◆   Anno Domini 1643   ◆

I am to begin this year, with that, which was a matter of great sadness, and mourning unto them all. About ^the^ 18[th] of April, died their Reverend Elder, and my dear, & loving friend Mr. William Brewster;1 A man that had done, and suffered much, for the Lord Jesus, and the gospel’s sake; and had bore his part in weal,2 and woe, with this poor, persecuted church above 36 years [254] In England, Holland, and in this wilderness, and done the Lord, & them faithful service in his place & calling; and notwithstanding the many troubles, and sorrows he passed through, the Lord upheld him to a great age; he was near fourscore years of age (if not all out) when he died. He had this blessing added by the Lord, to all the rest; to die in his bed in peace, amongst the midst of his friends, who mourned & wept over him; and ministered what help & comfort they could unto him, and he again ^re^comforted them whilst he could. His sickness was not long, and till the last day thereof, he did not wholly keep his bed; his speech continued till some^what^ more than half a day, & then failed him, and about 9 or 10 a’clock that evening he died, without any pangs at all; a few hours before, he drew his breath short; and some few minutes before his last, he drew his breath long, as a man fallen into a sound sleep, without any pangs or gaspings, and so sweetly departed this life, unto a better.

I would now demand of any, what he was the worse, for any former sufferings? What do I say “worse”? nay sure he was the better, and they now added to his honour. It “is a manifest token” (saith the Apostle, 2 Thess. 1:5, 6, 7) “of the righteous Judgement ^of God^, that ye may be counted worthy of the kingdom of God, for which ye also suffer: seeing it is a righteous thing with God, to recompence tribulation to them that trouble you, and to you who are troubled, rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven, with his mighty Angels.”3 1 Pet. 4:14, “If you be reproached for the name of Christ, happy are ye, for the spirit of glory, and of God resteth upon you.”4 What though he wanted the riches, and pleasures of the world in his life? and pompous monuments at his funeral? Yet “the Memorial of the just shall be blessed, when the name of the wicked shall rot” (with their marble monuments), Prov. 10:7.5

I should say something of his life, If to say a little were not worse, than to be silent. But I cannot wholly forbear (though happily more may be done hereafter). After he had attained some learning, viz. the knowledge of the Latin tongue, & some Insight in the Greek, and spent some small time at Cambridge; And ^then^ being first seasoned with the seeds of grace, and vertue; he went to the court, and served that Religious and godly gentleman Mr. Davison diverse years, when he was Secretary of State;6 Who found him so discreet, and faithful, as he trusted him above all other that were about him, and only Employed him in all matters of greatest trust, and Secrecy; he esteemed him rather as a son than a servant; and for his wisdom, & godliness (in private), he would converse with him, more like a friend & familiar, than a master. He attended his master when he was sent in ambassage, by the Queen into the Low Countries, in the (Earl of Leicester’s time),7 as for other weighty affairs of state, so to receive possession of the Cautionary towns, and in token, & sign thereof the keys of Flushing8 being delivered to him, In her Majesty’s name, he kept them some time, and committed them to this his servant, who kept them under his pillow, on which he slept the first night. And at his return the States honoured him9 with a gold chain, and his master committed it to him, and commanded him to wear it, when they arrived in England, as they rid through the country, till they came to the court. He afterwards remained with him, till his troubles, that he was put from his place, about the death of the Queen of Scots; and some good time after doing him many faithful offices of service in the time of his troubles.10 Afterwards he went and lived in the country in good esteem amongst his friends, and the gentlemen of those parts, especially the godly, & religious; ^he^ did much good in the country where he lived, in promoting and furthering Religion, not only by his practise, & example, and provoking, and Encouraging of others; but by procuring of good preachers to the places thereabout, and drawing on of others to assist, & help forward in such a work; he himself most Commonly deepest in the charge, ^&^ sometimes above his ability. And in this state he continued many years, doing the best good he could, and walking according to the light he saw, till the Lord revealed further unto him. And in the end by the tyranny of the Bishops against godly preachers, & people, in silencing the one, & persecuting the other; he and many more of those times, began to look further into things, and to see into the ^un^lawfulness of their callings, and the burthen of many antichristian corruptions, which both he, and they endeavored to cast off; as they also did, as in the beginning of this treatise is to be seen.11 [255]

