A Stated Meeting of the Society was held at No. 25 Beacon Street, Boston, on Thursday, 24 April, 1902, at three o’clock in the afternoon, the President, George Lyman Kittredge, LL.D., in the chair.

    The Records of the last Stated Meeting were read and approved.

    The President appointed the following Committees, in anticipation of the Annual Meeting:

    To nominate candidates for the several offices, — Dr. Edward H. Hall and Messrs. G. Arthur Hilton and Francis H. Lincoln.

    To examine the Treasurer’s Accounts, — Messrs. George V. Leverett and F. Apthorp Foster.

    Mr. Albert Matthews read a paper on Kitty Fisher and Yankee Doodle.

    In the absence of Mr. Worthington C. Ford, Mr. F. Apthorp Foster communicated on his behalf an unpublished Diary kept by Washington at Mount Vernon during the months of January, February, March and April, 1786.


    1 January – 30 April, 1786.

    JANUARY — 1786.

    Sunday, 1st.

    Thermometer at 36 in the Morn’g. — at noon — and — at night.

    Lowering day, with but little wind, and that Easterly.

    Lund Washington and wife dined here & returned in the Afternoon.

    M Shaw went up to Alexandria and stayed all night.

    Monday, 2d.

    Thermometer at 34 in the Morning 35 at noon — and 35 at night.

    Heavy lowering Morning with the wind at east. — about 9 o’clock it began to rain and continued to do so slowly all day.

    Immediately after an early breakfast I went out with the Rounds but returned as soon as it began to rain, without touching upon the drag of a Fox.

    M Shaw returned from Alexandria this Morning before Breakfast.

    Tuesday, 3d.

    Thermometer at 39 in the Morning — 46 at noon — and 42 at night.

    Clear and pleasant Morning without wind at Sunrising but it soon sprung up from the Southwesterly quarter and veering more to the Westward blew hard until the evening when it again turned calm & very pleasant.

    Wednesday, 4th.

    Thermometer at 35 in the Morning — 42 at noon — and 40 at night.

    Morning calm and clear with very little wind all day.

    After breakfast I rid by the places where my muddy hole & Ferry people were clearing — thence to the Mill and Dogue run Plantations — and having the Rounds with me in passing from the latter towards Muddy hole Plantation I found a Fox which after dragging him some distance and running him hard for near an hour was killed by the cross road in front of the house.

    Having provided cutting knives and made the boxes at my own shop — I directed my overseers at the several plantations at which I had been to cut straw and mix three 4thṣ of it with one fourth Bran (from my mill) to feed their out lying Horses — whilst their Work Horses is also to be fed with this and oats mixed.

    I also directed that my Chariot Horses — and all others about my home H except the Stud horse and three horses which will be frequently rid a hunting to be fed with Bran & chopped Hay in the above proportion — and that my waggon & cart Horses should be fed with chopped Rye & chopped Hay in the same proportion of one to four.

    M Bushrod Washington and his wife came here in a chariot 4 horses & 3 servants just after we had dined.

    Thursday, 5th.

    Thermometer at 33 in the morning — 42 at noon — and 32 at night.

    Morning clear & cold, ground hard froze — as it was yesterday Morning — wind at NWest — blowing pretty fresh all day — Went into the Neck —

    A Daniel McPherson from Loudoun Came here with some money from my Loudoun Tenants, sent by the widow of Lewis Lamar.

    The Cape wheat which (on the 30th. of November) was cut not as I thought and had ordered, that is within 4 Inches of the ground but between 6 and 8 from it, having grown a good deal I ordered (and 6 or 8 days ago tho’ not noticed before, it was in part done) that it should be again cut. — part of 2 Rows at the No’E corner were by mistake of orders, cut within 1 or 2 Inches of the ground; so as to shew the crown of the wheat quite bear & white — I thereupon stopped the cutting of any more, resolving to attend to the effect of this close shearing, at this season.— about 12 feet of these Rows, were all that received the second cutting.

    Took an acct. of the Tools about the home house which are as follow.

    7 Spades.

    7 Axes.

    4 Mattocks.

    8 Butchrṣ Knives

    5 Weed Hoes.

    3. Hill’g D

    1 Cutt’g. knife.

    1 Hay. Ditto.

    Friday, 6th.

    Thermometer at 30 in the Morn’g. — 28 at noon — and 30 at night.

    Wind at NE in the Morning, which was cloudy, with intervals of snow through the day and very cold. — the wind towards Night getting to the N Westward, blew hd

    My Boat went up with a load of Flour to Alexandria from my Mill for Mr. Hartsborn — a distressing time, it is to be feared the people must have had of it & probably would not, after all, reach the Port.

    Saturday, 7th.

    Therrnometer at 26 in the Morning 34 at noon — and 32 at night. Morning clear with the wind at NWest fresh, and cold, all day, the little snow which fell yesterday had disappeared except in places where the influence of the sun could not be felt.

    The Boat which was sent off yesterday with flour got no farther than Johnsons Ferry & there by neglect suffered to get aground — sent and ordered it to be got off and to proceed, or to return, as circumstances might dictate. the last of which was done.

    Sunday, 8th.

    Thermometer at 27 in the Morn’g. — 38 at noon — and 35 at night.

    Day clear with the wind pretty pretty fresh at NWest in the forenoon which moderating as the sun rose backed to Southwest and grew calm towards the evening.

    Mr. Bushrod Washington and his wife went away after Breakfast — and about 11 o’clock Betey & Patey Custis returned to Abingdon in my Chariot accompanied by their Brother & Sister, Nelly & Washington Custis.

    Sent my Boat of this afternoon with the flour for Alexandria, with which she returned last night on acct. of the weather.

    Monday, 9th.

    Thermometer at 28 in the Morn’g. — 38 at noon — and — at night. Wind Southerly all day — clear but a chilly air.

    Saturday, Yesterday, and this day morning, the flats and creeks were froze, but that on the former dispersed with the tide when the winds blew, the latter remained.

    Sent Mr. Shaw to Alexandria to dispatch my Boat which went up yesterday and to purchase & send down a ton of iron [blot] wcḥ was accordingly — He & the Boat both returned at night.

    Rid over my Ferry Plantation thence to the mill, & thence to my Dogue run & Muddy hole Plantations before dinner — as also to the place where my negro Carpenters were at work and directed them to get me a stick for a heavy roller and scantling for Plow stocks — Harrows &cc. &cc.

    Tuesday, 10th.

    Thermometer at — in the Morning — at noon and 38 at night, Wind Southerly all day & at times pretty fresh and in the forenoon cold — but warmer & much pleasanter afterwards.

    Rid to my Plantation in the neck, and took the hounds with me — about 11 O’clock found a fox in the Pocoson364 at Sheredens point, and after running it very indifferently and treeing it once caught it about one O’clock.

    In the evening one William Barber from the lower end of Fauquier came here to rent some Land I have in that quarter and stayed all night.

    Wednesday, 11th.

    Thermometer at 34 in the Morning — 36 at noon — and 33 at night. Morning very thick and heavy about 8 o’clock it began to snow moderately with the wind at SoE and continued to do so until 12.

    Agreed to let William Barber have 50 (or more acres of Land if he chooses it) at the rate of Ten pounds p Hundred acres; for the term of fourteen years, and to allow him one year free from Rent in consideration of the improvements he may make.

    Sent M Shaw to my mill to get the Mill Book, and to take a state of the flour in the mill.

    And sent my overseer to forewarn some persons who were hunting upon my land from the like practice. —

    Thursday, 12th.

    Thermometer at 28 in the Morning — 39 at noon — and 40 at night.

    The snow which fell yesterday had not covered the ground more than ¾ of an inch thick —

    A very heavy hoar frost, this morning — day calm, and the evening clear and remarkably pleasant & warm.

    M Shaw went up to the Ball at Alexandria.

    Friday, 13th.

    Thermometer at 32 in the morning — 38 at noon — and 35 at night.

    But little wind all day, and that from the No.West — evening quite calm.

    Laid out the ground behind the Stable, formerly a Vineyard, for a fruit Garden.

    M Shaw returned about 12 Oclock from Alexandria.

    Saturday, 14th.

    Thermometer at 26 in the Morn’ — 35 at Noon — and 36 at night.

    Went out with the Rounds & run a fox from 11 O’clock until near three O’clock when I came home and left the Dogs at fault after which they recovered the Fox & it is supposed killed it.

    Before the Chase I visited My Ferry & Dogue run Plantations.

    Sunday, 15th.

    Thermometer at 34 in the morning — 42 at noon — and 40 at Night.

    Little or no wind all day, clear and very pleasant

    Nelly & Washington Custis returned home to-day.

    Doct [David] Stuart came here to Dinner & returned in the afternoon.

    Monday, 16th.

    Thermometer at 35 in the Morn’ — at noon — and 38 at night. Lowering Morning with threatnings, & spittings of snow till about noon when the wind (for before it was calm) came out at NoWest tho’ not hard, dispelled the clouds. Run round My Plantation at the Ferry — and on my return found a Mr. Armstrong here on business of M Balch, respect’g my Nephews who after dining returned. —

    Began from an appreh that there would not be much frost to put Ice into my Ice H tho’ there was but little of it. Sent My Stone Mason, Cornelius McDermott Roe, to the Proprietors of the Quarries of free stone along down the River to see if I could be supplied with enough of a proper kind to repair my stone steps & for other purposes.

    Tuesday, 17th.

    Thermometer at 27 in the Morning — 30 at noon — and 28 at N.

    Wind at NWest all day, and cold — thawed but little, altho’ it was clear. —

    Employed as yesterday, in collecting Ice, but under many disadvantages, being obliged to go over to the Maryland shore and pick up the floating Ice in the river — which I was disposed to do, rather than run the risk of not laying up a store.

    Cornelius McDermott Roe returned, having had the offer of stone [from] M Brent.

    Wednesday, 18th.

    Thermometer at 20 in the morning — 22 at Noon — and 26 at night —

    Day very cold — no thawing — and the afternoon threatening of snow, a fine mist of it falling — Wind Northerly — Col [John] Fitzgerald called here on his way from Dumfries & dined and then proceeded — fixed with him and requested that he would give the Board of Directors of the Potomack Company notice of the meeting intended to be held at the Great Falls on Monday the 30tḥ Inst — Getting Ice this day also.

    Thursday, 19th.

    Thermometer at 19 in the morning — 20 at noon — and 22 at night

    Morning Cloudy — Wind Northerly — and weather cold — Snow about an Inch deep fell in the night. — after ten o’clock it began again & continued snowing fine till bed time with the wind northerly.

    Discontinued getting lee, the river not being in a State to get it from the other shore and the prospect such as to get it anywhere in the course of a day or two —

    The negro Shoemaker belonging to M Lund Washington came to work here in the forenoon of this day.365

    Friday, 20th.

    Thermometer at 18 in the morg — 24 at noon — and 26 at night.

    A mixture of snow and hail fell all the fore part of the day — and hail & rain the latter part which consolodated the Snow which in the morning might be about 6 or 8 Inches deep; — Wind Northwardly all day; — but not much of it in any part of it.

    Saturday, 21st.

    Thermometer at 26 in the morning — at noon — and 34 at night

    Cloudy and hazy till betwn eleven & 12 o’clock when the suns feeble efforts to shine were overcome — about One o’clock a heavy mist came on-about two it grew very dark — thundered & rained — after whch it continued misling till bed time.

    Rid to my Plantations at Muddy hole and Dogue run — from thence to the Mill; — upon my return found M Jno Dandridge here.

    Sunday, 22d.

    Thermometer at 40 in the morning — 42 at noon — and 48 at night.

    Raining more or less all day and a close thick fog the whole day, — proceeding from the dissolution of the Snow, which by night was almost gone — Wind tho’ not much of it Southerly and warm — the damps in the house being also very great the damps upon the walls being to be swept of. —

    Monday, 23d.

    Thermometer at 38 in the morning — 46 at noon — and 40 at Night

    Clear all day with the wind at NWest but neither hard nor cold.

    Snow entirely gone except in places hid from the influence of the Sun & the Southwardly wind which blew yesterday.

    Tuesday, 24th.

    Thermometer at 31 in the morning 36 at noon — and 34 at Night.

    Morning clear & pleasant: lowering afterwards; with appearances of snow: — little or no wind all day. —

    Began my work of Ice-getting again today. — but it was not in a proper state being rather a mixture of Snow & Ice and not hard enough.

    Wednesday, 25th.

