press this more, because it is hoped by some of your enemies, that you will fall out one, with another, and so overthrow your hopeful business. Nay I have heard it credibly reported, that some have said; that till you be disjointed, by discontents, & fractions amongst yourselves, It boots not any to go over, In hope of getting, or doing good in those parts; but we hope better things of you;45 and that you will not only bear one with another, but banish such thoughts, and not suffer them to lodge in your breasts. God grant you may disappoint the hopes of your foes, and procure the hearty desire of yourselves, & friends In this particular.

By this It appears that there was a kind of concurrence between Mr. Allerton and them in these things, and that they gave more regard, to his way, & course In these things, than to the advice from hence; which made him bold to presume above his Instructions, and to run on In the course he did, to their greater hurt afterwards, as will appear. These things did much trouble them here, but they well knew not how to help it, being loath to make any breach, or contention hereabout; being so premonished as before in the letter above recited. Another more Secret cause was herewith concurrent; Mr. Allerton had married the daughter, of their Reverend Elder Mr. Brewster (a ^man^ beloved, & Honoured amongst them, and who took great pains in teaching, & dispensing the word, of God unto them), whom they were loath to grieve, or any way offend, so as they bore with much In that respect. And withal Mr. Allerton carried so fair with him, and procured such letters from Mr. Sherley to him, with such applause of Mr. Allerton’s wisdom, care, and faithfulness, in the business; and as things stood, none were so fit to send about them as he; and if any should suggest otherwise, it was rather out of envy, or some ^other^46 sinister respect than otherwise. Besides though private gain I do persuade myself, was some cause to lead Mr. Allerton aside in these beginnings; yet I think, or at least charity carries me to hope, that he Intended to deal faithfully with them in the main. And had such an opinion of his own ability, and some experience of the benefit that he had made in this singular way; as he conceived he might both raise himself an estate; and also be a means to bring in such profit to Mr. Sherley (and it may be the rest), as might ^be^ as likely to bring in their monies again with advantage, and it may be sooner than from the general way; or at least it was looked upon by some of them to be a good help thereunto. And that neither he, nor any other did Intend to charge the general account with anything that ran in particular; or that Mr. Sherley or any other did purpose but that the general should be first, & fully supplied. I say charity makes me thus conceive. Though things fell out otherwise, and they missed of their aims, and the general suffered abundantly, hereby, as will afterwards appear. [169]

Together herewith sorted another business, contrived by Mr. Allerton, and them there, without any knowledge of the partners; and so far proceeded in as they were constrained to allow thereof, and Join in the same, though they had no great liking of it, but feared what might be the event of the same. I shall relate it in a further part of Mr. Sherley’s letter as followeth.47

I am to acquaint you that we have thought good to Join with one Edward Ashley (a man I think that some of you know), But it is only of that place whereof he hath a patent In Mr. Beauchamp’s name; And to that end have furnished him with large provisions, &c. Now if you please to be partners with us in this, we are willing, you shall. For after we heard how forward Bristol men48 (and as I hear some able men of his own kindred) have been, to stock, & supply him hoping of profit, we thought it fitter for us to lay ^hold^49 of such an opportunity, and ^to keep^ a kind of running plantation, than others who have not borne the burthen of settling a plantation, as we have done. And he on the other side, like an understanding young man, thought it better to Join with those, that had means by a plantation, to supply, & back him there rather than strangers, that look but only after profit.50 Now it is not known that you, are partners with him; but only we 4, Mr. Andrews, Mr. Beauchamp, myself, & ^Mr.^ Hatherley, who desired to have the patent In consideration of our great loss, we have already sustained in settling the first plantation there, so we agreed together to take it In both our names. And now as I said before, If you please to Join with us, we are willing you should;51 Mr. Allerton had no power from you to make this new Contract, neither was he willing to do anything therein, without your consent, & approbation. Mr. William Peirce is Joined with us in this, for we thought it very Convenient, because of landing Ashley, and his goods there, if God please, and he will bend his course accordingly.52 He hath a new boat with him, and boards to make another, with 4 or 5 lusty fellows, whereof one is a carpenter. Now In case you are not willing In this particular to Join with us; fearing the charge & doubting the success, yet thus much we Entreat of you, to afford him, all the help you can, either by men, commodities, or boats; yet not but that we will pay you for anything he hath; And we desire you to keep the accounts, apart though you Join with us; because there is (as you see other partners in this than the other). So for all men’s wages, boats-hire, or commodities, which we shall have of you, make him debtor for it; and what you shall have of him, make the plantation, or yourselves debtors, for it to him, and so there will need no mingling of the accounts.53