After they were Joined together in communion, he was a special stay, & help unto them; they ordinarily met at his house on the Lord’s day (which was a manor of the Bishop’s) and with great love he entertained them when they came, making provision for them to his great charge; and continued so to do, whilst they could stay in England. And when they were to remove out of the Country, he was one of the first in all adventures, and forwardest in any charge; he was the chief of those that were taken at Boston, and suffered the greatest loss; and of the seven that were kept longest in prison, and after bound over to the assizes. After he came into Holland he suffered much hardship, after he had spent the most of his means, having a great Charge, and many children; and in regard of his former breeding, & course of life, not so fit for many Employments, as others were, especially such as were toilsome, & laborious. But yet he ever bore his condition with much cheerfulness, and contentation; towards the later part of those 12 years spent in Holland, his outward condition was mended, and he lived well, & plentifully; for he fell into a way (by reason he had the Latin tongue) to teach many students, who had a desire to learn the English tongue, to teach them English; and by his method they quickly attained it with great facility; for he drew rules to learn it by, after the Latin manner; And many gentlemen, both Danes, & Germans resorted to him, as they ^had^ time from other studies, some of them being great men’s Sons.12 He also had means to set up printing (by the help of some friends) and so had employment Enough, and by reason of many books which would ^not^ be allowed to be printed in England, they might have had more than they could do.13 But now removing into this country all these things were laid aside again, and a new course of living must be framed unto; in which he was no way unwilling to take his part, and to bear his burthen with the rest, living many times without bread or corn, many months together, having many times nothing but fish, and often wanting that also; and drunk nothing but water for many years together, yea till within 5 or 6 years of his death; and yet he lived (by the blessing of God) in health till very old age. And besides that he would labour with his hands in ^the^ fields as long as he was able, yet when the church had no other minister, he taught twice every sabbath, and that both powerfully, and profitably, to the great contentment of the hearers, and their comfortable edification;14 yea many were brought to God by his ministry. He did more in this behalf ^in a year^ than many that have their hundreds a year do in all their lives. For his personal abilities he was qualified above many; he was wise, and discreet, and well spoken, having a grave ^&^ deliberate utterance, of a very cheerful spirit, very sociable, & pleasant, amongst his friends, of an humble and modest mind, of a peaceable disposition, undervaluing himself, & his own abilities, and sometime overvaluing others. Inoffensive, and Innocent in his life & conversation, which gained him the love of those without, as well as those within; yet he would tell them plainly of their faults, & evils, both publicly, & privately, but in such a manner as usually was well taken from him. He was tender-hearted, and compassionate of such as were in misery, but especially of such as had been of good estate, and rank, and were fallen unto want & poverty, ^either^ for goodness’, & Religion’s sake, or by the Injury, & oppression of others; he would say ^of^ all men these deserved to be pitied most. And none did more offend, & displease ^him^ than such as would haughtily, and proudly carry, and lift up themselves, being rose15 from nothing, and having little else in them ^to commend them^ but a few fine clothes, or a little riches more than others; In teaching he was very moving, ^&^ stirring of affections, also very plain, & distinct in what he taught, by which means he became the more profitable to the hearers. He had a singular good gift in prayer, both public & private, in ripping up the heart, & conscience before God, in the humble confession of sin, and begging the mercies of God in Christ for the pardon of the same. He always thought it were better for ministers, to pray oftener, and divide their prayers than be long & tedious in the same (except upon solemn, & special occasions, as in days of humiliation, & the like); his reason was that the heart & spirits, of all, especially the weak, could hardly continue, & stand bent (as it were) so long towards God, as they ought to do in that duty without flagging, and falling off. For the government of the church (which was most [256] proper to his office) he was careful to preserve good order in the same; and to preserve purity, both in the doctrine, & communion of the same; and to suppress any errour, or contention that might begin to rise up amongst them. And accordingly God gave good success to his Endeavours herein all his days, and he saw the fruit of his labours in that behalf. But I must break off having only thus touched a few, as it were heads of things.