    Thermometer at 34 in the morning — at noon — and 40 at Night

    Morning calm and very foggy till after 8 o’clock when the fog dispersed and was very pleasant — About one o’clock the Wind Sprung up at N West but blew neither hard nor cold.

    M Jn Dandridge set off on his return home after breakfast.

    I rid to Morris’s, Muddy hole and Neck Plantations, between Breakfast and dinner.

    The State of the Ice was such that I was obliged to desist from getting more until the next freezing spell. —

    And set about the Banks round the Lawn, in front of the gate between the two Mounds of Earth.

    Thursday, 26th.

    Thermometer at 33 in the morng — at noon — and 39 at Night

    Clear and pleasant all day and more especially in the afternoon — Not much wind — but that from the N West.

    Renewed my Ice operation today, employing as many hands as I conveniently could in gettg it from the Maryland shore — carting and pounding it.

    Mr. Shaw went up to the dancing Assembly at Alexandria after Dinner.

    Friday, 27th

    Thermometer at 30 in the morning — at noon — and — at night

    Clear and pleasant all day; wind at N West in the forenoon and Eastwardly afterwards, but not much of it.

    Mrṣ Washington set out after breakfast for Abingdon — to see Mrs [David] Stuart who is ill.

    I rid to my Mill — and to the Plantation at Dogue run — also to the places when the Muddy hole & ferry people were at work.

    Mr. Shaw returned home an hour or two within Night.

    Getting Ice again today.

    Saturday, 28th.

    Thermometer at 34 in the morning — at noon — and 44 at night.

    Morning calm & clear but the [ground] hard frozen about 10 o’clock the wind sprung up at South, but did not blow hard. thawed the ground a good deal.

    Went out after breakfast with my hounds — found a Fox in the Branch within M Thomson Mason’s Field and run him sometimes hard and sometimes at cold hunting from 11 o’clock till near two when I came home and left the huntsmen with them who followed in the same manner two hours or more longer and then took the Dogs off without killing.

    In the course of the chase & and at the upper end of the cover in which the above Fox was found I see two run out at once neither of which appeared to be the chased Fox. — this shews how plenty they are on that side the Creek.

    When I came home found Colo Gibson,366 a M Pollack (of Richmond) and Colo Allison here, who dined and stayed all night.

    Getting Ice again today.

    Sunday, 29th.

    Thermometer at 40 in the morning — 54 at noon — and 50 at night.

    The morning remarkably fine & pleasant with little or no wind — the afternoon a little lowering and at night it began a mizzling rain which encreased and continued raining all night.

    After breakfast the Gentlemen who came yesterday returned

    In the Afternoon Colo [William] Grayson & his nephew M Benja Orr came in and stayed all night.

    Monday, 30th.

    Thermometer at 54 in the morning — 56 at noon — and 50 at night.

    The Morning foggy, with showers at intervals till near 11 o’clock after which it cleared with a brisk Southwardly wind. —

    Mrs Washington with Betey & Patey Custis came home, from Abingdon before dinner; and after it Colo Grayson & M O’rr left this

    Planted the Hemlock Pine wch was brought to me by Cornelius McDermot Roe from Colo Blackburns, in my Shrubberies — and

    On sixteen square rod of ground in my lower pasture I put 140 Bushels of what we call Marle — viz: — on 4 of these N. Wt corner were placed 50 bushels — on 4 others SWt corner 20 bushels On 4 others S E corner 40 bushels and on the remaining 4: 20 bushels — This Marl was spread on the sod in these proportions — to try — first whether what we have denominated to be Marl possesses any virtue as a manure — and secondly — if it does — the quantity proper for an acre.

    Transplanted (after dividing it into two) the French honey suckle in my North garden to the Lawn — one half in front of each garden gate.

    Tuesday, 31st.

    Thermometer at 42 in the morning — 40 at noon — and 34 at night.

    The morning was a little cloudy but the weather soon cleared with a brisk NWester which occasioned a great change in the air.

    Planted a few pine trees in my Wildernesses.


    Wednesday, 1st.

    Thermometer at — in the morg — at noon — and — at night.

    Ground very hard froze — Wind Eastwardly in the morning and S E the remaining part of the day; but clear & tolerably pleasant notwithstanding.

    Not being able to leave home yesterday (as I intended) for the appointed meeting of the Directors of the Potomack Navigation at the Great Falls this day, I set out this morning at the first dawning of day, for this purpose — and after as disagreeable a ride as I ever had for the distance arrived at the Falls at half after 11 o’clock, where I found Colo [George] Gilpin (who had been there since Sunday night) levelling &cc — and Colo Fitzgerald who got there just before me

    Spent the remainder of this day in viewing the different grounds along which it was supposed the Canal might be carried and after dining at the Huts went in the evening accompanied by Colo Fitzgerald, & M Potts367 to a M Wheeler’s in the neighbourhood (about 1½ miles off) to lodge.

    Thursday, 2d.

    Thermometer at in the morning — at night — and — at night. A very remarkable hoar frost, with but little wind; day pleasant till the evening when it clouded up and ab 8 o’clock began to snow.

    Spent this day in examining the ground more attentively and levelling the different ways we had discovered yesterday but on acct of the swolen state of the river & rapidity of the current we could not determine absolutely upon the best cut and therefore directed M Stuart the Assistant Manager to have all of them opened, accurately measured, levelled & their bottoms sounded by the — day of March when the Directers are to be requested pointedly to meet for the final choice.

    Dined again at the Hutts; some little time after which Gov Lee (who had been detained by high waters) and Mr. Rumsey came in — the first concurred in sentiment with us on these measures.

    After 7 o’clock at night Colo Fitzgerald, Mr Potts, & myself left the Hutts & came to Mr William Scott’s about 6 miles on this side of the Falls where we lodged.

    Friday, 3d.

    Thermometer at — in the morng — at noon — and — at night

    The snow that fell last night did not cover the ground an Inch — The Wind was at S West, and the day over head was pleasant — snow soon disappeared.

    After an early breakfast we left M Scotts; and about noon I reached home; where I found an Eastern shore man delivering the oats which Doct Stuart had engaged on my behalf of a M George Savage of Northampton — viz 800 Bushels.

    Soon after I arrived Miss Sally Ramsay — Miss Kitty Washington, Doct Craik Jun & M Porter came in and Dined and stayed all night — After Dinner M [James] Rumsey arrived and stayed the evening also.

    Saturday, 4th

    Thermometer at 46 in the morg — at Noon — and 40 at night.

    Clear morning with very little wind — after which it sprung up but not fresh, from the Eastward and lowered.

    M Porter and Doct Craik went away before Breakfast — and Mr. Rumsey after dinner.

    Having assembled the men from my Plantations, I removed the Garden Houses which were in the Middle of the front walls to the extreme points of them; which were done with more ease, & less damage than I expected, considering the height one of them was to be raised from the ground. —

    Sunday, 5th.

    Thermometer at 34 in the morning — 36 at noon — and 37 at Night.

    Wind Northerly — about 9 o’clk last night it began to snow which turned soon to rain which continued through the night, and more or less all day intermixed now & then with spittings of snow. Abt noon the wind shifted to the N West and blew pretty fresh but the weather in other respects did not change.

    Monday, 6th.

    Thermometer at 36 in the morning — 40 at Noon — and 38 at night.

    Flying clouds in the morning with a brisk N West wind all day and cold, though clear after ten o’clock. —

    The largest of my Buck fauns which had been missing since friday last came home after dinner with its left hind knee broke & much shivered — supposed to be by a shot.

    Planting pines in the Wilderness on the left of the lawn and spading the ground there to day.

    Tuesday, 7th.

    Thermometer at 34 in the morning — at noon and 54 at night.

    Morning clear & very pleasant as it continued to be all day — Wind Southerly but not fresh. —

    Mrs Washington, Kitty Washington, Miss Ramsay M Shaw and myself went to Col McCartys to the funeral of Mrs Piers (one of his daughters) I took my ferry & dogue run plantations in the way — we returned home to dinner — after which Doctor Griffith came in — and my overseer from the Plantation on Rappahannock.

    Wednesday, 8th.

    Thermometer at 42 in the morg — 52 at noon and 44 at night.

    Day rather variable, but upon the whole pleasant; In the morning there were flying clouds with the wind pretty fresh from the N West — after which it was clear and still, till the evening, when the wind came out at S East.

    After Breakfast M Griffith went away, and before dinner M Wm Craik came in and stayed all night.

    Finished planting all the young pine trees in the Wilderness on the left. —

    Thursday, 9th.

    Thermometer at 43 in the morng — 54 at noon — and 50 at night.

    Clear morning with a remarkable white frost. — Wind Southerly all day.

    Went early in the morning to my river Plantation — took the Dogs with me, and on my return hunted, but never got a fox afoot, tho I dragged one to Mr. Rob Alexander’s Pocoson, at whose house I called.

    In my way home I took Muddy hole plantation — found M Willm Craik gone — and M Fendall and M Hipkins here, who went away at night by which Doct Craik Senr came in.

    Friday, 10th.

    Thermometer at 52 in the morning — 62 at noon — and 66 at Night.

    Wind Southerly & pretty fresh all day till evening when it shifted to the N West and turned cold — a large circle round the moon — this day was remarkably fine & promotive of vegitation.—

    The buds of the lylack were much swelled & seemed ready to unfold.

    Doct Craik went away after Breakfast.

    I began to hand weed the drilled wheat from the Cape behind the Stables. — the part which was cut so close by mistake, appeared to be quite dead to, if not at the roots — The top of the blades of the other, in some places, had turned red, as if singed with the frost; and the bottom blades were, in many places grown yellow. — the last sowed wheat had, within these few days, vegitated a good deal, and was stooling very prettily.

    Making up the banks round ye serpentine walks to the front gate.

    Saturday, 11th.

    Thermometer at 34 in the morning — 34 at noon — and 30 at night.

    Wind at N East all day — very raw, and cold; a red angry sky at sunrising, — lowering about noon and snowing afterwards, by intervals, towards night.

    A M Wooldridge (an English gentleman) and a M Waddell of N Carolina — together with Mr. Murray M Wilson, & M Maize came here to dinner & stayed all night.

    Transplanted the following Trees, to the following places in the North Garden, — viz — the first on the left looking eastward from the garden house, along the walk in front of it, is a peach tree transplanted y 14 of last march from the Gardeners nursery, to the South side of the walk by the Englh Walnuts. — The 2d, & 4th on the same side are burgamy Pears, grafted the first of April last yr by the Green House. — the 3d on the same side is a black May heart Cherry grafted at the same time, in the same place. — The 5th on the same side is a Duke cherry DD — The 3d tree from the same house on the right side (looking the same way) is also a Duke Cherry, grafted as above. — By the stumps of the Carnation Cherry and Apricot which were removed into the same garden on the 26th of last October (not expecting either of them to live) I planted a white heart Cherry, and one of the small cherries that used to grow in the walk, in front of the House; — the white heart was placed by the stump of the Carnation Cherry.

    Brought a Goose & Gander of the Chineese breed of Geese, from the reverend M Griffiths — and also two of the large White (or Portugal) Peach trees; and 2 Scions from a tree growing in his garden, to which he could give no name. — the last for my shrubberies.


    Thermometer at 30 in the morng — 32 at noon — and 34 at night.

    Snow about half an inch deep in the morning but soon disappeared afterwards. — Cloudy for the most part and but a feeble Sun at any time of the day. Not much Wind and that about S E — Messrs Wilson, Murray, and Mease went away before breakfast — Mr. Wooldridge and M Waddell after it — and Miss Ramsay & Kitty Washington some time after them in my Chariot. —

    Monday, 13th.

    Thermometer at 34 in the morning — 34 at noon. — and 32 at night.

    Cloudy morning but tolerably clear afterwards till noon when it lowered and sprinkled fine snow by intervals till night by which the ground was not covered more than half an inch. Wind, Southerly but raw and cold notwithstanding.

    Planted the two peach trees which were brought on Saturday from Doct Griffiths in my fruit garden behind the stable (the two uppermost ones at the N E corner of it.) — Also planted others from the nursery in the Garden.

    Began to raise the mound of earth on the right of the gate (coming in).

    Rid to my Plantations at Muddy hole — Dogue run — and Ferry — and also to the Mill. — found Doct Craik here on my return, who dined with us and proceeded to M Littles at Cameron to whose wife he was sent for.—

    Tuesday, 14th.

    Thermometer at 32 in the morning — 36 at Night — and 38 at Night.

