A Stated Meeting of the Society was held at the house of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, No. 28 Newbury Street, Boston, on Thursday, 24 January, 1924, at three o’clock in the afternoon, the President, Fred Norris Robinson, Ph.D., in the chair.

    The Corresponding Secretary reported that letters had been received from the Rt. Rev. Charles Lewis Slattery and Mr. Frank Brewer Bemis, accepting Resident Membership.

    Mr. Frederic Winthrop of Hamilton, Mr. Edward Motley Pickman of Billerica, Mr. Benjamin Loring Young of Weston, and Mr. Edward Waldo Forbes of Cambridge, were elected Resident Members; and Mr. William Otis Sawtelle of Haverford, Pennsylvania, and Mr. William Keeney Bixby of St. Louis, Missouri, were elected Corresponding Members.

    Mr. John W. Farwell exhibited a copy of a pamphlet by “Simon the Tanner” entitled “A Letter to the Reverend Andrew Croswell, occasioned by his Brief Remarks on the Satyrical Drollery, Last Commencement Day; with especial reference to the Character of Stephen, the Preacher, which occasioned such extravagant Mirth,” printed at Boston in 1771. The author was perhaps the Rev. Thomas Prentice (1702–1782; H. C. 1726) of Charlestown.698

    Mr. Percival Merritt read the following paper:


    Under date of January 9, 1781, the Rev. Samuel Parker of Trinity Church, Boston, wrote the Rev. William Morrice, Secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, that—

    Christ Church in this Town is now supplied with a Clergyman who was deputy Chaplain to Gen’l Burgoyne’s Regim’t of light Dragoons & made Prisoner here about three years ago. He was detained in Captivity about a year, was then exchanged & went to N. York; from thence in August 1778 came to this Town & offered to take the Oath of Allegiance to the United States. In the fall of the same year he was employed to preach at that Chh & has since made such Alterations in the Liturgy as to accomodate to the present Rulers. This no other Episcopal Clergyman in the New England Provinces has done. His name is Stephen Lewis & is a Native of England.699

    This statement of Mr. Parker’s, which he repeated more briefly a few years later to the Rev. Dr. William White of Philadelphia,700 and a few extracts from the Christ Church records, together with several casual allusions to Mr. Lewis which will be referred to in due course, comprise practically all that has been known of him up to the present time. From the explicit reference to his connection with Burgoyne’s regiment, it would have seemed an easy matter to identify him, but his name could not be found in the lists of British officers serving in America, nor in the list of officers paroled at the time of Burgoyne’s surrender. Neither did it appear in any of the catalogues of the various English, Scotch, and Irish universities. But eventually, taking Mr. Parker’s statement with regard to the Oath of Allegiance as a starting point, a search among the Massachusetts Archives uncovered his history from the time of his leaving England in July, 1776, up to the time of his assuming the charge of Christ Church in 1778.701

    On October 3, 1776, Richard Derby of Salem addressed the following letter to “The Honble The President of the Councill, Watertown”:


    Last Evening The Massachusetts Capt Souther commander of the Brigantine belonging to this State702 aryved here, and Informs me that a few Days after he had sailed he fell in with & Took a Brigantine703 of about 250 Tons from Falmouth in England mounting six three pound Cannon, & having on board a Captain and about 20 Privates of the 16th Regiment of Dragoons with their Horses & Accoutrements,—The Chaplain of the Regiment is also with them, some articles of English Goods are on board which the Captain says are his own private Property, but what the Particulars are Capt Souther Cannot Inform, he parted from the Prize this Day week in a Storm which has Continued almost Ever since, but as the Wind has been favourable th[is] Day or two I Expect every moment to see or hear of her being aryved at Boston,704 the prisoners in all amount to 35, which Capt Souther thot too many to Cary the Cruise with him & therefore tho’t best to Return & Land them, Espetially, as he Expected to Do it in a few Days, but Gales of wind has prevented him, The Honble Board I hope will Give me Directions how to Dispose of the Prisoners, Capt Souther Entertains a good oppinion of the Capt & Chaplain, & no Doubt the Board will Order them to some Country Town on their Parole, they Entertain a Contemtible oppinion of the Scotch & wish not to be in the same Town with them. The Common People I shall this Day have Landed & shall put them in the Goal in this Place, untill I Recieve your Directions about them. I Imagine the Board will think with me, that this is an Improper Place for them to Continue for any Long Time, with Respect to News I Can only Inform You that this vessell sailed from Falmouth on the 27 July, Just a month after they Imbarked, in Company with 12 others under the Convoy of the Daphne of 32 Guns, from whom they parted but a Day or two before they were taken, they all had the same kind of Cargo, making in the whole 230 Horses, a Fleet of about 70 sail Sailed about 3 Days before them, under a Strong Convoy, having on board the Remainder of the 16th Regiment of Dragoons, & the last Division of Hanoverians, as he says about 5,000 men bound for York, they were short of Horse Provisions & some of the Horses have Died of the Staggers, and he supposes the late Gales [h]ave Destroyed many more,—he says the People in Brittain know Nothing what is passing in America, & Cap’ Sother Informs me the Chaplain has Told him the People in England begin to grow more weary, not a single news paper or Letter has as Yet been found, if there should be or any more news Transpire You shall soon be Informed of it, I think you may Depend on the Acco he gives of the sailing of the Fleets, and that they are now near if not aryved at York,

    A Privateer Sloop Belonging to this Place is Just Aryved, who fell in with the fleet of 12 Sail, & was so Closely Pursued by the Daphne, that the Enemy fired Musket Ball into them, but by heaveing Over board all her Guns, Water & Provisions, & by Sawing Down her upper works, barely made her Escape,

    I am with all Due Respect to

    the Honble Board,

    Your most Obt Servant

    R. Derby Junr

    P.S. if any Orders Respecting the Prisoners Can be sent by the Bearer, it will be very agreeable,

    The Honble The President of the Councill

    In Council Octr 3r 1776 Read & Ordered that Saml Holten be directed to take this Letter under Consideration & Report

    John Avery Dpy Secy705

    On the same day a reply was sent by the Council to Mr. Derby:

    Council Chamber Octor 3d 1776

    Your favor of this day has been Considered by the Board, and i am to inform you the Officers mention’d in your Letter are to be put upon their Parole and Sent to the Town of Bradford706 in the County of Essex in Case they Sign the Parole herewith inclosed, their Names you will please to insert in the Blanks left for that purpose in the said Parole and also in the Orders to the Sheriff, the Soldiers, or Sailors that are made Prisoners are to be Confined to the Goal in Salem till further Order and treated as Prisoners of War unless they or either of them incline to go out to Labor in which Case such as incline to Labour the Sheriff is directed to put out. And you are directed to give all Possible dispatch to Captain Souther that he may immediately proceed on another Cruize