I cannot but ^here^ take occasion, not only to mention, but greatly to admire the marvelous providence of God! That notwithstanding the many changes, and hardships that these people went through, and the many enemies they had, and difficulties they met withal; that so many of them should Live to very old age! It was not only this reverend man’s condition (for one swallow makes no summer, as they say),16 but many more of them did the like, some dying about, and before this time, and many still living; who attained to 60 years of age, and to 65, diverse to 70 and above, and some near 80, as he did. It must needs be more than ordinary, and above natural reason that so it should be. For it is found in experience, that change of eiare ^air^, famine, or unwholesome food, much drinking of water, Sorrows, and troubles, &c., all of them are enemies to health, Causes of many diseases, consumers of natural vigour, and the bodies of men, and shorteners of life. And yet of all these things they had a large part, and suffered deeply in the same; they went from England to Holland, where they found, both worse air, and diet, than that they came from; from thence (Enduring a long, Imprisonment as it were in the ships at sea) Into New England; and how it hath been with them here, hath already been shown; and what crosses, troubles, ^fears, wants,^ and Sorrows they have been Liable unto is easy to conjecture. So as in some sort, they may say with the Apostle, 2. Cor. 11:26, 27, “They were in Journeyings often, in perils of waters, In perils of Robbers, in perils of their own nation, in perils among the heathen, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in perils among false brethren; In weariness, & painfulness, In watching often, in hunger, and thirst, in fasting often, in Cold and nakedness.”17 What was it then that upheld them? it was God’s visitation that preserved their spirits. Job 10:12, “Thou hast given me life, and grace, and thy visitation hath preserved my spirit.”18 He that upheld the Apostle upheld them; they were “persecuted, but not forsaken, cast down, but perished ^not^,” 2 Cor. 4:9. “As unknowen and yet knowen; as dying, and behold we live; as chastened, and yet not killed,” 2 Cor. 6:9.19 God it seems, would have all men to behold, and observe such mercies, and works of his providence as these are towards his people; that they in like cases might be Encouraged, and ^to^20 depend upon God, in their trials, & also bless his name when they see his goodness towards others. Man lives not by bread only, Deut. 8:3.21 It is not by good & dainty fare, by peace, & rest, and heart’s ease, in Enjoying the contentment and good things of this world only, that preserves health, and prolongs life; God in such examples would have the world see, & behold ^ that^22 he can do it without them; and if the world will shut their eyes, and take no notice thereof, yet he would have his people, to see, and consider ^ it^.23 Daniel could be better liking with pulse, than others were with the king’s dainties.24 Jacob though he went from one nation, to another people, and passed through famine, fears, & many afflictions yet he lived till old age, and died sweetly, & rested in the Lord; as Infinite others of God’s servants have done; And still shall do (through God’s goodness) notwithstanding all the malice of their enemies; when the branch of the wicked “shall be cut off before his day,” Job.15:32, and “the bloody, and deceitful men shall not live half their days,” Psa. 55:23.

By reason of the plottings of the Narragansetts (ever since the Pequots’ war)

the Indians were drawn into a general conspiracy against the

English in all parts, as was in part discovered the year

before; and now made more plain, and evident by

many discoveries, and free Confessions of sundry

Indians (upon several occasions) from diverse

places, concurring in one. With such other

concurring Circumstances; as gave them

sufficiently to understand the truth

thereof. And to think of means

how to prevent the same, and

secure themselves.