    In the course of last night there fell 8 Inches Snow — and it continued snowing slightly till 10 or 11 o’clock when it cleared and became a fine afternoon and evening — Not much wind and that variable sometimes at SE then at N West — and then calm.

    Employed all the women and weak hands (who on acc of the snow) could not work out; in picking the wild Onion from the Eastern shore oat for seed.

    Doct Craik came in whilst we were at Dinner and stayed all night.

    Wednesday, 15th.

    Thermometer at 34 in the morning — 36 at Noon. — and 36 at Night.

    Morning lowering — towards noon it became clear and warm, after which it clouded up again — between 4 and 5 it began to rain wcḥ turned to snow in a little time soon after which it ceased — Wind for the most part of the day was southerly.

    Doct Craik went away after Breakfast.

    Began with some of the men ab the House to bundle faggots for filling up guillies; as they could not on acct of the weather remove earth.

    Thursday, 16th.

    Thermometer at 36 in the morning — 46 at noon — and 46 at night —

    Morning cloudy and not pleasant wind being at N West, but not fresh. — Afterwards it became clear calm, and exceedingly agreeable.

    The warm & pleasant afternoon almost carried off the snow

    Put one of Doct [William] Gordons Subscription Papers (yesterday) in the hands of Doct Craik to offer to his acquaintance.368

    Friday, 17th.

    Thermometer at 38 in the Morning — 52 at Noon — and 48 at Night.

    A thick fog till 9 o’clock, A.M. when it dispelled, was clear, and pleasant till towards sunsetting when the Western horison seemed to cloud & lower. — Wind Southerly all day but the ground very wet. — Snow all dissolved where the sun had access.

    Rid to my Mill, and the Plantations at Muddy hole, Dogue run & ferry. —

    Sent for Doct Brown, who visited my negro Overseer (Will) and Gabriel at Muddy hole who were both sick — the first since this day week & was visited by Doctr Brown on Tuesday last. —

    Saturday, 18th.

    Thermometer at 45 in the morning 56 at Noon — and 50 at night.

    The morning lowered, — cleared at noon — and about two it rained a little; with appearances of a good deal at first — however it soon ceased, though it continued cloudy till night, when the Wind which had blowed pretty fresh from the Southward all day shifted to the N West.

    Began the yards back of the Green House designed for the Jack Ass & Magnolia.

    The Bitch Stately was lined by the Dog Vulcan — Jupiter had been put to her and Venus but never seemed to take the least notice of them but whether he ever lined either of them is uncertain — the contrary is supposed.—

    Rid to the Plantation in the Neck — and returned home by Muddy hole and visited the sick men there whom I found better. —

    Took a list today of all my negroes which are as follows: — at Mount Vernon and the plantations around it. viz: —




    Val. de Chambre



    Waiters in the house








    Drivers & stablers





    almost past service






    *Lame Alice



    House Maids



    Sall Brass









    old & almost blind




    past labour



    Stock keeper


    Cook Jack.

    old — Jobber.


    Labourers —





    *Tom Davis




















    *Tom Nokes


    Smiths —



    *Peter — lame — Knitter.






    Betty’s House

    12 yr old —



    6 do



    little Alice’s—

    13 do



    do —

    11 do




    7 do




    5 do




    14 do




    12 do




    10 do




    8 do




    6 do




    4 do




    2 do



    Lame Alice

    9 do




    2 do




    3 moṣ




    carried over




    11 yr old




    8 do




    3 do




    6 do




    3 mos




    11 do




    1 do




    1 do



    Mr Custis’s Estate —




    In all.








    Cowpers —





    In all—








    Labourg Men













    Overseers wife



    Labourg women








    Labourg women

    [11] 17


    Judy M.

    Judy F.











    Will —

    Mill Judy’s

    13 yr old




    12 do




    10 do




    8 do




    8 do




    6 do




    4 do




    1 do




    7 do




    5 do




    3 do




    6 do




    4 do





    Ferry Doll’s

    8 yrs old



    Neck Doll’s

    7 do




    4 do




    3 do




    1 do



    Suck Bass

    12 do



    House Sall’s

    7 do



    Do Charlottes

    4 do




    1 do




    1 month



    In all








    Labourg men




    Jack long












    Labourg Women
















    Sarah —


    6 yrs old




    5 do




    3 do




    6 Mo




    6 y do



    Do —

    4 do




    1 do




    9 do




    3 do




    6 Mo



    Jones (dead)

    9 y old —




    4 do


    Bett —


    3 do




    3 do




    6 Mo




    1 y old



    Pegs —

    6 M 1



    In all



    *Sam Kit

    Labourg Men.







    Labouring Women —












    grown 15




    12 yrṣ old.




    11 do




    7 do




    6 do




    3 do


    *Bill langston


    6 m




    11 yrṣ old




    4 do




    3 do




    1 do




    6 do




    3 do




    8 ms




    8 yr old




    5 do



    In all








    Labourg Men





    labourg Women










    grown. 14




    14 y old




    11 do




    8 do




    4 do




    8 do




    6 m




    7 y old —




    2 do




    10 do




    4 do




    3 do




    In all



    Those marked with Asterisks are Dower Negros.

    bro over —

    Muddy hole —

    In all


    Home House



    River Plantation



    Dogue run Plantn



    Ferry Plantation









    Sunday, 19th

    Thermometer at 35 in the morning — 38 at Noon — and 38 at night.

    Morning clear and tolerably pleasant — though the horison was red & looked angry at the place of the suns rising — after noon it lowered a good deal, and at night there fell a mixture of snow and rain, which turned to a kind of misling rain that continued through the night. — but little wind in the fore part of the day — at S E and East afterwards.

    Monday, 20th.

    Thermometer at 35 in the morning — 38 at noon — and 38 at night.

    Missling all day intermixed at times with rain with but little wind.

    Began, though the ground was too wet to set the Posts of my Paddock fence.

    M Lawrence Washington of Chotank, Mr Wm Thompson, Mr Willm Stuart and M Lund Washington came here to dinner — all of whom except the first went away after it.

    Tuesday, 21st.

    Thermometer at 40 in the morning 40 at Noon and 38 at N

    Clear, with the wind pretty fresh at N West in the forenoon calm afterwards.

    A Mr. McPherson of Alexandria came & returned before dinner, his business was to communicate the desires of a Neighbourhood in Berkeley County, to build a School & Meeting House on some Land of mine there, leased to one — my answer was, that if the tenant’s consent could be obtained, and the spot chosen was upon the exterior of my Land, so as that no damage would result from Roads &cc to it, mine should not be wanting.

    Colo Carrington, Doct Brown and a Mr. Scott of Maryland (a liver with Col Fitzhugh) also M Lawe Washington (of this County) came here to dinner; all of whom except Colo Carrington went away after it.— In the evening Mr. Crawford and his wife — child and nurse came in and stayed all night.

    Wednesday, 22d.

    Thermometer 36 in the morning — 40 at noon — and 40 at night.

    A gray morning with a red and angry looking horison at the place of the suns rising — about 10 o’clock it began to lower very much & at noon to drip rain which continued with intervals all the remaining part of the day, but not so as to drive people from their work — Calm all day.

    After breakfast Col Carrington & Mr Crawford, his wife left this — the first for Alexandria to pursue his rout to Congress (of which he is a member) — the other on his return home.—

    M Lawrence Washington went up to Alexandria after breakfast — dined & returned in y Evening.

    Thursday, 23d.

    Thermometer at 36 in the morning — 32 at Noon — and 32 at night —

    Wind at East all day — by eight A. M. it began to snow and continued to do so more or less all day, covering the ground by Night 3 or 4 Inches when it became a kind of sleet.

    Mr. Lund Washington came here to dinner, and returned afterwards — a M Rice Hooe came in the afternoon and stayed all night. —

    Mr. Shaw went to Alexandria to the assembly — and to do some business in town for me. —

    The weather early in the morning obliged me to quit planting Posts for my Paddock.—

    Friday, 24th.

    Thermometer, at 32 in the morning — 33 at noon and 29 at night.—

    Cloudy about day break — but it soon cleared, and about 8 o’clock the wind began to blow very high from the N W and continued to do so all day — growing very cold & freezing hard especially towards night.

    Mr. Lawe Washington and Mr. Hooe left this after breakfast, and crossed in my Boat (which could not get back till the wind moderated after sundown) to Maryland, as the nearest cut home.

    After sunset Mr. Shaw returned from Alexandria.—

    Not being able either to remove Earth, set Posts, or plant Trees sent the men into the new grounds to making faggots — and the women to picking the wild onions from the oats which I wanted to sow.

    Saturday, 25th.

    Thermometer at 24 in the morning — 31 at Noon — and 30 at night.

    Clear and calm in the forenoon wind southerly afterwards and thawing the ground being hard frozen.

    Renewed the fencing of my Paddock today.

    Went into the Neck, and to Muddy hole Plantations, to measure the fields which I had plowed for oats and for experiments — also to Dogue run to divide some fields and to mark the rows for planting corn. In the afternoon Mr. Willm Booth came in and stayed all night.

    Sunday, 26th.

    Thermometer at 29 in the morning 42 at Noon — and 40 at Night

    Clear and calm all the forenoon Wind Southerly afterwards, & towards sunset lowered a good deal; but cleared again after dark.

    Monday, 27th.

    Thermometer at 38 in the morning — 46 at Noon — and 43 at night.

    Forenoon warm, and variable with but little wind about noon it sprung up fresh from N West and blew hard all the afternoon.

    Mr. Booth went away after breakfast — and Doct Brown came after dinner (and returned) to visit Boatswain a sick negro man.

    Having received yesterday evening, a number of fruit trees from my nephew, Mr. Willm Washington of Blenheim I planted them in my fruit garden in the following order of places.

    viz: —

    In the N E Square of this garden the Tree at the N E corner is a Carnation Cherry. and the next to it, below, on the East side, is also a Carnation. — The 3- Row, three two pound Pears, east side, next the Carnation — & one, 1 pound ditto. 5th Row. 2 Cooks pear East, & 2 green Burgamot. — 7th Row. — 3 Bell pears East & 1 Catharine Ditto.— 9th Row 2 yellow Burgamot East & 2 Bencriton Pears. —


    3- Row — 1 popes pear — next the cross Walk & 3 of Colo Richard Henry Lee’s fine Winter Pear. — 5 Row —four old H Russitans.— 6 Row — four of the Heath Peach. — 7 Row — four of Booths Ginitan. 8 Row three amber Plumbs next the cross walk and 2 Green gage do — west of them. 9th — Row —, two Booths Genitans next the cross walk. & 2 New town pippin West of them.


    1sṭ Row next the cross Walk — Peaches from the Garden. — 2d row, 4 New town pippin. — 3 Row — Peaches from the Garden — 4th Row 4 Gloucester White Apple. 5 Row Peaches from the Garden — 6 Row 2 Glostr Whe Ap. on the west side & next these adjoining the cross Walk, are 2 Apple trees taken from the middle walk in the N Garden — said to be Vandiviers. — 7. Row, Peach trees from the Garden — 8 Row. 1 Apple tree next the cross walk, taken from the border in the N Garden, by the English Walnut trees. & the other 3 trees are from Stratford, given to me by Colo Henry Lee. 1 of which he calls the Medlar Russitan. another the Chantilly pear — and the 3d the Carnation cherry but this being a mistake, the others are not to be depended upon.

    The 3d and 7th Trees in the outer or East row, next the fencing are May duke Cherry from Blenheim.


    2d Row. next the cross walk, are two Golden, and two New Town Pippins from Major Jenifers — 4th Row four of the Maryland red strick from the same place. 6th Row — next the cross walk, two more of the same — that is Maryland red strick —

    Tuesday, 28th.

    Thermometer at 30 in the morng — at noon — and — at night.

    A hard frost and very cold morning, wind being still, at N West — The forenoon clear — afternoon lowering — and about eight o’clock in the evening it began to snow.—

    Set out, by appointment, to attend a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Potomack Company at the Great Falls — Dined and lodged at Abingdon, to which place Mrs Washington, and all the Children accompanied me. — Mr. Shaw also set out on a visit to Dumfries. —


    Wednesday, 1st.

    Thermometer at in the morning — at noon — and — at night.

    The Snow which fell in the night was little if any over an inch deep this morning. — The forenoon of the day was variable and foggy — the afternoon clear, warm, and pleasant till the evening when it lowered and threatned a disagreeable change. —

    After a very early breakfast at Abingdon — I set off for the meeting at the Great falls & passing near the little falls arrived at the former about 10 o’clock; where in a little time, assembled Gov [Thomas] Johnston — Colo Fitzgerald, and Col Gilpin.