    In the Name & Order of ye council

    Hon’ble Richd Derby Esqr707

    The Council also:

    On Motion Ordered That Samuel Holten708 & William Phillips Esqrs be a Committee to draft an Order to direct the Sheriff of the County of Essex to tender the Parole agreed upon by this Board accompanying this Order to the Capt of Dragoons and his Chaplain bro’t into Salem by the Brig Massachusetts Agreeable to a Resolve of the Honble Congress and that said Sheriff be directed to conduct said Officers to Boxford in said County to which place they are destined and said sheriff be further Ordered to commit the Prisoners taken in said Briga to the Goal in Salem ‘till further Orders: as Also a Letter to the Committee of Boxford inclosing a Resolve of Congress relative to Prisoners be sent which said Committee are directed to draft and Report who reported as follows

    Council Chamber Ordered, that the Sheriff of the County of Essex be and hereby is directed to tender the Parole accompanying this Order to     now in Salem lately taken prisoners of War and in Case they refuse or either of them to sign the same to commit him or them so refusing to prison agreeable to a Resolve of the Honble Congress And it is further Ordered that the said Sheriff be and hereby is directed to imploy some suitable person to Conduct the said

    to the Town of Boxford in the said County of Essex to which place the said     is destined upon their Signing said Parole and deliver them to the Care of the Committee of Safety &c of said Town. And the said Sheriff is further Ordered to take into his Custody     Soldiers and Sailors taken by Captain Souther.709

    On October 10, 1776, it was “On Motion Ordered that two Letters from Capt. Luke710 and Mr Lewis be sent to his Excellency General Washington to be disposed of as he shall think proper.”711 In accordance with the Council order of October 3, Captain Leche and Mr. Lewis were removed to Boxford.712 In his History of Boxford Perley writes: “More than a dozen of these Hessian prisoners were kept here in Boxford. Several of them lived with Capt. William Perley, others with Rufus Burnham, and one entire family resided in the Emerson house that stood near the residence of Mr. Francis Marden. One of these was Capt. Leach of the Queen’s Light Dragoons.”713

    Mr. Lewis remained in Boxford until December, 1777, or January, 1778, when he was exchanged and went to New York for a time. General Heath’s letter, which will be cited presently, gives the time of his exchange as January, 1778, but an entry in the parish register of Christ Church indicates that Mr. Lewis was in Boston at the end of December, 1777. The last baptismal record by Dr. Byles in the parish register is dated April 11, 1775, and numbered 351. Following this entry and preceding the record of the first baptism performed by Mr. Lewis, in September, 1778, when he was the rector of Christ Church, is the following entry: “352. Decr 29, 1777 Nancy of William & Ann Stackpole was privately Baptiz’d by me. S. C. Lewis.”714 On July 30, 1778, Mr. Lewis was back in Boston, as is shown by the following letter to the Council from General Heath:

    Head Quarters Boston 30 July 1778


    Just before dinner the Revd Stephen Lewis, Chaplain to the 16th Light Dragoons who was taken coming to America 22d Septr 1776, admitted on his Parole for some time by your Honors in the Town of Boxford, and in the month of January last exchanged, came to my Quarters from Genl Sullivan’s at Providence to whom he was forwarded by the Committee of New London; he says that he left the Enemy through dislike to their measures, and wishes to become an Inhabitant of this State if he may be permitted—He informs me that he is acquainted with some of the Hone Board, and that he had hinted to some of the Inhabitants of this State before his departure that he would return again.—I have thought it my duty therefore to send him to you, to be dealt with as you may think proper.

    I have the honor to be

    Very respectfully

    Your Honors Obedt Servt

    W Heath715

    The Council thereupon remanded Mr. Lewis to Boxford under the following order:

    State of Massachusetts Bay     Council Chamber July 30 1778

    Ordered that the Revd Mr Stephen Lewis Chaplin to the 16 Regiment of the British Army has permission from the Council of this State to pass to the Town of Boxford & is hereby directed to reside in & is confined to the Limitts of said Town untill he procures testimonials from the Honble Richard Derby Esqr of Salem & the Revd Mr Holyoke & Aaron Wood Esqr of Boxford or any other Gentlemen of Character within ye State with Respect to his Character that the Board may determine whether it is proper to admit him a subject of this State agreable to a request he has made to a Committee of this Board

    Read & Accepted

    Jno Avery Dy Sey


    permission to the Revd Sten Lewis Chaplin to the 16th British Regt to pass to the Town of Boxford & be confined there’ till further Orders July 30th; 1778716

    1778 July 30 Ordered that the Revd Mr Stephen Lewis, Chaplain to the sixteenth Regiment of the British Army has permission from the Council of this State to pass to the town of Boxford & is hereby directed to reside in & is confined to the limits of said town until he procures testimonials from the Honble Richard Derby Esqr of Salem & the Revd Mr Holyoke & Aaron Wood Esqr of Boxford or any other Gentlemen of Character within this State with respect to his character that the Board may determine whether it is proper to admit him a subject of this State agreeable to a request he has made to a Committee of this Board.717

    A rather curious side-light on the impression created by Mr. Lewis in Boston at this time is reflected in the diary of the Rev. Jacob Bailey, missionary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Pownalborough, Maine.718 Bailey, who was a staunch loyalist, had come to Boston to obtain from the Council permission to remove with his family to Halifax, Nova Scotia. It is obvious that a persecuted loyalist clergyman would have been apt to regard as a renegade, in more ways than one, an Englishman and a clergyman who was seeking to become a citizen of the United States. Under date of July 31, 1778, Bailey wrote:719