And now loving friends, & partners; If you Join in Ashle[y’]s, patent, & business,54 though we have laid out, the money, and taken up much to stock this business, & the other; yet I think it conscionable, and reasonable, that you should bear your shares, and proportion of the stock, If not by present money, yet by securing us for so much as It shall come to; for it is not barely the Interest that is to be allowed, & considered of, but also the adventure. Though I hope in God, by his blessing, & your honest Endeavors, It may soon be paid; yet the years that this partnership holds is not long, nor many; let all hands therefore lay it to heart, and make the best use of the time that possibly we can, and let every man put to his shoulder, and the burthen will be the lighter;55 I know you are so honest, & conscionable men, as you will consider hereof, [170] And return such an answer as may give good satisfaction. There is none of us that would venture as we have done, were it not to strengthen, & settle you, more than our own particular profit.56

There is no likelihood of doing any good in buying the debt for the purchase, I know some will not abate the Interest, and therefore let it run ^it[s]^ course; they are to be paid yearly, and so I hope they shall according to agreement. The Lord grant that our loves, & affections, may still be united, and knit together; And so we rest your ever loving friends,

Bristol, March 19, 1629.57

James Sherley

Timothy Hatherley

This matter of buying the debts of the purchase was part of Mr. Allerton’s Instructions, and in many of them, It might have been done to good profit, for ready pay (as some were) but Mr. Sherley had no mind to it. But this business about Ashley did not a little trouble them, for though he had wit, & ability enough to manage the business, yet some of them knew him to be a very profane young man; and he had for some time lived among the Indians as a savage, & went naked amongst them, and used their manners (in which time he got their language). So they feared he might still run Into evil Courses (though he promised better) and God would not prosper his ways. As soon as he was landed at the place Intended, Called Penobscot,58 some 4-score leagues from this place, he writ (& afterwards came), for to desire to be supplied with Wampumpeag, corn against winter, and other things. They considered these were of their chief commodities, and would be continually needed by him; and it would much prejudice their own trade at Kennebec If they did not Join with him in the ordering of things, If thus they should Supply him; and on the other hand If they refused to join with him, and also to afford any supply unto him, they should greatly offend their above-named friends, and might haply59 lose them hereby; and he and Mr. Allerton laying their crafty wits together might get supplies of these things elsewhere; besides they considered that If they Joined not in the business, they knew Mr. Allerton would be with them in It, & so would swim (as it were between both) to the prejudice of both, but of themselves Especially; for they had reason to think this business, was chiefly of his contriving, and Ashley was a man fit for his turn, and dealings. So they to prevent a worse mischief, resolved to Join in the business; and gave him supplies, in what they could; & overlooked his proceedings as well as they could; the which they did the better, by Joining an honest young manx (that came from Leiden) with ^him^x Thomas Willett. as his fellow (in some sort and not merely as a servant),60 which young man being discrete, and one whom they could trust, they so Instructed, as kept Ashley (In some good measure) within bounds. And so they returned their answer to their friends in England that they accepted of their motion, and Joined with them ^in^ Ashley’s business; and yet withal told them what their fears were concerning him.

But when they came to have full notice of all the goods brought them that year, they saw they fell very short of trading goods, and Ashley far better supplied than [171] themselves; so as they were forced to buy, of the fishermen61 to furnish themselves, yea, & Cottons, & kerseys, & other such-like cloth (for want of trading cloth) of Mr. Allerton himself, and so to put away a great part of their beaver (at under rate, in the country), which they should have sent home, to help to discharge their great Engagements; which was to their great vexation, but Mr. Allerton prayed them to be content, and the next year they might have what they would write for. And Indeed their Engagements of this year were great Indeed when they came to know them (which was not wholly, till 2 years after). And that which made them the more, Mr. Allerton had taken up, some large sums at Bristol at £50 Per cent again; which he excused, that he was forced to It; because otherwise he could (at the spring of year get no goods transported), such were their envy against ^their^62 our trade; but whether this was any more than an excuse, some of them doubted, but however the burden was fain to ^did^ lie on their backs, and they must bear it, as they did many heavy loads more in the end.

