A Stated Meeting of the Society was held at No. 25 Beacon Street, Boston, on Thursday, 23 December, 1903, at three o’clock in the afternoon, the President, George Lyman Kittredge, LL.D., in the chair.

    The Records of the Annual Meeting in November were read and approved.

    The Corresponding Secretary reported that since the last meeting a letter had been received from Mr. Augustus Peabody Loring of Beverly accepting Resident Membership.

    The Rev. Henry A. Parker communicated an unpublished letter written at Assington, Suffolk, England, on 4 April, 1636, by Muriel (Sedley) Gurdon, the wife of Brampton Gurdon, to the wife of Governor John Winthrop. The letter is as follows:

    My most dear and much respected frinde I rejoyc to hear of your recovery, for my daughter1 had wrote to me of yr weaknes’ wch made your lettar the more wellcom to me; the Lord continew yr helth to the comfort of your good husband, and the furthering of that great worke wch the lord heth called yo unto. You say yo shall not nede to informe of any thing consarning the countrey: having so many othar friends: I may say to you, so wright all the rest, that wee hear but very littell, but what we hear from thos which come ovar from yo, and thay for the most parte diffar so much ayther in ther spech or in judgment, though we thiuke well of them: yet thear is littell satisfacttion to be had from what they speake: but you have so many come to yo from us I am sure you shall be informed of such prosedings as will greve any christien hart to hear: that in so short a time so many of Gods faithfull ministers should be silinced: and that which is wors; many that semed to be zeleous doe yeld obedence to the inventions of men:2 it will be a hard matar to chous the good and lav the evill: I did thinke befor it had come to this haith that we should have been providing to come to you—but now I see that my husband in regard of his many years1 rathar thinke he hath a calling to suffar hear then to remove himselfe: the Lord teach us what his will is and giv us harts to submite truly unto it and his holy Spirit to carry us thrown I give mr winthrup and yor selfe many thanks for yr care of my Sonne Edmound2 I did hope he would have bin of mor euse to have ben imployed by yo then it seme he was, the weaknes in his hands grew upon him not long befor he went from us, we ded hope the Sea would have been a good meanes to helpe it: but I rathar fear he is worse: my husband is desirous to give satisfaction for the charge he hath put you unto & with many thanks for yor love and care: thus desirous to have my best respect tendred to mr winthrup and yor selfe I becech the Lord to keepe us all stedfast to the ende—

    Asingtone this 4 of Aprell

    yor Asured frind

    Meriell Gurdon


    To my much respected worthy freind mrs Winthropp—the eldere at Boston give this

    Mr. Albert Matthews read the following paper on—


    Several years ago, in a letter to the Nation, Dr. Murray said it was not to the credit of American lexicographers that they left to their English brethren so much work that ought to have been done by themselves. It must be confessed that the reproof has too often been deserved, and an excellent illustration is afforded by the word Palatine. No writer on the subject of Americanisms seems to have noted it, the Century and the Standard are the only two dictionaries which even refer to American usage, the account in the Century is incorrect, and Dr. Murray recently informed me that his readers had not furnished him with a single American example. Yet, in one way or another, the word has been in use in this country for nearly three centuries, and its history here is not without interest.1

    Of the several Counties Palatine that existed in England in the Middle Ages, but one is mentioned in the early American charters. The rights of the County Palatine of Durham were granted in no fewer than seven or eight charters.2 In the Charter of Avalon, dated 7 April, 1623, Sir George Calvert was allowed—

    To have exercise use and enjoy the same, as any Bishop of Durham within the Bishopprick or County Palatine of Durham in our Kingdome of England hath at any time heretofore had, held, used, or enjoyed, or of right ought or might have had, held, used, or enjoyed.3

    In the Patent of Carolana, dated 30 October, 1629, Sir Robert Heath was allowed—

    To have exercise use & enjoy in like manner as any Bishop of Durham within the Bpricke or Couuty palatine of Durham in our Kingdome of England ever heretofore had held used or enjoyed or of right ought or could have hold use or enjoy.4

    It was long thought that the Charter of Maryland was modelled on Heath’s Patent of Carolana; but it is now known that the Maryland Charter, granted 20 June, 1632, to Cecil Calvert, second Baron Baltimore, was drawn by his father, George Calvert, first Baron Baltimore,5 and was based on Calvert’s Charter of Avalon (1623). In the Charter of Maryland occur these words:

     . . . habendis exercendis utendis et gaudendis prout aliquis Episcopus Dunelmensis infra Episcopatum sive Comitatum Palatinum Dunelmensem in Regno nostra Anglice unquam antehac habuit tenuit nsus vel gavisus fuit seu de jure habere tenere uti vel gaudere debuit aut potuit.1

    In the Patent for New Albion, granted to Sir Edmund Plowden 21 June, 1634, occur these words:

     . . . habend’ exercend’ utend’ & gaudend’ ꝑut aliquis Episcopus Dunelmens’ infra Episcopatum sive Comitatum Palatinatura Dunelmense infra regnũ nr̃m Angl’ unquam antehac hũit tenuit usus vel gavisus fuit seu de iure hẽre tenere uti vel gaudere debuit aut potuit Ipsumq’ Edmond’ Plowden milit’ . . . & eiusdem Comitem Pallatinu et gubnatorem cum tot tant’ & tal’ titlis addicc͠oe dignitat’ & privileg’ ꝑ pssent’ facim’ cream’ et constituim’ quot quant’ et qual’ Georgius Calvert miles infra Provinciam sive comitat’ Pallatin’ de Avalonia infra terr’ nram novam vel ut psdc̃us dñs de Baltamore infra Maryland.2

    In the Charter of New Hampshire granted 19 August, 1635, to Captain John Mason, occur the words which follow. It should be stated, however, that the authenticity of this Charter is in doubt.