    Went in the morning to the Court House [ ] but the President assured me that he would carefully keep my petition, and present it whenever a favourable opportunity should occur. While I was in conversation with him upon the subject, an aid-de-camp from General Heath appeared, with a message to the Council. He gave information that a Mr. Lewis, a clergyman, or chaplain of a regiment, had deserted from New York, and having dined with the General was coming to lay something of the utmost importance before the Council; “but you may depend upon it,” continued the officer, “that the gentleman is a spy.” Mrs. White was buried this afternoon: a prodigious large funeral. Drank tea at Mrs. Coffin’s. Present, D. Lloyd and his wife, Mr. Hubbard, Mr. Brimmer, Mr. Amory and his lady, with several other ladies, both married and single. We spent the evening very agreeably. Having informed Mrs. Coffin of what I had heard concerning the clergyman from New York, she and Mrs. Deblois left the company and went in pursuit of him, hoping to hear something of their absent friends. They had the good fortune to find the gentleman, though something under duress. He represented that all the Royal Forces and the friends of Government were in the utmost confusion and anxiety, that many repented of their rashness in leaving their country, and that numbers intended very shortly to imitate his example in running away and throwing themselves upon the mercy of the American government. He added, that people were almost starving for want of bread and [ ] expected from Britain [ ]. . . . with the arrival of Parson Lewis. Some conceived that he was a spy, others that he had deserted from disgust to the British cause and pure affection to the American cause, whilst the ladies were unanimous that it was a love affair which brought him to Boston, for during his imprisonment he had frequent interviews with Mr. Pierpont’s daughter, a young girl of fifteen, who had an independent fortune of £5000 sterling.720

    So far as can be learned from the Archives Mr. Lewis was finally denied the privilege of taking the oath of allegiance, but for what reason cannot be ascertained. On September 23, 1778:

    Joseph Simpson, Esq; brought down a Petition of Stephen Lewis, setting forth, that he had voluntarily quitted the British Army, and praying that he may be admitted to the Franchises of this Community, with the following Vote of Council thereon, viz.

    In Council, September 23, 1778, Read, and thereupon Resolved, That Timothy Danielson Esq; with such as the Honorable House may join, be a Committee to take this Petition into Consideration, and the Papers accompanying the same, and report.

    Sent down for Concurrence.

    Read and concurred, and Mr. Gorham and Mr. Barrell are joined.721

    And on October 3rd:

    Benjamin Austin, Esq; brought down a Report of the Committee of both Houses on the Petition of Stephen Lewis, being by way of Resolve, permitting him to take the Oath of Allegiance, and considering him as an Inhabitant of this State.

    Pass’d in Council, And     Sent down for Concurrence.

    Read and nonconcurred.722

    Mr. Lewis’s detention at Boxford, as stipulated in the order of the Council of July 30, must have been a brief one, for probably at sometime during the month of August he became the rector of Christ Church. Nothing can be learned from the church records as to how, why, or exactly when he assumed charge of the church, but it is a reasonable surmise that it was due to the suggestion and interest of the Rev. Mr. Parker of Trinity Church. There is preserved in the archives of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel a letter (undated) on the state of the church in 1778,723 from the Rev. Joshua Wingate Weeks, who had been the missionary of the Venerable Society at Marblehead.724 In the course of this letter he wrote: “The French had rece’d leave from the Congress to make use of Christ Church for the purposes of their worship, but the proprietors of it having notice of this persuaded Mr Parker to preach in it every Sunday in the afternoon, by which means it remains untouched.”725 This circumstantial statement it has not been possible to verify. It has been quoted as if referring to the French congregation,726 which at one time had a church of their own in School Street, but this congregation was disbanded and their meeting-house sold to the Congregationalists in March, 1748.727 It has been suggested that it might refer to the French fleet of Admiral d’Estaing, the first ship of which arrived in Boston on August 22, 1778, and the rest of the fleet on August 28,728 but by this time in all probability Mr. Lewis was already installed in charge. An examination of the Journals of the Continental Congress, of the Council Records of the State of Massachusetts, and of the Boston Records, fails to reveal any information with regard to this matter.

    The earliest information which can be gathered from the church records as to Mr. Lewis’s services at Christ Church is found in the parish register.729 Following the last baptism by Dr. Byles, April 11, 1775, comes this entry in the new rector’s handwriting: “The Church shut from this Time till August 1778.” Then follows the record of the private baptism in December, 1777, as cited above. At the top of the next page is written: “Baptisms 1778 by S. C. Lewis.” “No 1 Sept 27th Philip Colter of Philip & Mary Harris Æ 19 M. 1” The first burial is recorded October 16, 1778, preceded by this entry: “From this time”—i.e. April, 1775—“till August 1778 the Church was shut up: consequently the Burials were omitted &c.” His first marriage ceremony is entered under December 30, 1778. At a meeting of the proprietors on October 4, 1778, it was “Voted That the Pews on the Floor be Taxed three shillings law money ꝑ week for Each Pew. That the Pews in the Gallery be Taxed two shillings each ꝑ week;” which would seem to imply that provision was being made to provide for the rector’s salary. As a matter of fact all the votes of the proprietors with regard to Mr. Lewis during his incumbency had to do with the matter of salary. They are of some interest, however, as indicating the rapid depreciation of money during the Revolutionary period. At the proprietors’ meeting on Easter Monday, April 5, 1779, it was “Voted That the Reverd Mr Stephen730 Lewis be allow’d & paid Twelve pounds L M° a Week untill it may be Reconsider’d.” “Voted That Mr Ballard, Dr Foster & Capt Pulling be a Commtee to wait on Mr Lewis with a Copy of the foregoing Vote.” “Voted That the Contribution that may be Collected in this Church the Sunday after next Be for the benefit of the Revd Mr Lewis.” This second Sunday after Easter benefit contribution for the clergyman was a regular feature of the successive proprietors’ meetings. A year later, March 27, 1780, the salary of Mr. Lewis was fixed at “thirty Pounds per Week untill further Altered.” On April 2, 1780, another vote established his salary at “thirty six pounds ꝑ Week untill it be Reconsidered.” Less than six months later it was reconsidered, for on September 18 he was voted “one hundred & Twenty pounds L. M° pr week.” How far this went the proprietors’ records do not show, for there is no account of a vote in 1781, but by 1782 they had arrived on a sounder basis by allowing “Eight Silver Dollars pr week,” which continued as long as he remained in charge of the church.



    The first reference to Mr. Lewis in the vestry records, under date of March 31, 1779, possesses a considerable interest:

    Voted: That the Reverend Mr Lewis be desired to prepare a proper form of Prayer for the Congress of the United States for the several States and for their success in the present important contest to be read daily in the Church. Voted: That the Church Wardens together wth Dr Foster be a Committee to wait on the Revd Mr Lewis with a Copy of the foregoing vote.