Which made them enter into this more near union, & confederation following. [257]

Articles of Confederation between the plantations under the government of the Massachusetts, the plantations under the Government of New Plimoth, the plantations under the Government of Connecticut, and the Government of New Haven, with the plantations in combination therewith.25

Whereas we all came into these parts of America, with one and the same end, and aim, namely to advance the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ, & to Enjoy the liberties of the Gospel, in purity with peace. And whereas in our settling (by a wise providence of God) we are further dispersed upon the sea Coasts, and rivers, than was at first Intended; so that we cannot according to our desires, with conveniency Communicate in one Government, & Jurisdiction. And whereas we live encompassed with people of several nations, and strange languages, which hereafter may prove Injurious to us, and our posterity; and forasmuch as the natives have formerly committed sundry Insolencies, and outrages upon several plantations of the English; and have of late Combined themselves against us; and seeing by reason of those distractions in England26 (which they have heard of) and by which they know we are hindered, from that humble way of seeking advice, or reaping those comfortable fruits of protection, which at other times we might well expect. We therefore do conceive it our bounden duty, without delay to enter into a present consociation amongst ourselves for mutual help & strength in all our future concernments. That as in Nation, & Religion, so in other respects we be, & continue One according to the

  1. 1. tenor, and true meaning of the Ensuing Articles. Wherefore it is fully agreed, and concluded, by & between the parties, or Jurisdictions, above mentioned ^named^, and they Jointly, & severally do by these presents agree, & conclude, that they all be, and henceforth be called by the name of The United Colonies of New-England.
  2. 2. 2. The said united Colonies for themselves, & their posterities, do Jointly & severally hereby enter Into a firm, & perpetual league of friendship, & amity, for offence, and defence, mutual advice, and succor upon all Just occasions, both for preserving, & propagating the truth of the Gospel, and for their own mutual safety and welfare.
  3. 3. 3. It is further agreed that the plantations, which at present are, or hereafter shall be settled with[in] the limits of the Massachusetts, shall be forever under the Massachusetts, and shall have peculiar Jurisdiction among themselves in all cases, as an Entire body. And that Plimoth, Connecticut, and New Haven, shall each of them, have like peculiar Jurisdiction, and government, within their limits, and in reference to the plantations which already are settled, or shall be hereafter be erected, or shall settle within their Jurisdiction limits, respectively; provided that no other Jurisdiction, shall hereafter be taken in, as a distinct head, or member of this confederation, nor shall any other plantation, or Jurisdiction in present being, and not already in combination, or under the Jurisdiction of any of these Confederates, be received by any of them; nor shall any two of the confederates Join in one Jurisdiction without consent of the rest, which Consent to be Interpreted as is expressed in the sixth Article ensuing.
  4. 4. 4. It is by these Confederates agreed, that the charge of all Just wars, whether offensive, or defensive, upon what part, or member of this confederation soever they fall, shall both in men, provisions, and all other disbursements, be borne by all the parts of this Confederation, in different proportions, according to their different abilities, in manner following. Namely that the Commissioners for each Jurisdiction, from time, to time, as there shall be occasion, bring a true account, and number of all their males in every plantation, or any way belonging, to, or under their several Jurisdictions, of what quality, or condition soever they be, from 16 years old, to 60, being Inhabitants there. And that according to the different numbers, which from time, to time, shall be found in each Jurisdiction upon a true, & Just account; the service of men, and all charges of the war be borne by the poll. Each Jurisdiction, or plantation being left to their own Just course, & custom of rating themselves, and people according to their different estates, with due respects to their qualities, and exemptions amongst themselves, though the confederates take no notice of any such privilege. And that according to their different charge of each Jurisdiction, & plantation; the whole advantage of the war (if it please God to bless their Endeavours) whether it be in lands, goods, or persons, shall be proportionably divided among the said Confederates.