This paying of £50 Per cent and difficulty of having their goods transported by the fishing ships at the first of the year (as was believed), which was the chief season for trade; put them upon another project. Mr. Allerton after the fishing season was over, light of a bargain of salt, at a good fishing place, and bought it; which came to about £113, and shortly after he might have had £30 clear profit for it, without any more trouble about it. But Mr. Winslow coming that way from Kennebec, & some other of their partners with ^him^ in the bark; they met with Mr. Allerton, and falling into discourse with him, they stayed him from selling the salt; and resolved, if it might please the rest; to keep it for themselves; and to hire a ship In the west country to come on fishing for ^them, on^ shares according to the custom; seeing she might have her salt here ready, and a stage ready ^built &^ fitted where the Salt lay safely landed & housed. Instead of bringing salt they might stow her full of trading goods, as bread, peas, cloth, &c., and so they might have a full supply of goods, without ^paying^ freight, and in due season, which might turn greatly 63to their advantage. Coming home this was propounded, and consid ered on, and approved by all, but the Governour who had no mind to it, seeing they had all way lost by fishing; but the rest were so earnest, as thinking that they might gain well by the fishing in this way; and if they should but save, yea or lose something by it; the other benefit, would be advantage Enough. So seeing their earnestness he gave way, and it was referred to their friends In England to allow, or disallow it. Of which more in its place.

Upon the consideration of the business, about the patent, ^&^ In what state It was left; as is before remembered, and Mr. Sherley’s earnest pressing to have Mr. Allerton to come over again to finish it, & perfect the accounts, &c., It was Concluded to send him over this year again;64 though it was with some fear & Jealousy, yet he gave them fair words ^and^ promises of well performing all their businesses according to their directions, and to mend his former errors. So he was accordingly sent with full Instructions for all things; with large letters to Mr. Sherley, & the rest; both about Ashley’s business, and their own Supply with trading commodities, and how much it did concern ^them^,65 to be furnished therewith, & what they had suffered for want thereof; and of what little use other goods were [172] In comparison thereof;66 and so likewise about this fishing ship, to be thus hired; and fraught with trading goods, which might both supply them, & Ashley, and the benefit thereof; which was left to their consideration, to hire, & set her out, or not; but in no case not to send any, except she was thus freight with trading goods. But what these things came to will appear in the next year’s passages.

I had like to have omitted another passage that fell out the beginning of this year.67 There was one Mr. Ralph Smith,68 & his wife, & family, that came over Into the Bay of the Massachusetts, and sojourned at present, with some straggling people, that lived at Natasket;69 here being a boat of this place, putting in there on some occasion; he earnestly desired that they would give him & his passage for Plimoth, and some such things as they could well carry; having before heard that there was likelihood he might procure houseroom for some time, till he should resolve to settle there ^If he might^,70 or elsewhere as God should dispose, for he was weary of being in that uncouth place, & in a poor house that would neither keep him nor his goods dry. So seeing him to be a grave man, & understood he had been a minister, though they had no order for any such thing, yet they presumed and brought him; he was here accordingly kindly entertained, & housed, & had the rest of his goods ^& servants^ sent for, and exercised his gifts amongst them; and afterwards was chosen Into the ministry and so remained for sundry years.

It was before noted that sundry of those that came from Leiden, came ^over^ In the ships that came to Salem, where Mr. Endecott had chief command; and by Infection that grew amongst the passengers at sea, It spread also among them ashore, of which many died, some of the scurvy, other of an Infectious fever, which continued some time amongst them (though our people through God’s goodness, escaped it). Upon which occasion he writ hither for some help, understanding here was one,71 that had some skill that way, & had cured diverse of the scurvy, and others of other diseases by letting blood, & other means. Upon which his request the Governour here sent him unto them, and also writ to him, from whom I ^he^72 received an answer; the which because it is brief, and shows the beginning of their acquaintance, and closing in the truth, & ways of God, I thought [it]73 not unmeet, nor without use, here to Insert it; and another showing the beginning of their fellowship, & church-estate there.