    Whether he actually prepared and made use of such a prayer cannot be positively determined. It would seem doubtful in view of the fact that in the Episcopal churches of New England in general which remained open during this period, the only liturgical change consisted in the omission of the prayers for the king and royal family, or as they were entitled more comprehensively the “State Prayers.”731

    On the other hand the statement of Mr. Parker in his letter of January 9, 1781, to the Venerable Society, gives a fairly good reason for believing that Lewis had made “such Alterations in the Liturgy as to accomodate to the present Rules.” Parker was in a position to be thoroughly conversant with what was done at Christ Church and he was accurate and careful in his statements.732 Witness his saying that Lewis “offered to take the Oath of Allegiance,” which in view of what we now know from the Council Records is a very exact statement. One deduction, however, has been sometimes drawn from this episode which is quite unwarranted—namely, that the folio Prayer Book, altered by hand, still in possession of Christ Church, owes its alterations to the Rev. Mr. Lewis.733 The fact that it contains prayers for the President of the United States, and that its alterations simply bring it into harmony with the first edition of the American Prayer Book adopted at the General Convention of September-October, 1789, some five years after Mr. Lewis had left Christ Church, sufficiently disprove any such theory. He may have made physical alterations in some Prayer Book, but he certainly did not do it in the book as we see it to-day.734

    During the incumbency of Mr. Lewis at Christ Church, he gave his assistance on several occasions to churches which were without a settled minister. The records of King’s Church (St. John’s Church), Providence, show that “The Rev. Mr. Parker and Lewis, of Boston assisted us twice each,” but the time of the assistance is not stated.735 On August 14, 1783, at a meeting of St. Paul’s Church, Falmouth (now Portland, Maine), the wardens were instructed to “‘write to the Reverend Mr. Lewis of Boston to visit this Church, Preach with them, and Baptize their children, also to the Reverend Edward Bass of Newbury Port for the same purpose.’ Both of these gentlemen accepted the invitation. The records attest the baptisms performed by the Rev. Mr. Stephen C. Lewis, though his failure to add a date to these evidences of his presence, prevents our knowledge of the time of his visit.”736 The precise time of Mr. Lewis’s visits, however, is to be found in the parish register of Christ Church, which shows that he went to Falmouth on two different occasions. In the midst of his records of baptisms in his own church, he enters under October 18–31, 1780, fifteen baptisms “at Falmouth Casco Bay.” And again September 21–29, 1783, he records thirty-seven baptisms at Falmouth.

    At the first convention of the Episcopal clergy of Massachusetts and Rhode Island held at Boston September 8, 1784, among those present was the “Rev. Stephen C. Lewis, Christ Church, Boston.”737 He was now approaching the end of his connection with Christ Church, though why he decided to sever his relations with the church is not known. The last entry in the vestry records relating to him is as follows, under date of Monday, September 27, 1784:

    That Whereas the Revd Mr Lewes has Decleared his entention to Leave this Church the middle of October next when the Church will be destitute of a Minister. Voted That the Church wardens be directed to write to the Revd Mr John Graves of Providence or sum Other Gentleman to Supply the Pulpit for the present and to agree for the same in the best manner they Can.738

    The last payment to him is entered in the ledger under date of October 11, 1784, though the parish register shows that he performed a baptism on October 12, and a wedding ceremony on October 17.739

    And now Mr. Lewis appeared to have vanished into space without even leaving an address behind,740 and for some time no trace could be found of him. But at about the same time that the Massachusetts Archives revealed his early history, an examination, for another purpose, of a history of South Carolina brought to light his later history, and for the first time indicated his full name. In his account of the Episcopal Church in South Carolina, the Rev. Frederick Dalcho, in detailing the history of St. Helena’s Parish, Beaufort, wrote: “The Rev. Stephen C. Lewis took charge of the Church Nov. 28, 1784, and died in 1791. He was succeeded by the Rev. John Sylvester J. Gardiner, now Rector of Trinity Church, Boston.”741 In his “List of Clergymen of the Protestant Episcopal Church in South Carolina” is the entry: “Came into the Province, or State. 1784. Stephen Christopher Lewis. Died 1791.”742

    The recent publication of the minutes of the vestry of St. Helena’s Parish has furnished an opportunity for more complete information as to the last years of Mr. Lewis’s life.743 On July 7, 1784, the wardens and vestry of St. Helena’s Parish—

    Resolved That the following Letter be Wrote to Mr John Kean requesting him to procure a Clergyman of the Episcopalian Church Sir, You are hereby requested and Empower’d to procure a Clergyman of the Episcopalian Church for the Town of Beaufort South Carolina on the following Terms. An Annual Salary of One hundred & fifty Pounds Sterling.744

    Mr. Kean himself was a member of the vestry and his name appears among the signatures to this letter.

    November 22, 1784: “At a meetg of the Vestry At the report of Mr John Kean of his succeeding in obtaining a Minister—who being now arrived in Charleston, they came to a resolution of sending for him—so soon as a Boat & hands could be obtained—and in the meantime a place must be provided for him to Lodge at the Minister’s name—The Revd: Step. C. Lewes—”745 The minutes show that “the Revd Stephen C. Lewis arriv’d here the 28th Novr& preached the Sunday followg;” and also “that the Wardens be Directed to settle the Revd Mr S. C. Lewis’s Expences from the time he left Boston till his arrival here.”746 A later record reads: “Recd Feby 4th 1705 of the Church Wardens Thirty Guineas for my Expences to this place, allowd by the Vestry—S. C. Lewes N.B. Mr Lewes’s Salary Commenced 1st Octr 1784.”747

    On February 27, 1785, Mr. Lewis was married by the Rev. Mr. Graham to Mary Greene, daughter of Daniel John and Ann Greene.748 Their son John Daniel Lewis was born January 10, 1786, and was baptized on February 19 by his father.749 At the Fifth Convention of the Church in South Carolina, held at Charleston February 20–22, 1787, Mr. Lewis was present as a delegate,750 and in his capacity as “Rector of St. Helena, Deputy for the Parish of St. Helena” signed the Constitution and Articles of the Protestant Episcopal Church in South Carolina as agreed upon in a Convention held at Charleston, May 29–31, 1786.751 He also attended the Eighth Convention at Charleston on October 19, 1790. At this Convention there were appointed as members of the standing committee of the diocese, “St. Helena, The resident Clergyman and Col. Barnwell.”752

    The vestry minutes show that at least as early as the spring of 1788 Mr. Lewis’s health had begun to fail. At a meeting of the vestry on May 5, 1788:

    A Letter from the Revd Mr Lewes was presented the Vestry & Church Wardens, which was read—a Copy of which is as follows


    As my health is very much impaired & since the warm weather hath set in, seems to be on the decline, I have been advised by Doctor Turnbull the physician who attended me in Charleston to take a voyage to Europe as the most likely means of restoring it. I have therefore to solicit leave of absence from the parish for that purpose: Your Concurrence herein will be a favour ever gratefully acknowledged by Gentlemen Your most devoted and Obliged humble Servant S: C:: Lewes. Beaufort 5th May 1788. To the Gentlemen Vestry & Church Wardens of the Parish of St: Helena