  5. 5. 5. It is further agreed, that ^if^27 these Jurisdictions, or any plantation under, or in combination with them, be Invaded by any enemy whomsoever, upon notice, & request of any 3 [258] Magistrates of that Jurisdiction so28 Invaded, the rest of the confederates without any further meeting, or expostulation, shall forthwith send aid to the confederate in danger, but in different proportion, namely the Massachusetts an hundred men sufficiently armed, & provided for such a service, and Journey, and each of the rest forty-five so armed, & provided, or any lesser number if less be required according to this proportion. But if such confederate in danger may be supplied by their next Confederates, not exceeding the number hereby agreed; they may crave help there, and seek no further for the present, the Charge to be borne, as in this article is expressed; and at the return to be victualed, & supplied with powder, & shot for their Journey (if there be need) by that Jurisdiction which employed, or sent for them; But none of the Jurisdictions to exceed these numbers till by a meeting of the Commissioners for this Confederation, a greater aid appear necessary. And this proportion to continue till upon knowledge of greater numbers in each Jurisdiction, which shall be brought to the next meeting, and some other proportion be ordered. But in such case of sending men for present aid, whether before, or after such order, or alteration; It is agreed that at the meeting of the Commissioners, for this Confederation, that the cause of such war or Invasion be duly considered; and if it appear that the fault lay in the parties so Invaded, that then that Jurisdiction, or plantation make Just Satisfaction, both to the Invaders whom they have Injured, and bear ^all^29 the charges of the war, themselves, without requiring any allowance from the rest of the confederates towards the same. And further that If any Jurisdiction see any danger of ^any^ Invasion approaching, and there be time for a meeting, that in such a case 3 Magistrates, of that Jurisdiction may summon a meeting, at such convenient place as themselves shall think meet, to consider, & provide against the threatened danger, provided when they are met, they may remove to what place they please; only whilst any of these four confederates have but 3 magistrates, in their Jurisdiction, their request, or Summons, from any 2 of them shall be sufficient accounted of equal force with the 3 mentioned in both the clauses, of this article, till there be an Increase of magistrates there.
  6. 6. 6. It is also agreed that for the managing, & concluding of all affairs proper, & concerning the whole Confederation, two commissioners shall be chosen by, & out of each, of these 4 Jurisdictions, namely 2 for the Massachusetts, 2 for Plimoth, 2 for Connecticut, and 2 for New Haven, being all members in church fellowship with us, which shall bring full power from their ^several^ general courts, respectively, to hear, examine, weigh, and determine all affairs of war, or peace, leagues, aids, charges, and numbers of men for war, divisions of spoils, & whatsoever is gotten by conquest; receiving of more confederates, or plantations into combination, with any of the confederates, and all things of like nature, which are the proper concomitants, or consequences of such a confederation, for amity, offence, & defence; not intermeddling with the Government of any of any ^the^ Jurisdictions, which by the 3[rd] Article is preserved entirely to themselves. But if these 8 commissioners when they meet shall not all agree, yet it [is] concluded that any 6 of the 8 agreeing, shall have power to settle, & determine the business in question. But if 6 do not agree, that then such propositions, with their reasons, so far as they have been debated be sent, and referred to the 4 general courts, viz. ^the^ Massachusetts, Plimoth, Connecticut, and New Haven; and if at all the said general courts, the business so referred be concluded, then to be prosecuted by the Confederates, and all their members. It was further agreed that these 8 commissioners shall meet once a ^every^ year, besides extraordinary meetings (according to the fifth article), to consider, treat, & conclude of all affairs belonging to this confederation, which meeting shall ever be the first Thursday in September. And that the next meeting after the date of these presents, which shall be accounted the Second meeting, shall be at Boston in the Massachusetts, the 3[rd] at Hartford, the 4[th] at New Haven, the 5[th] at Plimoth, and so in Course successively, If in the meantime, some middle place be not found out, and agreed on, which may be commodious for all the Jurisdictions.
  7. 7. 7. It is further agreed that at each meeting of these 8 Commissioners, whether ordinary or extraordinary, they all 6 of them agreeing as before, may choose a president out of themselves, whose office, & work shall be to take care and direct for order, and a comely carrying on of all proceedings in the present meeting; but he shall be invested with no such power, or respect, as by which he shall hinder the propounding, or progress of any business, or any way cast the scales otherwise, than in the precedent article is agreed. [259]