Being as followeth.

Right worthy Sir,

It is a thing not usual, that servants to one master, and of the same household should be strangers; I assure you I desire it not, nay to speak more plainly I cannot be so to you. God’s people are all marked with one, & the same mark, and sealed with one and the same seal;74 and have for the main, one & the same heart, guided by one & [the] same spirit of truth; and where this is, there can be no discord, nay here must needs ^be^ sweet harmony. And the same request (with you) I make unto the Lord, that we may be as Christian brethren be united, by a heavenly & unfeigned love; bending all our hearts and forces, In furthering a work beyond our strength, with reverence & fear, fastening our eyes always on him; that only is able to direct, and prosper all our ways. I acknowledge myself much bound to you, for your kind love, and care, in sending Mr. Fuller, among us; and rejoice much that I am by him satisfied, touching your Judgements, of the outward worship ^form^75 of God’s worship. It is as far as [173] I can yet gather, no other than is warranted by the Evidence of truth. And the same which I have professed, and maintained, ever since the Lord in mercy revealed himself unto me. Being far from the common report that hath been spread of you touching that particular; but God’s children must not look for less here below; and it is the great mercy of God, that he strengthens them, to go through with it. I shall not need at this time to be tedious unto you, for God willing I purpose to see your face shortly. In the meantime, I humbly take my leave of you, committing you to the Lord’s blessed protection, & rest.

Naumkeag,76 May 11, Anno 1629.

Your assured loving friend,

John Endecott

This second letter sheweth their proceedings in their church affairs

at Salem, which was the 2[nd] church erected in these parts; and

afterwards the Lord established many more, in sundry places.

Sir, I make bold to trouble you with a few lines, for to certify you how it hath pleased God to deal with us, since you heard from us. How notwithstanding all opposition that hath ^been^77 here, & elsewhere; it hath pleased God to lay a foundation, the which I hope is agreeable to his word in everything. The 20[th] of July, It pleased the Lord to move the heart of our Governour to set it apart for a solemn day of humiliation, for the choice of a pastor, & Teacher.78 The former part of the day being spent, in prayer, & teaching; the latter part about the Election, which was after this manner. The persons thought on (who had been ministers in England) were demanded Concerning their callings; they acknowledged there was a twofold calling, the one an Inward calling, when the Lord moved the heart of a man to take that calling upon him, and fitted him with gifts for the same. The second was an outward callling which was from the people, when a Company of believers are Joined together in Covenant, to walk together in all the ways of God. And every member (being men) are to have a free voice, in the choice of their officers, &c. Now we being persuaded that these 2 men, were so qualified, as the apostle speaks to Timothy; where he saith a bishop must be blameless, sober, apt to teach, &c.,79 I think I may say, as the Eunuch said unto Philip, what should let from being baptised, seeing there was water, and he believed?80 So these 2 servants of God, clearing all things, by their answers (and being thus fitted), we saw no reason but we might freely give our voices, for their Election, after this trial.81 So Mr. Skelton was chosen pastor, and Mr. Higginson to be teacher;82 and they accepting the choice, Mr. Higginson with 3 or 4 of the gravest members of the church laid their hands, on Mr. Skelton, using prayer therewith.83 This being done, there was Imposition of hands on Mr. Higginson also.84 And since, ^that time^ Thursday (being as I take it, the 6[th] of August), Is appointed for another day of humiliation, for the choice of Elders, & deacons, & ordaining of them.

And now good Sir: I hope that you, & the rest of God’s people (who are acquainted with the ways of God) with you; will say that here was a right foundation laid, and that these 2 blessed servants of the Lord, came In at the door, and not at the window. Thus I have made bold to trouble you with these few lines; desiring you to remember us, &c. And so rest,

Salem, July 30, 1629.

At your service in what I may,

Charles Gott85 [174]