    To which an Answer was wrote by the Church Wardens at the request of the Vestry: a Copy of which follows.—

    Revd Sir

    Yours of this date was handed to the Vestry who have desired us to inform you that you have permission to be absent from the parish for the space of six months from the date hereof—We wish you an agreeable passage & safe return among us: And hope the Voyage you propose taking to Europe may have the desired Effect of restoring you to health—We remain Revd Sir for ourselves & Vestry Your most Obt Servts

    WillM Elliott

    John Rose

    Beaufort May 5th 1788

    The Revr: Mr: S: C: Lewes753

    Mr. Lewis, however, never accomplished his projected trip to England. The reason can probably be inferred from entries in the vestry records. At a meeting on September 7, 1790, “The Vestry Unanimously agreed that the Revd Dr Lewis’s Bond for the purchase of a Square in the New Town should be given up to him, in consideration of the Losses he has sustained, by his Salary not being paid up Regularly.”754 And on November 3, 1790,—

    It is unanimously agreed by this meeting that the church Wardens do without delay collect the Pew tax & arrears due to the Revd Mr Lewis—as also the Interest money due on the Several Bonds herein annexed—and where the money is not paid that Notes of hand, be taken from all persons without distinction—and shoud any person or persons refuse to Comply with so Just a requisition, their names be reported to the Vestry at a future meeting—It is further agreed by this meeting that as monies is due to Mr Lewis from this Parish that We give him a Certifycate from under our hands to pay to him or to his order one hundred pounds Sterling by the 31st Jany 1791 . . . in part of what is due him—in order to enable him to pursue his intended Voyage to England for the recovery of his health,—accordingly a certificate was given.755

    But the promise of financial relief came too late, for on Saturday, December 4, 1790, the City Gazette of Charleston contained this notice:

    Died. On the 2nd. inst. Dr. Stephen C. Lewis, rector of the parish of St. Helena. Open, unaffected & polite—the deseased was no less distinguished as a gentleman than as a christian minister, for the genuine piety & benevolence of his conduct. He bore up against the severity of a long illness with all the patience & resignation which might be expected from such a character; & may truly be said to have left this world lamented by all who had the happiness of his acquaintance.756

    Mr. Francis T. Bowles read some “Notes from the Cape,” relating chiefly to Edward Bacon of Barnstable.757

    Mr. Albert Matthews spoke as follows on—


    Recently I have been led to renew my acquaintance with Frederick Freeman’s History of Cape Cod. In glancing through the volumes, my eye caught the following:

    When we first read in Gordon’s History of the American Revolution, the passage: “Barnstable in New England and Ridgfield in Connecticut, have distinguished themselves in adopting measures different from the other towns in their respective colonies,” we were led to pause with surprise that our patriotic shire-town should be thus presented.

    And in a footnote Freeman adds:

    We must pardon it in an Englishman that he did not know that both Massachusetts and Connecticut were parts of New England, and must bear in mind that these colonies were little known to either statesmen or literati of the parent country; indeed, at the present day, English writers do not exhibit much improvement either in knowledge of the geography of our country, or of its polity.758

    More than a decade ago I called attention to the use of the name “New England” as equivalent to Massachusetts, and rashly said that it would “form the subject of a future communication.”759 In fulfilment of that promise, I now bring together a few notes of a somewhat rambling character, for obviously it is only by chance that one can stumble on examples of the usage in question.

    Born in England in 1728, William Gordon began his ministry in 1752 at Ipswich, England, and was ordained on October 9, 1754. In 1764 he abandoned that pastorate and held another at Southwark, which he retained until 1770, when he removed to this country. On July 6, 1772, after having preached to the society for a year, he was installed pastor of the Third Church, Roxbury,760 where he remained until his dismissal on March 17, 1786,761 after which he returned to England. He was made chaplain to the Provincial Congress on May 4, 1775;762 preached “before the Honorable House of Representatives” on July 19, 1775; and again “before the General Court” on July 4, 1777;763 but on April 6, 1778, was dismissed as chaplain to the General Court.764

    Obviously, therefore, Gordon knew perfectly well that Barnstable was in Massachusetts and that both Massachusetts and Connecticut were in New England. Why, then, did he apply the name “New England” to Massachusetts? The reply is that it had been customary to do so in England for nearly a century and a half. Thus certain laws passed in Massachusetts in 1641 and 1642 were reprinted in London in 1643 under the title “The Capitall Lawes of New-England, as they stand now in force in the Common-Wealth. . . . First printed in New-England, and re-printed in London . . . 1643.”765 In 1704 was printed in London “An Abridgement of the Laws In Force and Use in Her Majesty’s Plantations; (Viz.) Of Virginia, Jamaica, Barbadoes, Maryland, New-England, New-York, etc.” Near the end of the volume is “An Abridgement of the Laws and Ordinances of New-England,” which appears to be an abridgment of the edition of “The General Laws and Liberties of the Massachusets Colony” printed at Cambridge in 1672.766 In a volume published in London in 1715 it was announced that “About the middle of this Month [January] Elisha Burgess, Esq; was declared Governor and Captain General of New-England and New-Hampshire, in the Room of Colonel Joseph Dudley.”767 In 1716 an English work stated: “August 5. About this Time Jeremiah Dummer, Esq; was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New-England;”768 while another English work asserted that “Not many days after [the beginning of August], his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, was pleased to appoint Jeremiah Dummer, Esq; to be Lieutenant Governor of New-England.”769 An extract dated London, November 25, 1725, declared that “Samuel Shute, Esq; Governour of New England & New-Hampshire in America, is preparing to set out for that Government.”770 A letter from a gentleman dated “London, November 28th, 1729,” announced that “Yesterday His Majesty in Council appointed Mr. Belcher Governour of New-England, and to Morrow he is to kiss the KING’s Hand on that Occasion.”771 In a letter to a London newspaper late in 1772 or early in 1773, “Verax” wrote:

    I HAVE just read, in your Paper of Monday the 30th of November, a very extraordinary panegyric upon Mr. Hutchinson, the present Governor of New England, . . . Some time after the conclusion of the last war I crossed the Atlantic, and made the tour of all the British Colonies in North America; and . . . I never discovered even the least symptom of disaffection, or want of due submission to the Mother Country in any of them; . . . But however that may be, you are well authorized to say, whenever Mr. Hutchinson loses his Government, there is one, besides Bernard, who will be deprived of a pretty little Quarterage on the Salary lately established for the Governor of New England.772

    This last passage is a particularly interesting one, since it was written by an Englishman who had travelled in this country in or about 1763.