    Little or no business done to day — & seperating in the evening for the purpose of procuring Quarters, I went to Mr. Fairfax’s (about 3 miles off) where I lodged.

    Thursday, 2d.

    Thermometer at in the morning — at noon — and — at Night. —

    A little Snow fell in the night — about sun rise there were some appearances of fair weather but about 8 o’clock it began to snow fast — by 10 it was intermixed with hail & rain, which, about noon, became wholly rain. — and towards sun down all snow and storming; indeed the day through it blew hard from the N East quarter.

    Accompanied by Mr. Fairfax I repaired again to the Falls where we arrived about 8 o’clock & where we found Colo Gilpin, who remained there all night. — about two hours afterwards, Gov Johnson, Colo Fitzgerald and M Potts arrived but the day was so stormy that we could neither level, nor survey the different tracks talked of for the Canal — which, & to determine on the most eligable one were the principle objects of the meeting: unable to do any business without doors, we returned to the Huts. — resolved on the next advances — considered some other matters dined —there as we did yesterday — and again seperated for lodgings — Col Fitzgerald & M Potts accompanied Mr. Fairfax & myself to Towlston. —

    Friday, 3d.

    Thermometer at in the Morning — at Noon — and — at night.

    The Snow which fell yesterday & last night covered the ground at least a foot deep, and continuing snowing a little all day & blowing hard from the N West, we were obliged tho’ we assembled at ye huts again to relinquish all hopes of levelling & surveying the ground this trip; & therefore resolved on the rout for the Canal from the best view we could take & information get; — and after doing some other business, as a board — particularly resolving to advertize a Contract for the supply of our Labourers with provisions, we broke up the meeting; and I again returned (first dining at the Hutts) with Colo Fitzgerald to Towlston, in a very severe evening.

    Saturday, 4th.

    Thermometer at in the morag — at noon — 30 and at night.

    The wind blew hard all last Night at N West, and it was as cold this morning as at any time this winter; but not having the thermometer to apply to I could only judge from appearances & my own feelings.

    After breakfast Colo Fitzgerald and myself set off on our return home, & parted at 4 mile Run. — about half after four I got to Mount Vernon, where Mrs Washington, Nelly and little Washington had just arrived — as also Mr. Shaw from Dumfries.

    Sunday, 5th.

    Thermometer at 24 in the morning — 32 at noon — and 34 at night.

    Wind pretty fresh from the N West all day, and much appearance of Snow, but none fell.

    Mr. Richd Bland Lee came here to dinner and stayed all night.

    Monday, 6th.

    Thermometer at 36 in the morng — 37 at noon — and 37 at night. Cloudy & heavy all day, with little wind & that soft.

    M Lee went away about 10 o’clk and M Thornton Washington came in after we had dined and stayed all night. —

    Mr. Lund Washington’s Negro Shoemaker left working here on Saturday last. —

    Returned to the erection of my Deer paddock, which the bad weather had impeded — brought Carts from the plantations to assist in drawing in the materials for the Well.

    Tuesday, 7th.

    Thermometer at 34 in the morning 46 at noon — and 42 at night.

    Morning clear & calm — grd a little frozen. — Wind pretty fresh afterwards from the Northeast — notwithstanding which it lowered a good deal towards evening.

    I rid to Muddy hole and Dogue run Plantations — and by the grd where the ferry hands were at work.

    Wednesday, 8th.

    Thermometer at 38 in the Morning — 43 at noon — and — at night.

    Morning clear and calm; but very strong appearances of snow, afterwards not enough fell here to cover the ground — The Wind all the latter part of the day blowing pretty fresh from the N West.

    A Mr — Nisbett brother to I. M. Nisbett accompanied by Col Fitzgerald, Mr. Herbert, and Mr. Potts came here to dinner and stayed all night.

    Thursday, 9th.

    Thermometer at 36 in the morning — 41 at noon — and 38 at Night. —

    Clear all day, & for the season cold, the wind being fresh from the N West. —

    After breakfast the Gentlemen who came yesterday returned to Alexandria and after candles were lighted Doct Jenifer came in and stayed all night.

    Friday, 10th.

    Thermometer at 32 in the morning — 44 at Noon — and 44 at Night. —

    Ground very hard froze in the morning, which was cold — wind being fresh all day at N West — in the evening it became calm — the day was clear. —

    Lund Washington came here to Breakfast — after which he and Doctr Jenifer both went away. —

    Between breakfast and Dinner a Mr. Rollins, who has undertaken to finish my new room came here settled a plan with my joiners & returned before dinner. —

    Saturday, 11th.

    Thermometer at 34 in the morning — 44 at Noon — and 40 at night.

    Weather clear and cool, Wind at N West, and ground hard froze in the morning — rode to all my Plantsns and to the Mill — on my return found a Mr. James Hains, the Manager of the James river Canal here — sent by the Directors to me, and to proceed with Letters from me to the Potomack and Susquehanna Works, which being given, he proceeded after dinner to the former.

    Brought a Load of Salt in my Boat from Alexandria, for Fishing.

    Sunday, 12th.

    Thermometer at 36 in the morng — 53 at noon — and 50 at night.

    Very clear and pleasant all day, till towards sunset, when the western horison became thick — the Wind in the forenoon was at N West but not hard — afterwards it was at East and variable — a large circle round the Moon at 8 and 9 o’clock in the evening.

    About dusk, Mr William Harrison (a delegate to Congress from the State of Maryland) and his son came in on their way to New York.

    Monday, 13th.

    Thermometer at 38 in the morning 49 at noon —and 48 at night.

    Clear and pleasant with but little wind, and that variable — in the forenoon it was Northerly and in the afternoon easterly and towds sunset lowering — the sun setting in a bank.

    Mr. Harrison and son went away after breakfast — and M Lund Washington came immediately afterwards and stayed till the afternoon.

    The ground being in order for it, I set the people to raising and forming the mounds of Earth by the gate in order to plant weeping willow thereon.

    Sent my Boat to Alexandria for salt with the overseer in it, who by my order, engaged my Fishing landing at Johnsons ferry to Mr. Lomax in Alexandria — who is to put doors and windows to the house and pay Twenty five pounds for the use of it during the fishing Season. —

    Tuesday, 14th.

    Thermometer at 38 in the morning — 50 at Noon — and 42 at Night.

    A red horison, in the East at Sun rising; but tolerably clear till towards noon, with a large circle round the sun. — After noon it turned cloudy, and towards night there were strong appearances of rain — Wind at East all day.

    Rid to my Plantations at Dogue run, Muddy Hole, and in the Neck. — at the former had begun to sow Oats in ground that was intended for and had been added to my upper Meadow but after sowing the narrow slips at the lower end I ordered the plowmen to stop and forbid any more harrowing as the ground was too wet & heavy to be worked to any advantage. —

    That ground in the Neck wch I was cross plowing, for Oats also, was too wet and heavy; but the lateness of the season induced me to continue plowing as I wanted to bring it into fine tilth on Acct of clover seed which I meant to sow with the Oats. —

    Planted the intervals between the forest trees in my serpentine roads, or walks to the House from the front gate, with Weeping Willow. — Note, part of these (nearly all on the right side going to the gate) were planted on Wednesday the first day of this month, whilst I was on the business of the Potomk Company at the Great Falls.

    Sent my Overseer, and Boat to Alexandria for another load of salt.

    Wednesday, 15th.

    Thermometer — at 38 in the morning — 41 at Noon — and 46 at Night.

    Misting all day, and now and then raining pretty smartly wind constantly at East.

    The wet obliged me to discontinue my working on the Mounds and set the people to picking the wild onions out of the Oats, which I am abt to sow. —

    In the afternoon, the vessel wch I sent to York river for Corn from the Plantations of the deceased M Custis arrived with 1000 bushels.

    Thursday, 16th.

    Thermometer at 48 in the morning — 57 at noon — and 50 at night.

    Misting morning — about 9 o’clock it cleared and was warm and pleasant overhead but very wet under foot, occasioned by the quantity of rain that fell last night. — but little wind and that from the westward. — About 4 o’clock a pretty heavy shower of rain fell.

    Finished the mound on the right and planted the largest Weeping Willow in my nursery in the centre of it — ground too wet to do any thing to the other Mound on the left. —

    Landed 450 Bushels of Corn today — more might have been got up but for the badness of the road occasioned by the late rains made it difficult passing with Carts.

    Friday, 17th.

    Thermometer at 49 in the morning — 52 at Noon — and 48 at night.

    Cloudy all day, and sometimes dripping rain — Wind at N West but not fresh, nor cold. —

    Finished landing Corn — viz 1000 Bushels which had swelled 13 bushels over. —

    Had every species of stock turned off my Muddy hole Wheat field except the English Colts and — with young.

    Saturday, 18th.

    Thermometer at 44 in the morning — 56 at noon — and 52 at Night. —

    Morning a little cloudy, and the Wind at N West with appearances of blowing hard; but towards noon it cleared, the wind moderated, and in the afternoon it became calm and very pleasant.

    Rid to my Ferry, Dogue run, Muddy hole, and Neck plantations — on my return before dinner found a Mr. Charton (a french Gentleman) here introduced by a letter from Governr Henry.

    Got the Mound on the left so far compleated as to plant the next largest of my weeping Willows thereon the buds of which were quite expanded, and the leaves appearing in their unfolded state — quære, — how much too far, in this state of the sap, is the season advanced? — also planted the cuttings from, or trimmings of those trees in a nursery, they being in the same forward state.

    Spaded up some of the ground in my botanical garden for the purpose of planting the scaly bark hiccory nut of Gloucester in.

    Also a piece of ground N West of the green House, adjoining thereto, the garden Wall, & Post & rail fencing lately erected as yards for my stud horses in order to plant the seed of the Honey Locust &c &c —

    About noon this day finished crossing the ground in the Neck, — designed for oats and clover — and nothing but the lateness of the season could (if that will) justify my doing it whilst the ground is so wet — or beginning to inlist corn ground which I did at the same place whilst the ground was in this condition.

    Sunday, 19th.

    Thermometer at 46 in the morning — 50 at noon — & 46 at night.

    Wind moderate in the forenoon, and the morning exceedingly pleasant; but blowing fresh from the Eastward — after twelve o’clock. — it lowered in the afternoon and threatened an unfavourable change.

    A Gentleman calling himself the Count de Cheiza D’Artignan, Officer of the French Guards, came here to dinner; but bringing no letters of introduction, nor any authentic testimonials of his being either; I was at a loss how to receive, or treat him; he stayed dinner and the evening.

    Mr. Charton went away after dinner.

    Monday, 20th.

    Thermometer at 42 in the morning — 48 at noon — and 46 at night.

    Wind fresh from the N East all day — misling and raining more or less, till eveng at times it fell pretty heavily.

    Planted in that square of my Botanical garden, adjoining to the servants & spinning House in two and an half rows 95 of the Gloucester hiccory nut. — They are on that side of the square next the House — between the Walk, and a locust tree standing within the square.

    Trimmed all the Weeping willow trees which had been planted in the serpentine walks both sides & which had begun to display their leaves.

    Tuesday, 21st.

    Thermometer at in the morning — 60 at noon — and 58 at night.

    Wind brisk from the N West all day (drying the ground finely) in the morning it was a little cloudy but clear afterwards.

    The Count de Cheiza D’Artignan (so calling himself) was sent, with my horses, today at his own request to Alexanda

    Mr. Shaw went to town to day on my business.

    In the S West square of my fruit garden beginning with the upper row, next the cross walk the following trees were planted — viz: — 1st row 4 Damisons — 3d row 4 common plumbs. — 5th row — 4 damisons — 7th row Common Plumbs. 9th row 4 damisons; according to my gardiners account — all from Mr. Manley’s place — And in the S East square at the East side of the 3d row (counting from the cross walk) are 2 Pears (common) from the same place.

    A Captn Hite came here between breakfast and dinner to see if I would join him in an Iron work on the S Branch wch proposition I rejected. — and Captn W. Brooke came here to dinner and returned afterwds.

    M Shaw returned from Alexandria ab 9 o’clock at Night. —

    Wednesday, 22d.

    Thermometer at 50 in the morning — 58 at noon — and 58 at night.

    Wind rather variable, but chiefly from the Westward — About noon it lowered — and a large circle appeared round the sun — but the sun set clear, and the evening was red.