    Wee doe give grant and confirme . . . as now are or at any time heretofore have been had used or enjoyed or of right ought to be or to have been used or enjoyed by the now or any former Bishop of Duresme within the Bishoprick of Duresme or the County Palatine of Duresme within Our Realme of England.3

    In Sir Ferdinando Gorges’s Charter of Maine, dated 3 April, 1639, occur the words:

     . . . together with all and singuler, and as large and ample rights, jurisdicons, priviledges, prerogatives, royallties, liberties, imunities, fraunchisses and hereditaments, . . . as the Bishop of Durham within the Bishopricke or Countie Palatine of Duressme in my Kingdome of England, now hath, vseth, or inioyeth, or of right ought to have, vse, and inioy within the said Countie Palatine.1

    In the First Charter of Carolina, dated 24 March, 1663, will be found these words:

    Know ye, therefore, that we, . . . by this our present Charter, . . . do Give, Grant and Confirm . . . all that territory or tract of ground, . . . To have, use, exercise and enjoy, and in as ample manner as any Bishop of Durham in our Kingdom of England, ever heretofore have held, used or enjoyed, or of right ought or could have, use, or enjoy.2

    The same words, with slight variations, occur in the Second Charter of Carolina, dated 30 June, 1665.3

    It is thus seen that several Proprietors had Palatinate rights, and it would not have been at all surprising had the title Palatine been applied to the person or persons to whom the above charters were granted. Nevertheless, except in two instances, there is no proof that Palatine was so applied.

    Referring to Sir Ferdinando Gorges, a writer recently said: “It was in the year 1639 that he was created Lord Palatine of Maine,”4 Gorges spoke of himself as “Lord Proprietor and owner of the Province of Maine,”5 or as “Lord of the Province of Maine,”6 while his grandson, Ferdinando Gorges, also spoke of himself as the “Lord Proprietor of the Province of Mayne.”1 Our associate Mr. James P. Baxter, whose knowledge of the history of Maine is unsurpassed, tells me that he has never encountered the title “Lord Palatine;” and, unless evidence to the contrary can be produced, it is safe to conclude that such a title was never employed by Gorges.

    In the Century Dictionary we read that “the same name [Palatine] is sometimes given to the proprietor of the province of Maryland.” Here again the statement may be regarded as erroneous, for the actual title employed by the Proprietor of Maryland was “Lord Proprietary,” thus corresponding to the “Lord Proprietor” of Maine and to the “Lords Proprietors” of Carolina. Indeed, the word Palatine, with a single exception presently to be mentioned, seems never to have been used in this country as the title of a person before the year 1669. Among the eight original Proprietors of Carolina was the famous Earl of Shaftesbury, then (1663) Lord Ashley. In 1666 he made the acquaintance of John Locke, and in 1669 the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina were drawn up. These are generally attributed to Locke, but the exact share which each had in their preparation has never been determined.2 In the First Charter and in the Second Charter of Carolina, there was a clause in regard to Colonial titles of honor;3 but what was vague in 1663 and 1665 had become specific in 1669, and then for the first time we meet with the titles Palatine, Landgrave, and Cacique.4 When the Shaftesbury Papers came into the possession of the Public Record Office, there was found among them a draft of the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina in the handwriting of Locke. Two of its clauses are as follows:

    The eldest of the lords proprietors shall be palatin, & upon ye decease of ye palatin ye eldest of the seven surviveing proprietors shall always succeed him. . . . The Chancellors Court, consisting of one of ye proprietors & his six councillers, who shall be called vice chancellors, shall have ye custody of ye seal of ye Palatinate, under wh. all charters of lands, or otherwise com’issious & grants of ye Palatins court shall passe, etc.1

    This document was dated 21 July, 1669. On March first, 166970, the Fundamental Constitutions received their final form. A few extracts will show the use of the word Palatine in Carolina.