    In New England itself, so far as I am aware, the name “New England” was never used in the restricted meaning as employed in the above extracts. But it should be. pointed out that whereas, at the present time, we invariably say “Boston (Cambridge, etc.), Massachusetts,” yet such a phrase appears to have been almost if not quite unknown here until about the beginning of the Revolution, previous to which the almost invariable practice was to say “Boston (Cambridge, etc.) in New England” or “Boston (Cambridge, etc.), New England.” A hasty examination of over a thousand title-pages, imprints,773 and colophons, yields the following results.

    First, the laws published from 1648 to 1776 may be considered.774 Those printed from 1648 to 1666 have only “Boston” in the titles and “Cambridge” in the imprints, and of course those two words occur repeatedly, each by itself, in later editions. In 1668 the title speaks of “the General Court, Held at Boston in New-England,” though the imprint is still “Cambridge.” The edition of 1675 was printed at “Cambridge in New-England.” From 1677 to 1726 the words “Boston in New England” frequently occur in titles and several times (1685, 1689, 1692, 1696, 1697, 1701) in imprints. (Occasionally, as in 1708, the imprint is “Boston in N. E.”) In 1742 both “Boston, N. E.” and “Boston in New-England” occur in imprints. From 1743 to 1757 the usual imprint is either “Boston” or “Boston, N. E.,” though once (1747) “Boston: New-England” is found. From 1757 to 1774 the imprints are “Boston” or “Boston: N. E.” or “Boston; New-England.” In 1775–1776 one colophon reads “Watertown,” while four colophons read “Watertown: New-England.”

    Next, the House Journals, which were published from 1715 to 1775.775 In 1715–1721 the colophon is “Boston,” except once (1720) when it is “Boston in New England.” The imprint is “Boston” from 1722 to 1744; “Boston: N. E.” from 1745 to 1766; “Boston, New-England” from 1767 to 1774; and “Watertown, New England” in 1775.

    Thirdly, books, pamphlets, and broadsides published from 1643 to

    1700.776 Most of those printed in Cambridge (1643–1692) have merely “Cambridge” or “Boston” in the imprints; but other imprints are as follows:

    • Cantabrigiae Nov. Ang. . . . 1643.
    • Cantabrigiae Nov: Ang: . . . 1647.
    • Cambridge in New England . . . 1649.
    • Cambridg in New-England. . . . 1651.
    • Cambridg Printed by S. G. for Hezekiah Usher at Boston in New-England 1656.
    • Cambridge in New-England. 1659.
    • Cambridg Printed by S. G. and M. J. New-England. 1660.
    • Cantabrigiae Nov-Angliae . . . M.DC.LXX.
    • Cantabrigiae Nov-Anglorum . . . MDCLXXVIII.

    The books and pamphlets printed in Boston (1674–1700) have “Boston” only in the imprints from 1674 to 1680. From 1681 to 1700 “Boston in New-England” are the words usually found. Other forms are as follows:

    • Bostonae Nov-Anglorum; . . . 1682.
    • The Boston Ephemeris. . . . By Nathanael Mather. New-England, Boston, . . . 1686.
    • Boston in N. E. . . . 1694.
    • An Almanack, . . . By John Tulley. . . . Boston, N. E. . . . 1696.
    • Phaenomena quaedam Apocalyptica Ad Aspectum Novi Orbis confugurata. . . . By Samuel Sewall . . . Massachvset; Boston, . . . 1697777

    So far as title-pages are concerned, Boston and Cambridge are frequently described as “in New-England,” or as “in N. E.” Other towns in Massachusetts also are so described, as:

    • Animadversions upon the Antisynodalia Americana, . . . By John Allin, Pastor of the Church of Christ at Dedham in N. England. . . .1664.
    • A Discourse of the last Judgement: . . . By Samuel Whiting, Pastor of the Church of Christ at Lynne in N. E. . . . 1664.
    • Abraham’s Humble Intercession for Sodom, . . . By Samuel Whiting, Pastor of the Church of Christ at Lyn in N. E. . . . 1666.
    • Balm in Gilead to heal Sions Wounds: . . . By Thomas Walley, Pastor of the Church of Christ at Barnstable in New-England. . . . 1669.
    • The Life and Death of that Reverend Man of God, Mr. Richard Mather, teacher of the Church in Dorchester in New-England. . . . 1670. [By Increase Mather.]
    • A brief Recognition of New-Englands Errand into the Wilderness; . . . By Samuel Danforth, Pastor of the Church of Christ in Roxbury in N. E. . . . 1671.
    • A Serious Exhortation to the Present and Succeeding Generation in New-England; . . . By Eleazer Mather, late Pastor of the Church in Northampton in New-England . . . [1671]
    • David serving his Generation, . . . By Samvel Arnold Teacher of the Church of Christ at Marshfield in New England. . . . 1674.
    • An Elegie upon the Death of the Reverend Mr. Thomas Shepard, late Teacher of the Church of Christ at Charlstown in New-England: . . . 1677.
    • Man’s chief End to Glorifie God, . . . By the Reverend Mr. John Bailey, . . . now Pastor to the Church of Christ in Watertown in New-England. . . . 1689.

    This form of description continued in general use until towards the close of the eighteenth century. Thus there were incorporated in 1772 “the Marine Society at Salem, in New England;” in 1773 “the Marine Society at Marblehead, in New England;” and in 1777 “the Marine Society at Newburyport, in New England.”778

    Thus it is well established that it was customary in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to describe a Massachusetts town as being “in New England.” It would be rash to make such a statement in regard to towns in New England but not in Massachusetts, and yet there are some instances of such a practice, or a near approach to it. The following descriptions have been noted.

    • An Holy Connexion, . . . As it was delivered in a Sermon preached at Hartford on Conecticut in N. E. May 14. 1674. . . . By James Fitch, Pastor of the Church of Christ in Norwich. . . . 1674.
    • George Fox Digg’d out of his Burrowes, . . . By R. W. of Providence in N. E. . . . 1676.
    • Righteousness Rained from Heaven, . . . As it was Delivered in a Sermon Preached at Hartford on Connecticut in New-England, May 10. 1677. . . . By Mr. Samuel Hooker, Pastor of the Church of Christ in Farmington. . . . 1677.
    • The First Pinciples [sic] of the Doctrine of Christ; . . . Published at the desire, and for the use of the Church of Christ in Norwich in New-England. By James Fitch Pastor of that Church. . . . 1679.
    • A Brief Discourse Proving that the First Day of the Week is the Christian Sabbath: . . . By Mr. James Fitch Pastor of the Church in Norwich in New England. . . . 1683.
    • Johannes in Eremo. Memoirs, Relating to the Lives, of . . . and Mr. Thomas Hooker, who Dyed, 5. d. 2. m. 1647. Pastor of the Church at Hartford; New-England. . . . 1695.