    Had the intervals between my Cape wheat hoed — cut the top of every other row of the first sowed of it about 8 Inches from the ground it being not less than 12 or 14 Inches high and many of the blades, in places, appearing to be dying — left the alternate rows untouched, to see what effect this cutting will have, — the second sowing of this wheat appears very likely & thriving — having a few grains of it left I had it planted in the missing places. —

    Hoed the ground behind the Garden again and planted therein, in three rows 177 of the wild or Cherokee plumb; (sent me by Mr. Geo. A. Washington) 8 inches apart in the rows with 18 inch intervals.

    Also hoed up under the Pines, in the enclosure near H. hole ab 4 rods of ground wch is much shaded, and poor, to try whether it will bring the orchard grass.

    Rid to all my Plantations; directed the Overseer at Dogue run to harrow the ground wch had been some time plowed for oats, in order to get it ready for sowing, though it was much wetter than were to be wished. — did the same in the Neck, or river plantation, where the ground intended for the same purpose was in like condition.

    Thursday, 23d.

    Thermometer at 51 in the morning, — at Noon — and 50 at Night.

    Wind very fresh the whole day at N West and weather clear.

    Along side the Cherokee plumb (planted yesterday) I planted in a row and piece, the Spanish chesnuts saved last fall —

    And next these 43 rows, one foot apart and about an inch assunder in the row between 17 and 18.000 seed of the honey locust.

    Next these in three rows, planted 160 of the Portugal peach stone.

    And adjoining these are 3 other rows of the common chesnut.

    In the evening Doctr Craik came in

    Muddy hole hands finished grubbing their side of the new ground, in front of the House, & went about their fencing at home.

    Friday, 24th.

    Thermometer at 46 in the morning 56 at noon — and 55 at night Wind at N West in the morning, and rather cool — afterwards it was at South west — and blew pretty fresh — looking hazy.—

    Rid to my Plantations at Dogue run, Muddy hole and in the Neck, — began again to sow Oats at the first and last of these though the ground was yet too wet. —

    Sowed the ground which was prepared on Wednesday last under the Pine trees with about 1 quart of Orchard grass seeds, and a gill of red clover seeds mixed.

    Doct Craik went up to Alexandria after breakfast.

    Saturday, 25th.

    Thermometer at 53 in the Morning — 68 at noon — and 64 at night.

    Clear, warm, and pleasant all day. — wind southerly, and pretty fresh — smoaky, the sun consequently looking red.

    Rid to all the Plantations, and to the Mill.

    Finding the ground both at Dogue run and River plantation (which had been twice plowed at each) for Oats, too much consolidated & baked (the last plowings being when it was too wet) for the harrow to make much impression in it, and the lateness of the season not allowing time to give it another plowing before sowing, I directed the seed to be sown on it as it now is, and to be plowed in, smoothing it afterwards with the harrow — but the ground in many places breaking up in large clods, & flakes, more so indeed than at the first plowing, it is to be feared the seed will be irregularly sown — burried too deep — and the Crop (after all the pains I intended to take with it) be indifferent and in bad condition to receive the grass seeds which were intended to be sown therewith.

    In removing the planks about the Venetian Window, at the North end of the house, the sill and ends of the Posts, and studs, were found decayed; and were accordingly, the first renewed, and the other repaired.

    Doct Craik came here to dinner & returned to Maryland after it.

    Sunday, 26th.

    Thermometer at 57 in the morning 67 at noon — and 67 at night.

    Clear and very smoaky all day, with the wind brisk from the South west — towards sundown it began to lower a little.—

    The warmth of yesterday and this day, forwarded vegetation much; the buds of some trees, particularly the weeping Willow & Maple, had displayed their leaves and blossoms & all others were swelled and many ready to put forth — The Apricot trees were beginning to blossom and the grass to shew its verdure.

    Monday 27th.

    Thermometer at 46 in the morning — at noon — and 56 at night.

    Cloudy all the forenoon. Wind at N Wt. Rid to all my plantations finished plowing in the Oats at Dogue Run. — ground much too wet; but not to be avoided as nothing could be well worse than a longer delay of getting them sowed. —

    Ordered the ground to be harrowed, to smooth and prepare it for the Timothy seed which I mean to sow with the oats when they are up and require rolling.

    What from the wetness of the above ground, and the last plowing (after sowing) being deeper than I chose, it is to be feared the seed will come up badly.

    The same apprehension I have concerning the oats in the Neck, which are plowed in in the same manner and the ground equally wet.

    The harrow at this place follow the plows close. — at Dogue run the whole was first plowed in before the harrow moved.

    Tuesday, 28th.

    Thermometer at 42 in the morning — 50 at Noon — and 52 at Night.

    Clear all day with the Wind at So. It should have been noted, that in the night of the 26th there fell rain — tho not a great deal — enough however to wet the top of the ground.

    Finished sowing my Oats in the Neck and plowing them in, but not the harrowing of the ground after ye Plows.

    Finished the Land sides of my Paddock fencing, and as a temporary expedient set about water fences at each end to serve till the fishing season is over.

    Also finished the mound on the left side (going out) of the front gate.

    Sowed in rows in my botanical garden, one foot asunder and about 3/4 of an inch a part in the rows, all the seed I had of the palmetto royal.

    Replaced the following trees in my shrubberies which were dead or supposed to be so — viz: —

    10 Swamp Magnolia

    3 locusts

    4 Red buds

    1 swamp red berry

    5 black haws


    Sent Mr. Shaw to Alexandria to settle some accts and receive money — he returned in the evening.

    Wednesday, 29th.

    Thermometer at 48 in the morning — 60 at noon — and 62 at night.

    Lowering in the forenoon, and sometimes dropping rain, — clear afterwards — Wind southerly all day — and at times fresh.

    Finished crossing the ground at Muddy hole plantation intended for experiments.

    Began to plow a piece of grd in the Neck for Burnet Saint foin and rib grass, in front of the overseers house. —

    Rid to all my Plantations and to the fish house at the ferry where my Carpenters were at work. — In the afternoon a Mr. Brindley, manager of the Susquehanna Canal. and Mr Hanes Manager of the James river Navigation came in and stayed all night. —

    Thursday, 30th.

    Thermometer at 58 in the morning — 63 at noon — and — at night.

    Lowering more or less all day. with the wind at South —

    Rid to the ferry, Dogue run, and Muddy hole plantations & to the Mill.

    On my return home, found a Mr. Wallace, an Irish Gentleman — some time since recommended to me by Sir Edward Newenham here.

    The Corn which I had lately received from York River having got very hot, I was obliged to send part of it to be spread in my Mill loft — part to be spread on the Barn floor at Muddy hole — part I spread above stairs in the Servants Hall — and part I spread on carpets in the yard. the last of which from the appearance of the Weather I was obliged soon to take in again.

    Finished harrowing the ground in which Oats had been sowed at Dogue run, and in the neck; and set a number of Hoes at the former to breaking the clods wch the harrow could not effect. —The ground in the Neck in many places was left very lumpy also but on acct of other jobs there I could do no more to it at present.

    Perceived the Oats which had been sown at Dogue run on the 14th inst: to be generally up — On Monday last they were beginning to peep out of the ground.

    Planted in the holly clumps, in my shrubberies a number of small holly trees which some months ago Colo Lee of Stratford sent me in a box with earth — also in the same shrubberies some of the slips of the Tree box — I also planted several holly trees which had been sent to me the day before by a neighbour, Mr. Thos. Allison.

    Mr. Brindley and Mr. Hains or Harris went away after breakfast.

    Friday, 31st.

    Thermometer at 56 in the morning — at noon — and — at night.

    Raining a little before day with thunder & lightning after which it misted till towds Noon when there were appearances of its clearing; but in the afternoon it rained pretty smartly and continued threatening — Wind N & N West sometimes N E.

    Walked to my Plantation in the Neck where, tho’ the ground was nearly prepared for my grass seeds I could not sow them on acct of the weather.

    Got my Paddock fence quite inclosed except along the margin of ye River.

    In the afternoon George Washington and his wife arrived in Colo Bassett’s Chariot


    Saturday, 1st.

    Thermometer at 34 in the morning 34 at noon — and 32 at night.

    A very disagreeable mixture of Rain and fine hail fell all day, with a fresh and cold N easterly wind — towards night and in the night it snowed. — few days or nights this year have been more inclemt and disagreeable than this. —

    Sunday, 2d.

    Thermometer at 31 in the morning — 40 at Noon — and 41 at night.

    A very hard frost this morning; Water & wet Ice frozen — and day cold — Wind hard at N West and weather clear — Snow which fell in the night had drifted so as not to tell the depth of it easily all the blossoms & young foliage much injured, and the forward fruit (if no more) entirely destroyed.

    Just after dinner M Fendall came in, and about Sundown a Doct Middleton — both of whom stayed all night. —

    April, [Monday,] 3d.

    Thermometer at 36 in the morng — 50 at noon — and 50 at night.

    A hard frost this morning & a good deal of Ice — Wind Southerly and clear till the afternoon, when it shifted to the East and lowered.

    M Fendall went away before Breakfast — and M Wallace & Doct Middleton soon after it.

    Lund Washington dined here Snow chiefly dissolved — ground very wet and unfit to stir.

    Planted stocks of the imported hawthorn — brought by Mr. G. A. Washington from Mr. Lyons — in the inclosure below the stable — also 4 of the yellow Jessamine by the Garden gates. —

    Tryed my Jack to day to a mare that was horsing but he woud not cover her. M Griffith came.

    Tuesday, 4th.

    Thermometer at 45 in the morning — 49 at noon — and — at Night.

    Little wind but very cloudy in the morning, and before 10 o’clock it began to rain; and continued to do so moderately all day and till we went to bed — from the East

    Sent my Seins and People to the Fishing landing at the ferry, but no hand was made of fishing.

    Planted 6 of the pride of China brought from M Lyons by G. A. Washington, in my shrubberies in front of the House — 3 on each side the right & left walks between the Houses & garden gates — and also the two young trees sent me some time ago by Mr. Griffith, to which no name had been given. — these latter were planted, one on each side the right & left walks — near the garden gates on the hither or E side.

    Wednesday, 5th.

    Thermometer at 45 in the morning — 45 at noon — and 44 at night.

    Wind at N West or more Northerly all day and raining and mizzling without intermission — being very disagreeable and the ground very wet.

    Fanned all the heated Corn to day — the Trouble this Corn has occasioned to preserve it from entire destruction is equal to the worth of it. to prevent its receiving some damage & getting musty I have not been able to do. —

    Hauling the Sein again to day to no great effect. —

    Thursday, 6th.

    Thermometer at 42 in the morning — 52 at Noon — and 54 at Night. —

    Very clear all day and upon the whole pleasant though the wind blew pritty fresh and cool in the morning from the N West — but shifting to the southward it grew calm in the afternoon.

    Mr. Griffith went away after breakfast and I rid to my Plantations at the ferry Dogue run & Muddy hole —

    Transplanted 46 of the large Magnolia of S Carolina from the box brought by G. A. Washington last year — viz — 6 at the head of each of the Serpentine walks next the Circle. — 26 in the shrubbery or grove at the South end of the House — & 8 in that at the N end — the ground was so wet, more could not at this time be planted there.

    Took the covering off the Plants in my Botanical garden, and found none living of all those planted the 13th of June last, except some of the Acasee or Acacia, flower fern, and privy & of these it was doubtful.

    The Guinea grass shewed no signs of vegitation, and whether their root is living, is questionable.

    None of the plants which were sowed with the seeds from China (a few of which had come up last year) were to be seen.

    Whether these plants are unfit for this climate — or whether covering & thereby hiding them entirely from the Sun the whole winter occasioned them to rot, I know not

    Cut two or three rows of the wheat of good hope, within 6 Inches of the ground, it being near 18 Inches high (the first sowing) and the blades of the whole singed with frost. —

    Friday, 7th.

    Thermometer at 50 in the morng — at noon — and 52 at night.

    Rid to Muddy hole Plantation and finding the ground which had been twice plowed to make my experiments in them middling dry in some places though wet in others, I tried my drill or Barrel plow; which requiring some alteration in the harrow, obliged me to bring it to the smith’s shop. — this suspended any further operation with it to-day. —

    No fish caught to day, of neither Herring or shad. —

    Set my Brick layer to getting sand & preparing for laying brick on Monday.

    Mr. George Washington went to Alexandria and engaged 100,000 Herrings to Smith and Douglas (if caught) at 5/ p thousand. —

    Saturday, 8th.