    At a Meeting of the Propriators of Carolina held at the Cockpitt the 21st of October 1669. The Duke of Albemarle was elected the first Pallatin of Carolina.2

    At a Meeting of the Proprietors of Carolina at Sir George Carteretts Lodgings at Whitehall the 20th of January 1669[–70]. . . . George Duke of Albemarle the first pallatin of Carolina being dead The Lord Berkeley being the eldest in years of the surviving proprietors succeeded him and was admitted the second pallatin of Carolina.3

    1669–70, March 1. Whatever passes under the seal of the Palatinate, shall be registered in the proprietor’s court to which the matter therein contained, belongs.4

    1670. Yourselfe and the five Deputys of the respective proprietors are to represent the Pallatines Court and exercise the same Jurisdictions and powers that by our fundamentall Constitutions and forme of Government to that Court doth appertaine.5

    1682. To the Right Honourable William Earl of Craven Pallatine, and the rest of the true and absolute Lords and Proprietors of the Province of Carolina.6

    1707. I shall next proceed to treat of the Government, as granted by Charles II. to the Eight Lords Proprietors aforesaid, who again, by common consent, center’d that Power in Four of them, viz. in a Palatine of their own election, and Three more who were impower’d to execute the whole Powers of the Charter, and is call’d a Palatines Court; their Deputies in Carolina executing the same, as from their Principals they are directed.1

    1726. It had been usual with them to appoint a Governor and seven Deputies, called the Council, the first of which (the Governor) represented the Palatine, and the others the rest of the Lords Proprietors, respectively, and were called the Upper House of Assembly.2

    In Carolina the term Palatine was for over half a century in use as the title of a person.3 Nowhere else in this country do we meet with that exact title. But in a single instance the title of “Earl Palatine” was claimed and used. One of the most curious, romantic, and obscure episodes in the history of American colonization was the attempt made by Sir Edmund Plowden to found New Albion. The story may be briefly outlined. In or about June, 1632, Plowden presented to Charles I. a petition—

    Humbly beseeching yor most Excellent Matie. to com̄and the Ld. Chauncelor of Ireland to make to yor subiects yr Adventurers a pattent vndr yor seale of Ireland of the saied Isle and 30 myles square of the coste next adjoyneing to be erected into a County Palatine called Syon to be held of yor Maties. Crowne of Ireland . . . and wth. the like title, dignity and priuiledges to Sr. Edmund Plowden there as was graunted to Sr George Caluert Kt: in Newfound land by yor Maties. Royall father.4

    On 24 July, 1632, Charles wrote to the Lords Justices:

    Whereas the said Petitioners have made humble Suite to us for our Royal Grant of the said Isle, and forty Leagues square of the adjoining Continent to be held of us as of our Crown of that our Realm of Ireland, in the Nature of a County Palatine or Body-Politick by the Name of New Albion, . . . Our Pleasure is, and we do hereby authorise and require you . . . to cause a Grant of the said Isle . . . to be made unto the Petitioners and their Heirs for ever.1

    As we have already seen, the grant of New Albion was finally obtained 21 June, 1634.2 An expedition soon came over, Plowden himself arrived in or about 1611, but he was driven off by the Swedes, and the attempted plantation proved a dire failure. After wandering about this country for many years, Plowden finally reached Boston, for under date of 4 June, 1648, we find Governor John Winthrop writing as follows:

    Here arrived one Sir Edmund Plowden, who had been in Virginia about seven years. He came first with a patent of a county Palatine for Delaware Bay, but wanting a pilot for that place, he went to Virginia, and there having lost the estate he brought over, and all his people scattered from him, he came hither to return to England for supply, intending to return and plant Delaware, if he could get sufficient strength to dispossess the Swedes.3

    But however unsuccessful Plowden was in his efforts to settle a colony here, he at least succeeded in coining a new title for America—that of “Earl Palatine.”

    1634, December 20. Whereas our Sovereign Lord King Charles, by his highnesses letters-patent, under the great seal of Ireland, bearing date the one-and-twentienth day of June, 1634, hath granted and confirmed to Us, . . . the said title of Earl Palatine, and office of governor.1

    1641. Sir Edmund our noble Governour and Lord Earl Palatine, . . . is sufficiently instructed of the state of the country, and people there . . . And truly I beleeve, my Lord of Ballamore wil be glad of my Lord Palatines Plantation and assistance against any enemy or bad neighbour.2

    1648. Now there be four other Lord Proprietors that have Palatine jurisdiction granted, and Provinces in the West-India Isles, Florida and Maryland, and as free as the Bishop of Durham had, but none have a speciall creation of an Earle Palatine, but ours of Neio Albion.3

    1655, July 29. I, Sr Edmund Plowden of Wansted in the county of South ton Knight, Lord, Earle Palatine, Governor and Captain Generall of the Province of New Albion.4

    The sequel of Plowden’s attempt at colonization was singular. Shortly before the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, Charles Varlo bought one-third of the Charter of New Albion. The times not being then propitious, Varlo waited until 1781, when he issued a pamphlet and inserted in a London newspaper an advertisement which reads in part as follows:

    To be lett, in the finest part of America, on leases of lives renewable for ever, in such fixed farms as may be agreed on, the estates of the Earl Palatine of Albion, consisting of Long-Island, together with 120 miles square on the continent, one side of which joins the sea from Sandy-Hook to Cape May, called New-Albion. This Province is not one of the 13 included1 in the articles of peace between the Congress and England. . . . The lands are good, and will be let very cheap to industrious tenants. The charter, and conditions of letting the lands, &c. are printed in a pamphlet, price one shilling, sold by Mr. Reynell, printer, No. 11, Piccadilly, London. Letters post paid, and signed with real names, directed for E. P. at the said printer’s, will be answered to the purpose, by the Agent to the Earl of Albion.2

    In May of the same year Varlo, according to his own account, “broke up housekeeping in Sloane-Square, where I then resided, and with my family embarked for America, invested with proper power as Governor to the Province of New Albion.”3 He reached Philadelphia July twenty-fourth,4 circulated his pamphlet called The Finest Part of America,1 and employed William Rawle of Philadelphia as counsel; but of course his effort to establish his claim was futile.