  8. 8. 8. It is also agreed that the Commissioners for this confederation hereafter at their meetings, whether ordinary, or extraordinary, as they may have commission, or opportunity, do Endeavor to frame and establish agreements, & orders in general cases, of a civil nature, wherein all the plantations are Intressed, for the preserving of peace amongst themselves, and preventing as much as may be all occasions of war, or difference with others; as about the free, & speedy passage of Justice, in every Jurisdiction, to all the confederates equally, as to their own; ^not^ receiving those that remove from one plantation, to another without due certificate. How all the Jurisdictions may carry towards the Indians, that they neither grow Insolent, nor be Injured without due satisfaction, lest war break in upon the Confederates through such miscarriages. It is also agreed that if any servant run away from his master into another of these confederated Jurisdictions, that in such case, upon the certificate of one magistrate in the Jurisdiction out of which the said servant fled, or upon other due proof, the said servant shall be delivered, either to his master, or any other that pursues & brings such certificate, or proof. And that upon the escape of any prisoner whatsoever, or fugitive for any criminal cause, whether breaking prison, or getting from the officer or otherwise escaping, upon the certificate of 2 magistrates of the Jurisdiction out of which the escape is made, that he was a prisoner, or such an offender at the time of the escape; the Magistrates, or some of them of that Jurisdiction where for the present, the said prisoner or fugitive abideth, shall forthwith grant such a warrant as the case will bear, for the apprehending of any such person, & the delivering of him into the hands of the officer, or other person who pursues him; And if there be help required, for the safe returning of any such offender, then it shall be granted to him that craves the same, he paying the charges thereof.
  9. 9. 9. And for that the Justest wars may be of dangerous consequence, especially to the smaller plantations in these united Colonies, It is agreed that neither the Massachusetts, Plimoth, Connecticut, nor New Haven, nor any member of any of them, shall at any time hereafter, begin, undertake, or Engage themselves, or this confederation, or any part thereof, in any war whatsoever (sudden exegents, with the necessary Consequents thereof excepted, which are also to be moderated as much as the case will require permit) without the consent, and agreement of the forementioned 8 Commissioners, or at the least 6 of them, as in the sixth article is provided. And that no Charge be required of any of the confederates, in case of a defensive war, till the ^said^30 commissioners have met, and approved the Justice of the war, and have agreed upon the sum of money to be levied, which sum is then to be paid by the several Confederates in proportion according to the fourth article.
  10. 10. 10. That in extraordinary occasions when meetings are summoned by three magistrates of any Jurisdiction, or 2 as in the 5[th] article, if any of the commissioners come not, due warning being given or sent, It is agreed that 4 of the commissioners shall have power to direct a war which cannot be delayed, and to send for due proportions of men out of each Jurisdiction, as well as 6 might do if all met; but not less than 6 shall determine the Justice of the war, or allow the ^demands or^ bills of charges, or cause any levies to be made for the same.
  11. 11. 11. It is further agreed that if any of the confederates shall hereafter, break any of these present articles, or be any other ways Injurious to any ^one^ of the other Jurisdictions; such breach of agreement, or Injury shall be duly considered, and ordered, by the commissioners, for the other Jurisdiction; that both peace, and this present confederation may be Entirely preserved without violation.
  12. 12. 12. Lastly this perpetual confederation, and the several articles thereof being read, and seriously considered, both by the general court for the Massachusetts, & by the Commissioners for Plimoth, Connecticut, & New Haven, were fully allowed, & confirmed by 3 of the forenamed confederates, namely the Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Haven; only the Commissioners for Plimoth having no Commission to conclude, desired respite till they might advise with their general court, whereupon it was agreed, and concluded by the said court of the Massachusetts, and the Commissioners for the other two confederates, that if Plimoth consent, then the whole treaty as it stands in these present articles is, and shall continue firm, & stable without alteration. But if Plimoth come not in; yet the other three confederates do by these presents [260] Confirm the whole confederation, and the articles thereof. Only in September next when the second meeting of the Commissioners is to be at Boston, new consideration may be taken of the 6[th] Article which concerns numbers of Commissioners for meeting, & concluding the affairs of this confederation to the satisfaction of the court of the Massachusetts, and commissioners for the other 2 confederates, but the rest to stand unquestioned. In the testimony whereof, the general court of the Massachusetts, by their Secretary, and the Commissioners for Connecticut, and New Haven have subscribed these present Articles this 19[th] of the third month Commonly called May, Anno Domini 1643.