    Thermometer at in the morg — at noon. — and 44 at night.

    Lowering more or less all day and sometimes dropping. Wind South. — S E & more Easterly and at times pretty fresh — towards sundown the appearances of fair weather was more favourable. —

    Rid a little after sun rise to Muddy to try my drill plow again which with the alteration of the harrow yesterday, I find will fully answer my expectation — and that it drops the grains thicker or thinner in proportion to the quantity of seed in the Barrel — the less there is in it the faster it issues from the holes — the weight of a quantity in the barrel, occasions (I presume) a pressure on the holes that do not admit of a free discharge of the seed through them. whereas a small quantity (sufficient at all times to cover the bottom of the barrel) is, in a manner sifted through them by the revolution of the Barrel.

    I sowed with the barrel to day in drills, about 3 pints of a white well looking Oat, brought from Carolina last year by G. A. Washington in 7 rows running from the path leading from the Overseer’s H to the Quarter to the West fence of the field where the ground was in the best order — afterwards I sowed in such other parts of the adjoining ground as could at any rate be worked, the common oat of the Eastern shore (after picking out the wild onion) but in truth nothing but the late season could warrant sowing in ground so wet. —

    None of the ground in wch these Oats were sown had received any improvement from manure, — but all of it had been twice plowed and then listed, after which the harrow had gone over it twice before the seed harrowing — this had it not been for the frequent rains, &c which has fallen would have put the ground in fine order.

    Transplanted as many of the large Magnolio into the Grove at the N end of the H as made the number there

    Also transplanted from the same box 9 of the live Oak — viz: — 4 in the bends of the lawn, before the House — and five on the East of the grove (within the yard) at the N end of the House.

    Plowed up my last years turnip patch (at home) to sow Orchard grass seeds in. No fish caught today.

    Sunday, 9th.

    Thermometer at 44 in the morning — at Noon — and at night.

    Lowering more or less all day in the morning there were great appearances of rain — about noon it brightened up a little but in the evening it grew cloudy again, and a large circle appeared round the moon between 9 and 10 o’clock at night — The wind was at S Et and E S Et all day — and at times pretty fresh —

    Mr. Dalby of Alexandria came here to dinner, and returned afterwards — in the Afternoon Doct Stuart and his Sister arrived and stayed all night.

    Monday, 10th.

    at 42 in the morning 50 at noon — and 46 at night.

    Cold and raw northerly wind blew all the forenoon, and in the afternoon shifted Easterly & was not much pleasanter.

    Began my brick work to day, first taking away the foundations of the Garden Houses as they were first placed, & repairing the damages in the Walls occasioned by their removal. — And also began to put up my pallisades on the wall.

    Compleated sowing with 20 quarts drilled oats in the ground intended for experiments at Muddy hole; which amounted to 38 rows ten feet apart (including the parts of rows sowed on Saturday last) — In the afternoon, I began to sow Barley, but finding there were too many seeds discharged from the barrel, notwithstanding I stopped every other hole I discontinued the sowing until another Barrel with smaller holes cd be prepared. The ground in which these Oats have been sowed — and in which the Barley seed had commenced, — has been plowed, cross plowed, listed, (as it is called, that is 3 furrow ridges) and twice harrowed before the drill plow was put into it, with this the furrow is made & the seed harrowed in with & manured afterwds

    Began also to sow the Siberian Wheat which I had obtained from Baltimore, by means of Colo Tilghman, at the Ferry Plantation in the ground laid apart there for experiments. This was done upon ground which, some time ago had been marked off by furrows 8 feet apart, in which a second furrow had been run to deepen them. — 4 furrows were then plowed to these which made the whole 5 furrow ridges. — these being done some time ago and by frequent rains prevented sowing at the time intended had got hard — I therefore before the seed was sowed, split these ridges again, by running twice in the same furrow — after wch I harrowed the ridges — and where the ground was lumpy run my spiked Roller with the harrow at the tale over it — wch I found very efficacious in breaking the clods & pulverizing the earth; and wd have done it perfectly if their had not been too much moisture remaining of the late rains; after this harrowing & rolling where necessary, I sowed the wheat with my drill plow on the reduced ridges in rows 8 feet apart — but I should have observed that after the ridges were split by the furrow in the middle, and before the furrows were closed again by the harrow — I sprinkled a little dung in them — Finding the barrel discharged the wheat too fast, I did after sowing 9 of the shortest (for we began at the furthest corner of the field) rows, I stopped every other hole in the barrel, and in this manner sowed 5 rows more, & still thinking the seed too liberally bestowed, I stopped 2 & left one hole open alternately — by which 4 out of 12 holes only discharged seeds; and this, as I had taken the strap of leather off seemed to give seed enough (though not so regular as were to be wished) to the ground.

    Doct Stuart and his Sister left this after breakfast (passing through Maryland) to his fathers from whence the Doct is to proceed to Richmond.

    Tuesday, 11th.

    Thermometer at 40 in the morning — 52 at Noon — and 52 at night.

    Wind at N Et all day and at times pretty fresh — raw — and disagreeable — towards evening it lowered a good deal, & the sun set in a bank

    Sowing the Siberian wheat to day as yesterday at the ferry.

    And sowed 26 rows of Barley (except a little at each end wch was too wet for the ground to be worked) at Muddy hole; below & adjoining to the Oats. — This was done with 12 quarts of seed, and in the manner, and in ground prepared as mentioned yesterday. The ends of these rows are to be sowed as soon as the ground is in order for it.

    Rid to the Fishing Landing, where 30 odd shad had just been caught at a haul. — not more than 2 or 3 had been taken at one time before this spring — and from hence I went to Muddy hole & river Plantations; at the last of which the Overseer after three plowings & 3 harrowings — had begun to sow in drills three feet apart, & abt nine Inches asunder in the rows, the Seed (without name) saved from those given to me by Col Archibd Cary last year.

    In the section in my botanical garden next the House nearest the circle, I planted 4 rows of the laurel berries in the grd where, last year I had planted the Physic nuts &c., now dead. — & next to these in the same section are rows of the pride of China. — the rows of both these kinds are 16 inches asunder & the seeds 6 inches apart in the Rows.

    Perceived, the last sowed Oats at Dogue run, — and those wch had been sowed in the Neck, were coming up.

    Wednesday, 12th.

    Thermometer at 42 in the morng — 55 at Noon — and 50 at Night —

    A Brisk wind all day from the N Et — cold & raw, with appearances of a change of weather especially — towards evening when it lowered very much. —

    Rid to the fishing Landing, ferry, Dogue run, and Muddy hole plantations. —

    Finished at the first Sowing the ground intended for experiments, with the Siberian wheat — this spot contained 16A. 1R. 24. Including the fodder Ho &ca which would reduce the cultivated Land to 16 acres at most — to sow these it took about 18 quarts of Wheat. —

    — of the last rows had no dung in them — and those adjoining for back were only manured in the poorest parts. — the last rows were listed wholly as they were too hard baked for the harrow & roller notwithstanding the middle furrow to make much impression on them.

    At Dogue run — I set the plows to listing the ground which had before been listed, in order to commence my experiments there on Friday. — began in the first long row by Wades houses. —

    At Muddy hole, I sowed two rows of the Albany Peas in Drills 10 feet asunder (the same as the Oats and Barley) but conceiving they could not, for want of support, be kept [pre]vented from falling when they sh come near their growth I did not incline to sow any more in this way but to put all the ground between these two rows and the fence along the road in broad cast. — the ground in which these Peas were sowed was managed exactly as that had been in which the Barley & Oats (at this place) was. —

    Next, adjoining the Oats, on the upper, or South side, I plowed 10 rows for Carrots two deep furrows in the same place for each over and above all the plowings & harrowings which the Barley &ca had received — in the alternate rows — beginning at the second from the Oats — I sprinkled dung all along in the bottom of the furrows, and covered it with the earth which had been thrown out of them with Hoes — the same was done with the rows in which there was no dung — this was done to try — first, how this kind of land, and management would do for Carrots and next the difference between manuring in this manner which was pritty liberal and without — on the top of the ridge made over the furrow, I directed 2 or 3 seeds to be dropped in a place at the distance of 10 inches from each other — and to be scratched in with a thorny bush.

    Planted in the N West section of my Botanical Garden 5 rows more of the seeds of the pride of China, in the same manner those were done yesterday. —

    Thursday, 13th.

    Thermometer at 44 in the morning — 56 at noon — and 52 at night.

    A high, cold, and disagreeable wind from the N East blew all day — and the Sun for the most part hid.—

    Rid to Muddy hole and river Plantations — the Carrots at the first were sowed as directed yesterday — and at the latter I began to sow Oats in rows ten feet a part, in grd managed in the following manner: —

    1. 1. marked off with single furrows,
    2. 2. another and deep furrow in this,
    3. 3. four boats to these —
    4. 4. plowed agn in the same manner.
    5. 5. a single furrow in the middle of these —
    6. 6. Dung sprinkled in this furrow
    7. 7. the great harrow over all these —

    and 8th the seed sowed after the harrow with the drill or barrel plow, & harrowed in with the harrow at the tale of it. — Note. — It should have been observed that the field intended for experiments at this Plantation is divided into 3 parts, by boating rows running crossways — and that dung, and the last single furrow are (at least for the present) bestowed on one of these only — viz: — that part which is most westerly, or nearest the Barn. —

    Doct Craik, & Mr. & Mrs Lund Washington dined here. — the first stayed all night.

    Friday, 14th.

    Thermometer at 42 in the morning — 64 at noon and — at Night —

    Clear Morning with the wind at N East, but neither very fresh nor cold — afterwd Southly & warm.

    Doct La Moyeur sent for his Black horse & Chaise which his servant carried away today.

    Doct Craik went to Alexanda after breakfast & returned again at night.

    Rid to my Plantations at Muddy hole Dogue run and ferry in the forenoon. — and walked to that in the Neck in the afternoon. — At the first I finished sowing the Barley rows, and harrowed the ground intended for the Albany Peas in broadcast. — at the next I began to sow the remainder (14 qts) of the Siberian wheat, which was left at the Ferry — and began to run deep furrows in the middle & to make five furrow ridges in a piece of the Corn grd for Carrots. At the ferry I ordered a piece of ground to be plowed for Corn & Potatoes. — and in the Neck — after sowing 24 rows of Oats upon a Dunged furrow, I ordered the discontinuance and to begin sowing Barley adjoining.

    Sowed or rather planted at this place, 11 rows of the Seeds saved from those had last year from Colo Archd Cary — and 35 rows (next to them) of rib grass seed — these rows were 3 feet asunder and the seeds (3 or 4) dropped at about 1 foot apart in the rows.

    Saturday, 15th.

    Thermometer at 56 in the morning — at noon and — at Night.

    Clear all day, Wind Easterly in the morning & Southerly in the Evening — & rather cool.

    Rid to Alexandria to a meeting of the Directors of the Potomack Company, who had advertised their intention of contracting on this day with whomsoever should bid lowest for the supplying the Company’s servants with Rations for one year. — a Mr. Abel Westfall of Berkeley having done this, the Contract was made with him accordingly. — Dined at Mr. Lyle’s tavern — and returned in the evening when I found Mrs Stuart and her children and Mr. Arthur Lee here. —

    In my way to town, I passed through Muddy hole & Dogue run Plantations. — at the first I ordered the ground which was harrowed yesterday for Pease to be sowed with 6 Bushels, which was accordingly done, and harrowed in — the qty was but little more than an Acre & an half.

    Finished at the latter, sowing the Siberian wheat in 34 rows — This ground had been only twice plowed into 5 furrow ridges and then harrowed before seeding; 8 of the first rows, counting from Wades Houses had been rolled; but wanting the Oxen to Cart dung I was obliged to discontinue the rolling — these workings, with the harrowing at the tale of the barrel plow, did not put the ground by any means in such order as it ought to be for this grain. — but the wet Spring, and late season, would not allow me to do more to it.

    Sowed in the Neck, 23 rows of Burnet seed in part of what was intended there alongside the rib-grass. — This was put in exactly as the rib-grass & other grass were. — that is in rows 3 feet asunder & about 1 foot apart in the rows.

    Plowed a piece of ground containing two acres, at the ferry plantation, for the purposes of drilling corn, & planting Irish Potatoes in it — this was plowed flush & intended to be cross plowed.

    Sunday, 16th.

    Thermometer at 46 in the morning — 64 at noon — and 67 at night.