    The uses of the word Palatine thus far considered long ago became obsolete in this country except historically. There is, however, still another meaning of the word, though curiously enough this has apparently not yet found its way into the dictionaries.2 Explanations differ as to why many Germans emigrated from the Palatinate of the Rhine to England in the first decade of the eighteenth century, but such an exodus did take place in 1708.3 Of the Palatines who then came to England, some were sent to Ireland, others to Carolina, and still others to New York, while in later years emigrants came to this country in large numbers. This sense of the word is illustrated by the extracts which follow.

    1709, June 18. ’Tis said a brief was then ordered for a collection in London and Middlesex to releive the poor Palatines, and that the commissioners of trade and plantations are to take care of them till the West India fleet goes, when they are to embark for Nevis and St. Christopher’s, to repeople those islands destroyed by the French.4

    1709, July 23. 300 more poor Palatines are arrived [in London], so that the whole number here is about 8000.1

    1709, August 9. The commissioners for providing for the poor Palatines, upon inspecting the subscriptions of the nobility and gentry, find that about 15,000l is already given for their support; abundance of them are gone hence in waggons for Chester, to embark for Ireland, and the rest designed for that kingdom will speedily follow.2

    1709, August 30. If it shall not be thought Convenient to settle the whole number of the poor Palatines on the Island of Jamaica, We offer to Your Lordps consideration. That such of them as shall not otherwise be disposed of may conveniently be settled upon Hudson’s River in the Province of New York.3

    September 3. To the 2nd Proposal relating to the poor Palatines that shall be transported into North Carolina, It was resolv’d that their Lordships will not undertake to provide them with all provisions they shall want but they will give directions to their Receiver General to supply the Palatines with such provisions as he shall have of their Lordships in his hands and may be spared from the necessary use of the government at the same rates he received them.4

    June 16. I arrived here [New York] two days ago. We want still three of the Palatin Ships & those arrived are in a deplorable sickly condition.5

    1710. Lastly, We humbly offer, that the said Palatines, upon their Arrival there, be naturalized, without Fee or Reward.6

    1710, November 11. At this Time, I have occasion to remind you of one [benefit from Queen Anne], that is, that Addition to your Wealth and Strength by the Settling of the Palatines amongst you, by her Majesty’s signal Bounty, and at her Expence.7

    1711, October 15. On the 22 nd of the last month some towns of the Tuscaruro Indians and other Nations . . . began a barbarous Massacre, on the Inhabitants of the Frontier plantations, killing . . . 60 English and upwards of that number of Swiss and palatines.8

    1711, October 23. Ordered, That ye Secretary acquaint ye Assembly that his Excellency . . . did . . . Disband ye. fforces . . . against Canada Retaineing in pay one hundred and ffifty men . . . and That he will compleat their number out of ye Palatines1

    1717, September 9. Capt. Richmond, Capt. Towor, & Capt. Eyers, waited upon the Board with the List of the Palatines they had Imported here [Philadelphia] from London.2

    1724. Beyond this are seated the Colony of Germans or Palatines, with Allowance of good Quantities of rich Land.3

    1727, September 21. A Paper being drawn up to be signed by those Palatines, who should come into this Provinc with an Intention to settle therein, . . . was this day presented, read & approved, & is in these Words:

    We Subscribers, Natives and late Inhabitants of the Palatinate upon the Rhine & Places adjacent, having transported ourselves and Families into this Province of Pensilvania, . . . Do Solemnly promise & Engage, that We will be faithful & bear true Allegiance to his present MAJESTY KING GEORGE THE SECOND.4

    Run away Yesterday from Francis Smith of Evesham in the County of Burlington, a Servant Man named John Haversach, aged about 40 Years, of middle Stature, has had the Small-Pox, his Complexion ruddy, brown Hair and a whitish Beard; He is by Birth a Palatine, but has travelled in the Armies by Land in France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Turkey, England and Scotland, and can speak their Languages; he speaks English indifferently well.5

    1735, July 26. On Sunday last arrived two hundred Palatines.6 1739. ran-away on the 23d of May last, . . . a Dutch Palatine Servant Man, named Jacob Lasant, about 20 Years of Age, of middle Stature and well set, . . . he can speak very good French, and pretends to be a Butcher.1

    1754, November 13. A Sickness prevailing in the Town [Philadelphia] (tho’ no formal Information has been given of it by any of the Citizens), owing to the Unhealthiness of the Vessels and the Palatine Passengers that have arrived this Year, the Secretary was ordered to desire the Doctors to visit all the Palatine Ships now in Harbour, and all the Houses within the City where any such Palatines had been entertained, and to make their Report to the Governor this Day in Council; . . .