    When towns in Massachusetts were described here as “in New England,” no doubt “New England” meant New England as a whole. Evidently in some way, though exactly how it is difficult to see, there was on the other side of the Atlantic confusion between New England as a whole and Massachusetts in particular.779 Perhaps the fact that Massachusetts was the most important of the New England colonies had something to do with it.

    Mr. Matthews also made the following communication:


    The charters of Harvard College present a not uninteresting study. No fewer than eight have been proposed, of which five (1650, 1672, 1692, 1697, 1700) have gone into effect for more or less prolonged periods. Of the three charters that did not go into effect, one (1696) was rejected by the College, one (1699) was vetoed by Governor Bellomont, and one (1723) never, so far as I have been able to ascertain, got beyond the brain of its presumable draughter.

    The original charter of 1650, reinforced by its successor of 1672,780 remained in force until 1686. When the colony charter of 1629 was vacated in 1684, it was held by some that the college charter fell with it—or, to use a contemporary phrase more expressive than elegant, “the calf died in the cow’s belly,” the calf being the college charter and the cow the colony charter.781 On the arrival in May, 1686, of Dudley’s commission as President of the Council for New England, both charters fell into abeyance, but were revived on the overthrow of Andros in April, 1689, and remained in force until the coming of Phips in May, 1692, with the new province charter of 1691. Then the colony charter fell for good and all, while the college charter once more went into eclipse—this time for a period of nearly sixteen years.

    With the arrival of the province charter in 1692 began a period of college charter-mongering that lasted eight years, during which five charters were proposed. As already stated, two of these did not go into effect. Of the other three, those of 1692 and 1697 were disallowed by the Privy Council. Down to 1700, all the proposed charters had been passed by the General Court in regular form as laws. As the charters of 1692 and 1697 had been disallowed in England, in 1700 the General Court adopted a different course and passed a draught of a royal charter to be presented to the king for his signature. As the coveted signature was never obtained, the charter of 1700, like its two predecessors, went to the scrap heap. So far as the college officials were concerned, those appointed under the charter of 1700 were continued in office by successive governors. But President Mather resigned in 1701, Vice President Willard did the same in August, 1707, and the College sunk into so languishing a condition that late in 1707 steps were taken to bring order out of chaos. These were successful, the original charter of 1650 was restored, and on January 14, 1708, John Leverett was inaugurated President and the number of Fellows was reduced from fifteen to five by Governor Dudley himself.782 And under the charter of 1650 the College has ever since been governed.

    It has always been supposed that the draught of a royal charter passed in 1700 was the last effort in charter making. It is now possible to state that such in fact was not the case and that still another effort was made—or at least contemplated—in 1723. This obviously grew out of the difficulties that had recently taken place over the attempt of the Tutors to obtain seats in the Corporation on the ground that they were Fellows in the meaning of that word as used in the charter of 1650. While gathering material for a paper on that subject,783 I was immensely surprised at finding the draught of a royal charter wholly in the hand of President Leverett. It is not dated, but internal evidence shows that it was drawn up in 1723. It provided for a President, a Vice-President, a Treasurer, and fourteen Fellows, and hence reverted to the form favored in the charters drawn up between 1692 and 1700. Notable features were that John Leverett was to be President “for and during his natural life,” that the Vice-President was to be annually elected, that among the Fellows was included only one of the Tutors, and that the College was to have a person “to be present in the House of Representatives.”

    It is reasonable to assume that this document, besides being in the hand of Leverett, was actually draughted by him; but the singular thing is that apparently it never came before either the Corporation or the Overseers, and that no allusion to it has ever been found.

    A table giving the dates of the charters, the number of the Corporation in each, and the number of Fellows who were also Tutors, will prove useful. In the charters of 1650 and 1672, nothing is said about Tutors, but as a matter of fact from 1650 to 1692 of the five Fellows always two and occasionally three were Tutors. Nor is anything said about Tutors in the charter of 1692, but of the eight Fellows named two were Tutors. In the charter of 1697 there is mention of “Fellows of the House” and of “Fellows receiving salaries;”784 but the word Tutor does not occur, and the Tutors were wholly left out of the Corporation. In the charters of 1699 and 1700 it was specified that two of the Tutors should be Fellows. In the charter of 1723, nothing is said about Tutors in connection with the Corporation, but of the fourteen Fellows named one (Henry Flynt) was a Tutor. The charter of 1696 is omitted from the table because the only known draught is so defective by reason of omissions, deletions, and interlineations that its provisions are uncertain.

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    George by the Grace of God of Great Britain France and Ireland King Defendr of the Faith &c To all unto whom these our Present Letters shall come Greeting. Whereas there hath bin for more then Seventy years past in the Town of Cambridge in the County of Middlesx wthin our Province of the Massachusets Bay in New England in America a certain place of Universall Study or College of Divinity, Philosophy, Languages, and other good Liberall Arts and Sciences, a Society comon called and known by the Name of Harvard College, where many psons of approved Worth have by the Blessing of Almighty God been Educated, Instructed and the better fitted for Publick Employmts both in the Church and in the Civil State; And whereas the Incouragmt of good Literrature Arts and Sciences will tend to the Honour of God, the Advantage of the Christian Protestant Religion, and the great Benefit of Our Subjects inhabiting within Our Province aforesd both in the present and Succeeding Generations. And Whereas Sundry of our Good Subjects interested in, and piously Concerned our sd Province of the Massachusets Bay in New England and Some of them, great Benefactrs to, and others Educated in the aforesd College, by their humble Address have Supplicated our Royall Grace and favour in the Settlmt and establishmt of the sd College, That it may be don in Such a manner, as we in our Princely Wisdom may Judge most Effectuall to Secure the same to be a Nursery of good Learning and manners, and for supplying the Church in our Sd Province with able Learned Ministers of the New Testamt, agreeable to the Cheif End & Intent of the first foundrs of & Benefactrs to the sd College