    A brisk southerly wind all day and at times much appearances of rain, but none fell. Mr. Lee went away after breakfast —

    Very few fish caught yet at my fishery at the ferry. —

    Monday, 17th.

    Thermometer at 58 in the morning at noon — and 58 at night.

    Morning clear and warm, with very little wind. — about 10 o’clock it began to lower, and about 2 there were great appearances of rain but the wind getting to N West & blowing pretty fresh they all vanished.

    Went up to Alexandria to an election of Delegates to represent this county; when the suffrages of the people fell upon Col [George] Mason and Doct [David] Stuart—on the first contrary to, and after he had declared he could not serve — and on the other whilst he was absent at Richmond — Captn West who had offered his services & was present, was rejected. — the votes were — for Colo Mason, 109 — for Doct Stuart, 105 — and for Capt West 84.

    Returned home in the evening.

    Tuesday, 18th.

    Thermometer at 52 in the morning — 58 at noon — and —at Night.

    Wind at N West — pretty fresh & cool — cloudy also without much signs of rain.—

    Rid to Muddy hole — Dogue run — & ferry plantations; & to the fishing Landing, —at the first they had begun to plant the Irish Potatoes in drills; 4 rows were allotted for this purpose 2 whereof had a handful of dung put upon each set, which were at the distance of one foot in the rows. — the other 2 rows were planted at the same distance, and in the same manner, excepting in the article of manure, there being none in the Rows —at Dogue run I began to sow barley in drills next the Siberian wheat, and had (beginning at the meadow fence, & extending towards the old Houses) sowed 11 rows (long & short) in Carrots; 6 of which, beginning with the first, and so on alternately were dunged. — the others not — at the Ferry plantation little progress had been made in breaking up the ground for Potatoes &ca it being hard occasioned by the late drying & baking winds. — At the Fishing landing little success had attended the seins.

    One of Mr. Rawlins workmen (who came here on Saturday last in the Baltimore packet) began lathing my new room:

    In the evening Mr. Danl Brent and Mr. Wm Stuart came in and stayed all night.

    Sent my Boat to Alexandria this evening in order to bring down Flagstones & Fish Barrels &ca

    Wednesday, 19th.

    Thermometer at 50 in the morning — 62 at noon—and 60 at night.

    Calm and warm in the forenoon what little there was came from the Southward — In the afternoon the wind sprung up — but not fresh from the East. —

    Rid to my Ferry Plantation, and walked into the Neck. — at the first few fish were caught — at the latter I found (including what was sowed yesterday and Saturday) 50 rows of Burnet seed planted along. side, and in the same manner of, the rib grass — & that they had begun to sow the Sainfoin seed — Sowing Barley yesterday & this day, at this plantation 30 rows of which had been put in before I got there every other one of which had a slight sprinkling only of dung not being able to get it out fast enough to manure every row. —

    Mrs Stuart and her children went away immediately after breakfast — as did Mr. Brent & M Stuart.

    A Mr. Chavillie & another gentleman (the first introduced by the Governor) came just as we had done breakfast & after one had been got for them proceeded on their journey to the Northward.

    Before dinner, Mr. Rollins and a Mr. Thorpe came here; — the first being the undertaker of my new room intended to commence the work, and then to leave it under the conduct of the latter which I objected to for reasons which I assigned him; — he therefore determined to return & come back prepared to attend to it himself.

    My Muddy hole People having compleated all the work that was to do except with the Plows before Corn planting in the common way, came to get the new ground in front of the House in order for that grain by fencing &ca

    Major Washington’s Charles returned from new Kent with the Calves & Jenny he went for.

    Thursday, 20th.

    Thermometer at 50 in the morning — 50 at noon — and 48 at night.

    Wind fresh but not hard at N E all day and very cloudy, sometimes dropping rain.

    Rid to Muddy hole, Dogue Run, and ferry Plantations — and to the fishery at the latter. —

    Finished sowing 50 rows of Barley in drills, at Dogue run, which took 35 quarts of seed — The ground for this grain was twice plowed into 5 furrow ridges (or twice listed as it is called) then rolled with the spiked roller — after which it was harrowed, then sowed with the Barrel plow, & the grain harrowed in with the small harrow at the tale of it — Next adjoining to the Barley I left 40 rows for the common Country Pea — and then began to plow 10 rows for Potatoes wch I directed to be managed in the same manner previous to setting, with those for the Barley with the addition of a furrow after harrowing, to plant the Potatoes which are to be covered with the plow. These Potatoes are to be planted without dung because it could not be got out in time the Oxen being employed with the roller.

    The shad began to run to day having caught 100, 200, & 300 at a drought.

    My Jack covered a she Mule to day — after which two mares —

    My boat which went up the day before yesterday, returned this evening only — being detained by the north East wind. —

    M Battaile Muse came here before dinner on business respecting the collection of my rents and with his accts wch were just looked at but not settled.

    My People from the Perry began to work in the new ground in front of the House to day.

    Sowed a Bushel of Orchard grass seed (given to me by Wm Fitzhugh Esqr of Chatham) in my last years Turnip patch at the home house. — the qty of ground might be about of an acre.— the grd in which these seeds were sown had been twice plowed — chopped over & the clods broken with Hoes and twice harrowed afterwards. — the Seeds were scratched in with a light Bush.

    Friday, 21st.

    Thermometer at 48 in the morning — 48 at noon — and 48 at night.

    Drizzling till about 6 o’clock when it began a constant slow & moderate rain with the wind from N E all day. —

    About noon, one James Bloxham, an English Farmer from Gloucestershire arrived here with letter of recommendation from Colo Fairfax (& others to him) consequent of my request to him to enquire after such a person.

    Saturday, 22d.

    Thermometer at 50 in the morning — 56 at noon — and 56 at night.

    In the night there fell a great deal of rain, with some thunder & lightning which put a stop to plowing and indeed most other workings of the Earth. —

    Morning mizzling till about noon, when it broke away without much wind, which still hung to the Eastward. — It was also tolerably warm and pleas

    Rid to the Plantations at Muddy hole, Dogue run, and Ferry — at the first fixed my Barrels for Planting Corn and Pease — but the ground was too wet to use them —The heavy rain last night had washed all the Albany Pease which had been sowed in broadcast out of the ground — those which had been sowed a day or two before in Drills were coming up as the Oats & Barley also were.

    At the Ferry Plantation the Siberian wheat was here & there coming up. —

    At the Neck Plantation finished before the rain sowing all my Barley, — rows with — quarts. — Also finished sowing the Burnet & Saintfoin, — rows of the former and — of the latter, part of which were short — and having some of these Seeds and those of the rib grass left, I sowed 8 of the Intervals of these with it in broad cast —11 ditto of the Saintfoin — and 3 ditto of the Burnet in the same manner — Very little fish caught to day or yesterday.

    Col Fitzhugh and his son Willm came here in the afternoon.

    Sunday, 23d.

    Set off after breakfast, on a journey to Richmond, — to acknowledge in the General Court some Deeds for Land sold by me as Attorney for Col George Mercer which it seems, could not be executed without. Dined at Dumfries and lodged at Stafford Court House. Very cloudy all day with but little wind and that from the Eastward.

    Monday, 24th.

    A good deal of rain having fallen in the night and it continuing to do so till after 6 o’clk I was detained till near seven — when I set out dined at my Mothers in Fredericksburgh & proceeded afterwards to, and lodged at General Spotswoods.

    Until noon the day was missling & sometimes raining which it also did in the night — but being warm — vegitation was much promoted — Wind Easterly.

    Conversing with Generl Spotswood on the growth and preservation of the Pumpkin, he informed me that a person in his neighbourhood who had raised of them many years has preserved them by splitting them in two — taking out the inside and then turning the rind part up placed on rails or poles for two or three days to dry — after wch they were packed in straw — a layer of one, and a layer of the [straw?] alternately by which means they keep well through ye winter.

    Tuesday, 25th.

    Set out from General Spotswoods about sun rising and breakfasted at the Bowling green. —

    Where, meeting with Mr. Holmes (a neat, and supposed to be a good farmer) I was informed by him that from experience he had found that the best method of raising clover (in this Country) was to sow it on wheat in January, when the ground was lightly covered with snow having never failed by this practice — whereas fall sowing is often injured by wet and frost and spring sowing by drought.

    Dined at Rawlins and lodged at Hanover Court House.

    The fore part of the day was clear and warm, but the latter part was showery and cooler — Wind westerly but not much of it. —

    Wednesday, 26th.

    Left Hanover Court H about sun rise — breakfasted at Norvals tavern — and reached Richmond about noon. — put up at Formicalo’s Tavern, where by invitation I dined with the Judges of the General Court.

    Morning cloudy & not much wind, but between 8 and 10 o’clok it came out fresh from the N W and died away again about noon.

    Meeting with M Tho Newton of Norfolk, he informed me that Mr Neil Jamieson, late of that place, now a merchant in New York was Executor of Jn Shaw (also of Norfolk) who was possessed of the Books of Messrs Balfour & Barraud & to whom he advised me to apply, thinking it probable that I might obtain, a list of the Ballances due to that House and thereby recover what was due to me therefrom. —

    Thursday, 27th.

    Acknowledged in the General Court a Deed to James Mercer Esq for the Lotts he and I bought at the sale of his deceased Brother Col George Mercer and received a reconveyance from him of my part thereof.

    Road with the Lieut Govr Randolph, the Attorney General, and Mr. George Webb, to view the cut which had commenced between Westham and Richmond for the improvement of the navigation of James river — going late, and returning to dinner left but little time to view the work, or to form a judgment of the plan of it.

    Dined, and spent the evening at the Attorneys — lodged again at Formicalo’s.

    Friday, 28th.

    Left Richmond about 6 o’clock — breakfasted at Norvals — Dined at Rawlins — and lodged at the Bowling.

    This morning as yesterday was perfectly clear, warm and pleasant — yesterday, however was calm — to day the wind blew fresh from the SWest. & in the afternoon became cloudy with great appearances of rain, a few drops of which fell, but in the evening it cleared and turned cooler.—

    Saturday, 29th.

    Set out from the Bowling green a little after Sun rising — breakfasted at General Spotswood’s — Dined at my sister Lewis’s in Fredericksburgh — and spent the evening at Mr. Fitzhugh’s of Chatham.

    One of my Chariot Horses having got lame going to Richmond, but forced back to Gen Spotswood’s (not, however, without much difficulty) was left there with a Servant who was ordered to proceed with him on a horse which Genl Spotswood would lend in two days.

    Wind being fresh at N West, it was clear and cool to day.

    Sunday, 30th.

    Set off about sun rising from Mr. Fitzhugh’s breakfasted at Dumfries and reached home to a late dinner.

    Where I found three of Mr. Rawlins’ men; two of whom (one a Mr. Thorpe director of the work) had been since Sunday last; & had employed many hands in preparing Mortar & other materials for them. — That the Fishing (especially at the home house wch had been discontinued on acct of the failure of the Sein) had not been successful. That Col Gilpins scow had been sent up on Monday last. — That the Rains had retarded the plows a good deal and had prevented sowing Pease — or planting Corn. That the Irish Potatoes had been planted on Tuesday last at Dogue run, though the ground was wet to prevent the rot destroying them all; the wetness of the ground prevented the use of the roller in this operation, but the want of it was supplied by Hoes, to break the clods. — That the Timothy seed intended for the oat ground at Dogue run had been sowed on it — (and for want of the roller had been scratched in with a Bush, which was wrong as the Oats, were thereby torn & injured.) — That the Neck People had on Wednesday last finished drilling the Barley at that place in 66 rows — every other of which had a sprinkling of Dung in the middle furrow — That my Drilled Wheat from the Cape had been propped to prevent its lodging. — That the common Chesnut (which it is apprehended are spoiled) was planted below the hops on thursday last — That the Irish Potatoes had been planted at the River plantation on thursday last in ten rows, each alternate one being dunged as those at Muddy hole were. —That the ground which had been prepared for Flax was sown therewith on Friday last and harrowed in — then with clover seed and the whole rolled. — That 14 rows of the live & Water Oak Acorns had been planted on the same day in my botanical garden, but it was not expected that any, or very few would come up. — That every other row of Corn in the cut intended for experiments at Muddy hole was planted by the Drill plow with the early corn from New York — and that all the Peas (consisting of two kinds) had been planted at the same place and in the same cut That when the worked ground was too wet to stir, or touch the plows were employed in listing for Corn. — and lastly that the Mercury during my absence had stood thus — viz:

        morng noon night









































    On behalf of the Hon. Joseph Williamson, a Corresponding Member, Mr. Henry H. Edes communicated and read a paper dealing with the identity of the “Master Williamson” who is said to have accompanied Myles Standish on the latter’s visit to Massasoit in March, 1621.