    Ordered, That Mr. Bourne, the Health Officer, should immediately give Notice to all the Captains and Owners of Palatine Vessels now in Harbour not to land any Bedding or Sick Palatines within a Mile of the City.2

    1760. For, in or about this time [1711], the Jesuits among the French had instigated the Indians in the southern parts to fall on the English, as they did in the back parts of Pennsylvania,—where they butchered great numbers of the Palatines,—and extended their slaughters to Virginia and Carolina.3

    1884. The “Palatines,” or German fugitives from the Palatinate, . . . did not enter Maryland in any numbers until towards the middle of the eighteenth century.4

    1899. The Germans—Palatines, as they are styled in the quotation from the Gazette—who thus worked their way were called Redemptioners, and from them have come some of our best citizens.5

    1901. So many of its [Rhenish Palatinate’s] inhabitants fled that in America all German immigrants were called Palatines, and we even encounter in colonial records that nondescript “A Palatine from Holsteyn.”6

    1901. Indeed, later in the [eighteenth] century when speculation had taken possession of ocean transportation, sickness was so unfailing a concomitant of the journey that ship-fever was generally known in Philadelphia as “Palatine fever.”7

    1901. As early as 1710 some Palatines came into the province and settled in that [Frederick] county. . . . In 1735 Daniel Dulany offered sufficiently favorable terms to induce about one hundred families recently arrived from the Palatinate to settle on some of his land in the same county.1

    It may be added that as a place-name Palatine still survives, there now being towns, villages, or hamlets named Palatine in Illinois, Kansas, New Jersey, New York, and West Virginia. There is also a townland called Palatine in County Carlow, Ireland.2

    The traditions of the Palatine Light and of the shipwreck of a Palatine vessel at Block Island deserve consideration, as they have passed into literature, having inspired the elder Dana,3 Whittier,4 Colonel Higginson,5 and the Rev. Edward E. Hale.6 Though these traditions without doubt existed in the eighteenth century, they do not seem to have found their way into print until about a century ago, and their origin is veiled in obscurity. The earliest mention I have found of them is in the following passages:

    To the Editors of the Medical Repository.

    If the following articles are deemed of sufficient importance, you are at liberty to give them a place in your valuable publication.

    Aaron C. Willey.

    Block-Island, June 25, 1810.

    5. Jack O’Lanthorn.

    I purpose to send you, shortly, an account of a singular and curious phenomenon which is sometimes seen on the ocean near this place. It is a wandering, lambent flame, which has long astonished ignorance and superstition, and I believe, will not a little rack the ingenuity of philosophy to afford a satisfactory explanation.1

    The account which Dr. Willey promised to send “shortly” was not written until a year and a half later and was not printed until 1813, in which year there appeared a long article from which the following extracts are drawn:

    Metheoric appearance called the Palatine Light.

    (By Aaron C. Wiley.)

    Block Island, December 10, 1811.

     . . . This curious irradiation arises from the ocean near the northern part of the island. Its appearance is nothing different from that of a blaze of fire. It beams with various magnitude; being sometimes small, resembling the light of a distant window, at others expanded to the bigness of a ship with all her canvass spread. . . . It actually diffuses the luminous principle. A gentleman, whose house is situated near the sea, informs me, that he has known it to illuminate considerably the walls of his room through the windows. It approaches within half a mile of the shore, at others is seen blazing at six or seven miles distance. It has been discovered from the adjoining part of the continent, and at first, mistaken for a vessel or building on fire. . . . The first time I beheld it was evening twilight, in February, 1810. It was large, and gently lambent; very bright, broad at the base, and terminated acutely upward. From each side seemed to issue rays of faint light, similar to those perceptible in any blaze placed in the open air, and viewed in the night. It continued about fifteen minutes from the time I first observed it, and then slowly became smaller and more dim till it was entirely extinguished. I saw it again in the evening of December the 20th. It was then small. At first I supposed it to be a light on board of some vessel. . . .

    This lucid motion is known by the name of the Palatine Light. By the ignorant and superstitious it is thought to be supernatural. Its appellation originated from that of a ship called the Palatine, which was designedly cast away at this place in the beginning of the last century, in order to conceal, as tradition reports, the murder and inhuman treatment of the unfortunate passengers. From this time it is said the Palatine Light began to appear; and there are many who firmly believe it to be a ship on fire, while their fantastic and distempered imaginations figure masts, ropes, and flowing sails.