At a meeting of the Commissioners for the confederation held at Boston the 7[th] of September, It appearing that the general court of New Plimoth, and the several townships thereof, have read, & considered, & approved these articles of confederation; as appeareth by Commission from their general court bearing date the 29[th] of August 1643, to Mr. Edward Winslow, and Mr. William Collier, to ratify and confirm the same on their behalfs;31 We therefore the Commissioners for the Massachusetts, Connecticut, & New Haven do also for our several Governments, subscribe unto them.

John Winthrop, Governour of the Massachusetts

Thomas Dudley Theophilus Eaton

George Fenwick

Edward Hopkins

Thomas Gregson

These were the Articles of agreement in the union, and confederation which they now first entered into; and in this their first meeting held at Boston the day & year abovesaid, amongst other things they had this matter of great consequence to consider on. The Narragansetts after the subduing of the Pequots thought to have ruled over all the Indians about them; But the English, especially those of Connecticut, holding correspondency ^& friendship^32 with Uncas sachem of the Monhegan33 Indians which lived near them (as the Massachusetts had done with the Narragansetts), and he had been faithful to them in the Pequot war; they were Engaged to support him in his Just liberties; and were contented that such of the Surviving Pequots as had submitted to him, should remain with him and quietly under his protection. This did much Increase his power, and augment his greatness; which the Narragansetts could not Endure to see, but Miantonomo their chief Sachem (an ambitious, & politic man) sought privately, and by treachery (according to the Indian manner), to make him away, by hiring some to kill him; sometime they assayed to poison him, that not taking, then in the nighttime to knock him on the head in his house, or secretly to shoot him, and such-like attempts. But none of these taking effect, he made open war, upon him (though it was against the Covenants, both between the English, & them, as also between themselves, and a plain breach of the same). He came suddenly upon him with 900 or 1000 men (never denouncing any war before); the other’s power at that present was not about half so many; but it pleased God to give Uncas the victory, and he slew many of his men, and wounded many more. But the chief of all was, he took Miantonomo prisoner. And seeing he was a great man, and the Narragansetts a potent people, & would seek revenge; he would do nothing in the case without the advice of the English, so he (by the help, & direction of those of Connecticut) kept him prisoner, till this meeting of the Commissioners. The commissioners weighed the cause, and passages, as they were clearly represented & sufficiently evidenced betwixt Uncas, and Miantonomo; and the things being duly considered; The commissioners apparently saw that Uncas could not be safe whilst Miantonomo lived, but either by secret treachery, or open force his life would be still in danger. Wherefore they thought he might Justly put such a false, & bloodthirsty enemy to death; but in his own Jurisdiction, not in the English plantations. And they advised in the manner of his death, all mercy and moderation should be showed, contrary to the practise of the Indians, who exercise tortures, and cruelty. And [261] Uncas having hitherto shewed him^self^ a friend to the English, and in this craving their advice; If the Narragansett Indians, or others shall unjustly assault Uncas for this execution, upon notice, and request the English promise to assist, and protect him, as far as they may against such violence.

This was the Issue of this business, the reasons & passages hereof, are more at large to be seen, in the acts, & records of this meeting of the commissioners.34 And Uncas followed this advice, and accordingly executed him, in a very fair manner, according as they advised, with due respect to his honour, & greatness. But what followed on the Narragansetts’ part will appear hereafter.