    A narrative of an interview of the Pilgrims with Massasoit, sachem of the Wampanoag tribe, held. 22 March, 1620–21, says:

    Captaine Standish and Master Williamson met the King at the brooke, with halfe a dozen Musketiers, they saluted him and he them, so one going over, the one on the one side, and the other on the other, conducted him to a house then in building, where we placed a great Rugge, and three or four Cushions, then instantly came our Governour with Drumme and Trumpet after him, and some few Musketiers.369

    In his History of Plymouth Plantation, Governor Bradford makes mention neither of the Massasoit incident nor of Williamson. The latter name is not in the list of passengers by the Mayflower, and no immigrants except those who came in the Mayflower reached the Colony until November, 1621.

    Various conjectures about Master Williamson have been made, some of which are ingenious and many improbable. In Prince’s Annals, the Mourt statement is adopted without criticism. Prince was very particular in giving authorities, and Mourt is the only one cited concerning it.

    Alexander Young says:

    There was a Thomas Williams, but no person of the name of Williamson, among the signers of the compact. It is probably an error of the press. It is very unlikely that anyone of the ship’s company would be associated with Standish in this duty. Perhaps it should read Master Allerton.370

    Williams died before the end of March. This explanation, however, is not accepted by Savage, who assumes that Williams was then living, and says:

    No Williamson was there, we know, as passing, in the first voyage of the Mayflower, wh. had not sail, on her return, nor had any other vessel arr. . . . Prince ought to have detect. this error, wh. is the reverse of a very common one in the old rec. or even print. books, of sinking the final sylla.371

    Palfrey writes:

    “Master Williamson” (Mourt, 36). There is no Williamson in Bradford’s list. There is a Thomas Williams (Bradford, 449), but his place on the catalogue is such as to make it seem unlikely that he would be called Master, and he probably died before the visit of Massasoit. The name may have been a misprint for Allerton, who was Standish’s companion on the same errand the following day.372

    In 1866 Samuel G. Drake remarked:

    Who was “Mr. Williamson” mentioned in the early narratives of the Pilgrims? No satisfactory answer has yet appeared. That “Mr. Williamson” is a misprint in Mourt’s Relation, for “Mr. Isaac Allerton,” as has been confidently asserted by the author ? of The Chronicles of the Pilgrims; may be possible, or even probable; but that is the most that can be said about it. The question is not settled, and perhaps never will be.373

    The will of William Mullins contains this item:

    I give to my twoe Overseers Mr John Carver and Mr Williamson, twentye shillinges apeece to see this my will performed desiringe them he would have an eye over my wife and children to be as fathers and freindes to them.374

    John Ward Dean remarks:

    William Mullins, the testator, was one of the passengers in the Mayflower, and the father of Priscilla Mullins, the heroine of Longfellow’s Poem “The Courtship of Miles Standish.” The will was evidently drawn up at Plymouth, New England, which was then considered a part of Virginia. The date of the will is not given, but it must have been on or before Feb. 21, 1620–1, for on that day Mr. Mullins died, according to Governor Bradford’s Register, as quoted by Prince in his Chronology, Part ii. p. 98. . . . Mr. Williamson, who is named as overseer of the will, I take to be the “Master Williamson,” who, according to Mourt’s Relation, . . . was present March 22, 1620–1, when the first treaty was made with Massasoit. Rev. Alexander Young, D.D., finding no person by the name of Williamson among the signers to the compact, concludes that the name Williamson was probably an error of the press, and suggests that of Allerton instead. . . . Dr. Young’s conjecture has generally been adopted by later writers.375

    In 1889 the Reverend Henry M. Dexter made the following statement:

    In the third number of the first volume of “Genealogical Gleanings in England,” is given what purports to be a copy of the nuncupative will of William Mullins, of the “Mayflower” Company, from the London Probate Records. It is prefaced by the date of 2 (12) April, 1621; which was forty days after Mr. Mullins’ death, as given by Prince, and three days before — by the same authority — the “Mayflower” started on her return voyage. . . . He gives to the two overseers — Mr. John Carver and Mr. Williamson — 20s. apiece to see his will performed, desiring them to have a kind care of his wife and children. . . . The appointment of the overseers is significant. The elder two of the children were in England; it was expected that the widow, the younger two children, and the somewhat wayward servant would need to be cared for in this country; while part of the estate seems to have been there, and part here. Therefore John Carver was chosen to administer affairs on this side of the sea, and it looks as if his associate “Mr. Williamson” were selected to do like service in England. Mourt’s “Relation” (p. 36) states that when, 22 March (1 April), 1621, which was a fortnight before the “Mayflower” sailed for home, Massasoit and his brother first visited the colonists, “Captain Standish and Master Williamson met the King at the brooke, with halfe a dozen Musketiers;” and as no man of that name appears upon the list of the Company, or was known otherwise to be on the ground, it has been always supposed that, among the many obvious carelessnesses of the unwatched press of John Bellamie, this name had gotten itself misprinted for that of Allerton, or some other of about the right length. The occurrence of the name here again, however, raises the question whether a man named Williamson was not present with the forlorn colonists, and present in a condition and under circumstances to make his being joined with Governor Carver as an executor of this will eminently probable. I think this question should be answered in the affirmative, but will return to the point after one or two other suggestions. . . . The three witnesses of the will were John Carver, Giles Heale, and Christopher Joanes. . . . One name remains: Giles Heale. Who was he? On the fly-leaf of a copy of Henry Ainsworth’s “Psalms in Metre,” of the edition of 1618, . . . is . . . the following inscription:

    This booke was given unto M Giles Heale, Chirurgion, by Marke Allerton, Tailor in Virginia, the X. of February, in the year of our Lord 1620: Da. Williams.

    Virginia was (then) new Plymouth. The “X. of February in the year of our Lord 1620” was Saturday, fifty-one days before the date of the certification of the copying of this will. “Marke Allerton” is simply the misreading, by the bookseller, of the Isaacke which was written on the fly-leaf. . . .

    To return now to “Mr. Williamson.” You will have noticed that this inscription of presentation from Allerton to Heale seems to have been witnessed by “Da: Williams.” I take leave to think that this was an abbreviated or misread chirography for Williamson; that the man’s first name was David; and that he was the factor, financial agent, or supercargo of the “Mayflower.” The East India Records to which I have just referred show (p. 100) one principal and three subordinate factors in each ship, — whence it becomes easy to think that in this West Indian voyage at least some one respectable and thoroughly competent man of business would have accompanied the expedition to look after the interests of the Company, who were risking considerable property with a party of colonists whose obvious poverty made promise hold a much larger place than performance toward the immediate satisfaction of all claims upon them. Grant that Mr. David Williamson was such a man, and held such a post, and his presence with Captain Miles Standish in the interview with the Indian king becomes appropriate and natural, as does the fact that poor Mullins, knowing that Williamson on the return of the ship would take his will over to be probated in London, asked him to be its executor for the benefit of his two children in England, as Governor Carver was desired to look after the interests of his widow and the two younger children and servant here.376

    The late Reverend William Cogswell, in a biographical sketch of William D. Williamson, says there is a tradition that one of that name, who had command of a company in King Philip’s war in 1675–6, might have been a son of Master Williamson.377 But he admits that nothing further concerning the latter than is given by Mourt appears in the printed narratives of those times, and that no positive knowledge of his immediate posterity exists. This simple report of tradition has been since adopted as a fact by several local historians. In Miss Thomas’s Memorials of Marshfield (p. 75), the fancy of the writer borrows from the fictitious pilgrim, remarks Savage in the Genealogical Dictionary before cited, the Christian name of George to bestow on him. The same statement appears in Winsor’s History of Duxbury (p. 337). The Reverend Charles H. Pope goes further in suggesting that perhaps the Marshfield soldier of 1675 was the Plymouth adventurer of 1621.378

    Divested of all suppositions and probabilities, the mere mention of the name in Mourt’s Relation constitutes all that is known of Master Williamson. Not the slightest shadow of confirmatory evidence that such a person existed has been found.

    Mr. S. Lothrop Thorndike communicated and read some reminiscences of Dr. Andrew Craigie of Cambridge, written by the late John Holmes.379


    Just now, when the old memories of Christ Church are being awakened, it is not amiss to recall one of those who take their final rest beneath its shadow. In my early boyhood I occasionally heard the name of Andrew Craigie, but never explored so far as to become acquainted with his residence, which was the present Longfellow house. I propose no more than to give the facts that casually reached me concerning him, as I remember them, — a legendary rather than a historical notice. I think that he was spoken of as having been a surgeon in the Continental Army,381 and that after the war was closed he had purchased Government securities, which rose rapidly in value after the new Constitution was established. He became rich enough to purchase the confiscated estate of one of the Vassalls, and was able to continue the handsome style of living of his predecessors. He married, when quite old, or elderly, the beautiful Betsey Hammond,382 but the many years of valuable experience which he contributed to the common stock do not seem to have added to the general fund of matrimonial happiness.

    Well would it have been for him if his friends could have said to him, — “Thou hast no speculation in thine eyes.” But he had, and a great deal of it. His plan was to develop Lechmere’s Point, called in my younger days “The Pint,” and bring into the market the land he had secured there. The new road to “the Colleges,”383 now Cambridge Street, the bridge to Boston, still called Craigie’s Bridge, the removal to the “Pint” of the Court House and Jail, were all parts of this plan.

    The embargo in 1807 covered Boston and its dependencies like an extinguisher. But apart from that, Mr. Craigie’s plans and those of his contemporary schemers, — the making Cambridgeport a great emporium of trade, the Concord turnpike, etc., — were, even if rational in their conception, premature by some forty years. I remember in my own boyhood the scanty population of the lower “Port” outside of the main street, with the brick blocks planted here and there in the solitude, like seed for new settlements. Concord Turnpike and Craigie’s Road also, each offered a retreat to which the austere recluse, shunning the face of man, might retire with no fear of intrusion. The toll which was to repay the building was found represented only by the funeral knell of departed funds.384

    It is now that we come naturally to Mr. Craigie as a debtor, the legendary character in which we have mostly heard of him. Overwhelmed with judgments, the sly capias in the pocket of the constable waiting for him, he remembered that every man’s house is his castle, and retired to this fortress allowed him by law. Inside his house he was safe from arrest. Whether he could venture outside upon his own premises, or was confined to his four walls, we cannot learn. As it can do him no harm, and is more picturesque, I prefer the first supposition.

    It is a fine bit of mediævalism that we Old Cambridge folks have, and we ought to be proud of it. Here is a man with nothing against him but a large pecuniary balance, liable to capture, falling back on his “Castle,” to use the term contained in the legal apothegm. The towers, walls, portcullis, barbican, appear at once before us. But to quit the fanciful, — Mr. Craigie had every right in the world, except to go out of his own house. To that act a quasi penalty was attached. Does it not give a new interest to the Longfellow house,385 that a genuine debtor of the old school has looked with longing eyes on the free and solvent Charles carrying his punctual dues to Ocean, and on the fair Brighton hills where the only capias is that awaiting the cows at night? Did he ever venture forth at evening, seeing a constable and capias in every bush? We accept the question readily, and wish that we could answer it, but tradition fails here.

    But if Law shut Mr. Craigie up on week-days, Religion came to set him free on Sunday. On that day he was free to go abroad, and I presume used his liberty to attend at Christ Church, then open for worship. How long this state of duress lasted, whether to his death or not, I cannot say.

    Somewhere about the year 1820, going over one Saturday afternoon to play with a boy at a house standing on or near the site of the present Law School, I saw a movement at the door of the church. Some half-dozen people were in motion. I do not remember whether the bell was tolled. This was the scant, lonely funeral of Mr. Andrew Craigie.386

    These notes and reminiscences are addressed, aside, to only the few experts or esoterics in Cambridge antiquities, — people who if asked the following questions, would answer readily and perhaps with some resentment at the doubt of their knowledge implied by the inquiry: Where was the old Court House?387 The old Jail? The Market House? Where was the College Wood-yard?388 Where were the old Hay-scales? Where was the window from which little Joe Hill saw Lord Percy’s reinforcement pass by? Where was the little brook that ran over gravel towards the Charles and, like the two princes, was stifled in its bed?

    The Hon. Francis William Hurd was elected a Resident Member.