    The cause of this “wavering brightness” is a curious subject for philosophical investigation. . . . I have stated facts, but feel a reluctance to hazard any speculations. These I leave to you [Dr. Samuel L. Mitchill] and other erudiate researchers of created matter.1

    A story not unlike the above, but with some gruesome additions, was told to Whittier by Joseph P. Hazard of Rhode Island and formed the basis of Whittier’s poem. Variations of course occur. About two years after his poem was printed, Whittier received a letter from Benjamin Corydon of Napoli, New York, in which that gentleman said:

    The “Palatine” was a ship that was driven upon Block Island, in a storm, more than a hundred years ago. Her people had just got ashore, and were on their knees thanking God for saving them from drowning, when the islanders rushed upon them and murdered them all. That was a little more than the Almighty could stand, so He sent the Fire or Phantom Ship to let them know he had not forgotten their wickedness. She was seen once a year, on the same night of the year on which the murders occurred, as long as any of the wreckers were living; but never after all were dead. I have seen her eight or ten times—perhaps more—in my early days. It is seventy years or more since she was last seen. My father lived right opposite Block Island, on the main land, so we had a fair view of her as she passed down by the island; then she would disappear. She resembled a full-rigged ship, with her sails all set and all ablaze. It was the grandest sight I ever saw in my life. I know of only two living who ever saw her,—Benjamin L. Knowles, of Rhode Island, now 94 years old, and myself, now in my 92d year.1

    Mr. Coryclon was mistaken in thinking that he and Mr. Knowles were the only two then living who had seen the Palatine Light and that it had not been observed for a period of seventy years.2

    That a vessel bringing Palatines was wrecked at Block Island in the eighteenth century seems certain, but unfortunately no one has yet been able to show exactly when. It is rather singular that one of the first Palatine vessels which came to New York was wrecked. We have already seen that Governor Hunter reached New York on 14 June, 1710.3 On 24 July he wrote:

    By a small vessell bound for Lisbon I gave your Lordships notice of our arrival here, since that time all the Palatine ships separated by the weather are arrived safe except the Herbert Frigat where our Tents and arms are, she was cast away on the East end of Long Island on the 7th of July, the men are safe, but our goods much damaged.4

    The east end of Long Island is very near Block Island.

    In 1887 our associate Mr. Andrew McF. Davis wrote:

    I have recently met with a reference to the wreck in a letter which, unfortunately, is not dated, but which must have been written between 1732 and 1740, with strong probability that it was written in November, 1736.1

    At a meeting of this society in March, 1893,2 Mr. Henry ii. Edes quoted from a letter written 21 April, 1740, by Peter Faneuil of Boston to Peter Baynton of Philadelphia, in which Faneuil said:

    This accompanies Capt. Burgess Hall, who carries with him to your parts two unfortunate Palatine women that were some time ago shipwrecked in their voyage from Europe to your place3

    But once more we are not told exactly when and where the shipwreck took place.

    In a letter dated 21 May, 1742, and “wrote at Sea between Long & Block Island, 20 miles from New London, in America,” John P. Meurer said:

    To-day we came to and sailed between Long and Block Island . . . our captain not being certain what course to take for New London, went on board a sloop near us and engaged the pilot to take us in. When he came on board and saw so many passengers, he inquired who we were and from whence we came. When informed, he stated that he had visited Marienborn and had lived some years at Koenigsberg. He has been here 17 years, and came over with 270 passengers who were cast away. . . . He also said, the year before, a ship came from Europe with passengers and just before making the land almost all of them died, and were buried, sometimes 20—30—40 in one hole.4

    This shipwreck must have occurred in 1725, but we are not told where that pilot lived—whether on Block Island or on Long Island.

    It has not hitherto been pointed out, in discussions relating to the wreck of a Palatine vessel, that in 1731 a ship bearing the singularly inappropriate name of Loving Unity, of Falmouth, England, sailed from Rotterdam for Philadelphia. Jacob Lobb, the master of the ship, treated the passengers with great cruelty and the vessel was put into Martha’s Vineyard, where the Palatines were detained a long time and their sufferings became the subject of litigation.445 It was a case not of wreck but of cruelty and of alleged murder on the part of Captain Lobb.1 It is barely possible that this actual case of ill-treatment at Martha’s Vineyard has been combined with the wreck of a vessel at Block Island, of which the record is now lost, to produce the traditions which for so long a time have held such sway.

    These stories of the Palatine Light and of the Palatine ship are of course curious rather than important, but a hunt in search of baffling details is sometimes of interest. This paper may fitly close with a paragraph recently stumbled on in a Boston newspaper:

    Sole Survivor of the Palatine.

    Mrs. Viola Sands Hazard, thought to be the oldest woman in Rhode Island, is dead at her home in Wakefield, R. I., at the age of 105 years. She was known as the only descendant of the sole survivor of the ship Palatine, which was wrecked at Block Island in the eighteenth century, and which has become celebrated as the “Phantom ship” in Whittier’s poem.1

    On behalf of Mr. Worthington C. Ford, Mr. Henry H. Edes communicated copies of some verses on the death of Increase Nowell in 1655, of Governor Endicott in 1665, and of Henry Withington in 1666, and of the Epitaph of William Pole of Dorchester, who died in 1675.2 These follow.


    Verses made on the death of Mr nowell:1 by rodger clap:2


    When graue and godly men decaye

    and turne unto the dust

    who pillars were wheir they did live

    lay this to harte we must


    Most graue and worthy pillars sure

    of late god have tooke doune

    Let us now mourne for they are gone

    Who haue bin as our crowne


    Those golden pillars which were first

    plast doune this land with in

    by god himselfe sure for our good,

    of late remou’d have bin


    graue wintrup3 he is gone from us

    who noble was in fame

    and dodlow4 to that worthy one

    who was much like the same


    And hibbins1 to with flint2 like wise

    o Let us not for get

    with Glouer3 to the last of all

    let us remember yet


    And let us all lament the lost

    of him who now is gone

    blessed nowell. mongst majestrats

    he all ways have bin one.


    These twenty flue years which ar past

    A justis he have bin

    in all causes desir’d that truth

    most clearly might be seen


    He was a man sound in the truth

    sincear one did loue him

    he was sincear the saints of god

    his loue was great to them


    He dearly lou’d the word of god

    and prechars of the same

    wheir leckturs weir the caus great was

    if he not thither came


    He redy was to spend him selfe

    for god and’s peoples good

    if erar did at all spring up

    for truth he euar stood


    The lost of such a man as this

    we haue cause to lament

    such strocks as theese ar sure from him

    who cals us to repent


    The plantars ould that hethar came

    to settell in this place

    the best that first were planted here

    do drop a way a pace


    The lost of such as now are gone

    in court it ould appeare

    had not the lord made a supply

    of those that do him feare


    O Let us pray to god for those

    who majestrats yet bee

    the gracious presens of our god

    in court o let us see


    Yee fathers graue and worthy sirs

    with us that do remaine

    Unite as one in harte and tongue

    it will be all our gaine


    Up hold the truth as you have done

    gainst those that shall oppose

    and crush all sin and so we shall

    in harts still with you cloose


    This blessed saint that now is gone

    he is at peace and rest

    whilst we are wrastling heare be lowe

    he happy is and blest


    The soule of blessed nowell now

    is fil’d with glory bright

    and sees the face of his sweet Christ

    Oh that’s a blessed sight


    O blessed Lord prepare us all

    who thine eleckt on’s bee

    and take us lord unto thy selfe

    thy blessed face to see


    Then shall wee hallilugah sing

    where plesures euer bee

    our harts desire we have when that

    our souls are fil’d with thee


    Upon the death of our honourable Gouernour John Endicot esq’ who departed this Life on the 15 of the (1 mo) (1665) and now resteth with the lord.

    When god doth take our pillars downe

    which have been strong and bold

    our priuiledge and gouernment

    sincerely to uphold

    Is it not then a noice from god

    to all and euery one

    returne to god, consider well

    the euills we have done

    When god doth take the counsellor

    and judge from us away

    repent and turne unto the lord

    that others giue he may

    If god should now depart from us

    as justly we may feare

    noe and alase. our misery

    sad will it be then here

    This worthy that is gone from us

    how famous hath he been

    still to uphold our gouernment

    in Cambridge once was seen

    When some did striue to hinder much

    the worke we were aboute

    most zealously he did then for

    election cry out

    And did preuaile through gods rich grace

    the worke was sweetly done

    then did the hearts of saints rejoice

    when they the field had won

    An ancient magistrate was he,

    the first sure that was here

    a man of zeale and courage too

    as allways did appeare

    He did not feare the face of man

    nor daunted would he be

    he feared the everliuing god

    and puunish siune would he

    He was our gouernor: he had

    a graue and goodly face

    a man of worth and godliness

    most fit for such a place

    This worthy man is gone from us

    that was of such renowne

    hee’s now with god and christ aboue

    and hath receiued his crowne

    O happy man in happines

    for ever must he bee

    he still beholds the face of christ

    that’s happines to see

    So shall it be one day with all

    that god doe glorify

    that hold fast truth, and hate sin’s shall

    be lifted up on high

    But sure the way to be aduanct

    is in heart to be low

    and to reforme without delay

    all sin that we doe know

    Newengland sinnes doe cry aloud

    and witnes to our face

    we are declin’d: there are sprung up

    some of a wicked race

    These doe corrupt, and will still more

    lest majistrates step in

    and elders too: with gods sharp sword

    to hew down euery sinue

    And others too: all that feare god

    reprouing one another

    most louingly to win: lest god

    us punnish all together

    And let us all look up to god

    that he would bless us still

    providing us a gouernor

    according to his will

    A man of courage fearing god

    yet humble meek and low

    a man that loue’s this gouernment

    on him blessings will flow

    And on the churches all through out

    they would rejoyce and sing

    Yea, praise the lord for his rich grace

    and honour would the king

    Who hath appointed us to choose

    our gouernors yearly

    a priuiledge sure of great worth

    that’s to be prized high

    If god doe help us in our choice

    that we doe all agree

    this yeare to put men in their place

    then happy people wee

    If all our honourable pillars

    that are in magistry

    unite as one to saue the whole

    then churches shall not dy

    This is our hope, this is our prayer

    that euen so it bee

    that god may stay, and not depart

    then blest forever wee


    Upon the death of Eldar withington1 who departed this Life the 2 of the 12 mo (1666) and now resteth with the lord.

    When Eldars graue and rulars bee

    from us remou’d a way

    god eals: repent and turn lest hee

    should send an euell day:

    Such eldars as rull well: god doth

    appoynt them honner dubble

    we shall prouoke the lord if by

    our sins we do them trouble

    Alas how have we greu’d them all

    who haue our rullars bin

    by trutlesnes2 and ways of sin

    O let us mourn now then

    And say to god o parden us

    and spare thou yet the rest

    of our deare eldars that remaine

    let them and us be blest

    And do thou lord of thy rich grace

    a man for us prepare

    with gifts and parts: to rule thy house

    in christ let him have share.

    What tho we haue such enimise

    Yet we shall sure preuaile

    by faith in christ. for he haue crusht

    theire head: so they shall quaile

    Then let us now both church and toune

    our resolution tacke

    to cleue to god and fly from sin

    and christ our captin make

    O that our youth ould now begin

    to thinke who must suckseed

    our anchant on’s religious

    of such theire will be need

    For if religion do decaye

    god quickly will depart

    and judgments great O and alas

    will breacke a godly hart

    Then yonge on’s you must be the men

    that must up hold gods truth

    the ould on’s dy: o come to Christ

    sarve god now in your youth

    Then you’ll be fit for place of rule

    or for to be ruled

    then god will blese you whilst you liue

    and saue your soule when dead

    So hath he done the blessed soule

    of our deare withington

    when saints shall rise to meet the lord

    he then sure will be one

    Then sons and daftars emmitat

    your deare and louing father

    in godlynes o com not short

    but do exceed him rather

    And be as kind unto his deare

    for deare she is to god

    I mean his deare and louing wife1

    whilst she have heare abode

    Then god will bless you and also

    you all will haue reuowne

    walk in his steps and then you shall

    also reseve a crowne:


    Mr William Pole1 his epitaph made by his owne hand who died, the 24. of the 12mo: (1674)

    Hoe earths Inhabitant: its worth thy stay

    to take a dead mans lesson by the way

    I was, what now thou art; and thou shalt bee

    what I am now: thy self, behold in mee

    Death wilbe greuious when thou com’st to dy

    the way to ease it, is to learue to dy

    sin is the sting of death: there wrings the shooe

    dy first to sin, and death no hurt can doe

    now goe thy way; but stay: take one more word

    thy staff for ought thou know’st, stands next the dore

    death is the dore, yea dore of heau’n or hell

    be warn’d, be arm’d, beleeue, repent, farewell.

    W: P.

    Mr. Edes communicated a letter written by Benedict Arnold to Miss Mercy Scollay1 of Boston, concerning the education of the children of Joseph Warren. The letter is as follows.

    Philada July 15th 1778

    Dear Madam,

    About three mouths since I was informed by Doctor Townshend2 that my late worthy friend General Warren left his affairs unsettled, and that after paying his debts a very small matter if anything would be left for the Education of his Children,3 who, to my great surprize I find have been entirely neglected by the State—I wrote Dr Townshend, desiring him (if the friends of the children would consent) to take care of the Education of the second Son & youngest daughter, who, I am informed by Mr. Hancock4 is at present in your charge—As I find that Dr. Townsend has joined the Army, permit me to beg the favour of your continuing your care of the daughter & that you will at present take charge of the Education of the Son—I make no doubt that his Relations will consent to that he should be under your Care—

    My intention is to use my Interest with Congress to provide for the family; If they decline it, I make no doubt of a handsome collection by private subscription—at all events I will provide for them in a manner suitable to their birth & the grateful Sentiments I shall ever feel for the memory of my friend.—I have sent you by Mr. Hancock five hundred Dollars, for the present—I wish you to have Richard cloathed handsomely & sent to the best school in Boston—any expence you are at please to draw on me, for which [you] shall be paid with thanks—

    I am Dr Madam

    Yr Mo: Hble Serv:—

    B. Arnold1

    Mr. William C. Lane exhibited a copy of the 1711 edition of the Rev. Henry More’s Enchiridion Ethicum as evidence that it was the work referred to as More’s Ethics in an enumeration of the text-books used at Harvard in the first quarter of the eighteenth century, in a former communication to the Society by Mr. Noble.2 The copy had once been owned by James Cushing of the Class of 1725 and by Edward Jackson of the Class of 1726.

    President Kittredge quoted an extract from the Literary Diary of Ezra Stiles, showing that More’s book was also in use at Yale College during the same period. Under date of 24 June, 1779, President Stiles wrote:

    Yesterday I put the Senior Class into President Claps Ethics or Moral Philosophy. It was printed just before his death, and has been sometimes recited by the Classes. Afterwds President Edwds on the Will was recited: this giving Offence was dropped. And thro’ the Confusion of Times the Seniors have recited no Ethics for several years. When I was Undergraduate we recited Wollastons Religion &c delineated. When my Father was in Coll. they recited Mori Enchiridion Ethicum.3

    Mr. Edes read extracts from two letters written in 1774 by Silas Deane, giving an amusing description of Roger Sherman.1