    Wee taking the Premisses seriously into our Royall Consideration, and Earnestly desiring that as far as in us Lyes True Philosophy and other good Arts, and Liberall Sciences may be promoted, and that the Orthodox faith may be Propagated, and being Willing that forever hereafter there shd be a Certain Place or College of Universall Study, and a Certain way within the said College for the Rule and Governmr of the same and and of the Masters Professrs Tutrs and Studts and all others Inhabiting and residing therein, and that the sd College shd Subsist and remain in all time coming of or Special Grace, Certain knowledge and meer Motion Have Willed and Ordained, and we do by these presents for us, Our heirs and Successrs Will & Ordain, That for the promoting the Studies of true Philosophy, the Languages, & all good Arts and Liberall Sciences, and for the Propagating the Pure Gospel of Christ Our Lord, to the Glory of Allmighty God, and benefit of Our Good Subjects both English and Indians within Our Dominions in America, there Shalbe a Certain place of Universall Study or Perpetual College of Divinity, Philosophy, the Languages and all good Arts & Liberal Sciences, And further, of our Special Grace, certain knowledge and meer Motion Wee have Willed, and Ordained, and by these presents Wee do Will and Ordain for us our heirs & Successors That the above-mention Harvard College in Cambridge in the County of Middlesex wthin Our Province of the Massachusets Bay in New England be and Continue A Place of Universall Study or Perpetual College of Divinity, Philosophy, Languages and all Good and Laudable Arts and Liberal Sciences, Wherefore further of Our Special Grace, certain knowledge and meer motion Wee have Willed and Ordained, And We do by these Presents for us our heirs and Successrs Will & Ordain that the sd College in Cambridge in the County of Middlsx wthin Our Province of the Massachets Bay in New-England aforesd from hence for shalbe and remain A Corporation consisting of     ꝑsons (That is to Say) One Presid’ One Vice-Presid’ and     Fellows and One Treasurer; And Seeing by the Election of the Fellows of the sd College and with the Approbation of the Genl Assembly of Our Province of the Massachusets Bay aforesd And their repeated Encouragmts John Leverett A Master of Arts And for sundry years A Fellow of the sd College, hath upwards of fifteen years Last past788 sustained the office & Title & pformed the services of ye Presidt of Harvard College, We of our Special Grace, Certain knowledge and meer Motion do approve Confirm and ratiefy, and by these present do make Create and establish the sd John Leverett to be our first Presidt of our sd College for and during his Naturall Life, and Peter Thatcher789 master of Arts also shalbe Vice-Presid’ John Danforth, Henry Gibbs, John Hancock, Joseph Belcher, Benjamin Wadsworth, Benja Colman, Henry Flynt, Simon Bradstreet, Wm Williams Joseph Sewall, Thomas Prince, Edward Wigglesworth, Nathaniel Applton and William Cooper Masters of Art, shalbe the 14 Fellows790 and Edward Hutchinson Esqr791 shalbe the Treasurer of the sd College all of them being Inhabitants in our Province of the Massachusets Bay aforesd and shalbe the first seventeen psons of whom the sd Corporation shall Consist.

    Which sd John Leverett, Peter Thatcher, John Danforth, Henry Gibbs, John Hancock, Joseph Belcher, Benjamin Wadsworth, Benja Colman Henry Flynt, Simon Bradstreet, Wm Williams, Joseph Sewall, Thomas Prince Edwd Wigglesworth, Nathl Applton, William Cooper & Edwd Hutchinson and their successrs shall forever hereafter be One Body Politick and Corporate in fact and name to all intents and purposes in the Law by the Name of the Presid’ and Fellows of Harvard College of Cambridge in New England and by that name they shall have ppetual succession, and by the same Name they and their Successrs may and shalbe Capable & Enabled, and by these presents We for us or heirs & successrs do Capacitate and enable them as well to Implead as be impleaded, to sue and be sued, to defend, and to be defended and to ꝑsecute, demand and answer and be answered unto in all & singular suits, causes Complaints Quarrels and actions real ꝑsonal & mixt of whatsoever kind & nature they may or shalbe in What-soever Courts & places of Judicature belonging to us our heirs and successrs or to any other ꝑson or ꝑsons whatsoever before all sorts of Justices & Judges in whatsoever Kingdoms, Countreys, Colonys Dominions, Provinces or Plantations belonging to us or our heirs & successrs and to do act and recv these and all other things in the same manner as our other Liege subjects, ꝑsons able and capable in Law within our Province of the Massachusets Bay aforesd or our Kingdome of Great Britain do or may act in the sd Courts & places of Judicature & before the sd Justices and Judges. And further of speciall grc certain knowledge and Meer Motion We have granted, and given Leave, Authorized and Impower’d and by these presents for us our heirs & successrs do grant, give leave, authorize & impower the sd J. L. & to their successrs to take acquire and purchase or recieve upon free Gift or Donation & to hold and enjoy any Land, Tenemts or Hereditamts, to the Value of £ and no more; And any Goods Chattels sum̄ or sum̄s of money, Plate and ꝑsonal Estate whatsoever to the Use and behoof of the sd Corporation, and the same to Lease, grant demise imploy and dispose together with the revenues, Issues & ꝑfits thereof for the support & Incouragmt of Learning, and of the Presid’ Fell[ows] and Scholars, and of the Professrs Tutrs and other officers of the sd College, Such as Steward, Cook, Bedels &c and mænial as also for the Accom̄odation of Building[s] Books and other necessary pvision and furniture as may be for the Advancmt & Education of Youth in all manner of Good Literature Arts and Sciences: Provided always & it is our Royal intent purpose and pleasure that the sd Presid’ and Fellows in all the sd Disposals shal forever faithfuly observe, and do according to the wil of the Donrs. And We do further Grant & ordain That the sd Presidt & Fellows & their Successrs May & shal have forever one Com̄on Seal to be used in All Causes and on all Occasions of the sd Corporac̄on, and the same seal may alter change break & new-make from time to time at their pleasure.

    And further we do for us our heirs and successrs Grant Establish and Ordain, That the Presidt V. P. and the Fellows of the sd Corporation or any of them shalbe removable and may be deprived and displaced by the sd Corporation for disability or misdemeanor, saving to the Party aggreived his appeal to the Visitors, and that when and so often from time to time as any of the sd Corporation shal dye or be removed, the sd Corporac̄on shalbe and is hereby Impower’d and authorized to Elect anew Presidt V. P. or Fellows in the room and stead of such Member or Members of the sd Corporac̄on so dieing or removed; and that a Vice-Presid’ of the sd Corporation be annualy Elected upon the fourth Wednesday after the Com̄encmt day from time to time althô not Occasion’d by death or removall; And We do further for us our heir and Successrs Will and Establish, That when and So Often as any Fellow of the Corporation shal remove himself so as to be Absent out of or Province of the Massachusets Bay aforesd by the space of Six moneths without the Leave or Licence of the Corporation He shal ipso facto be dismiss’d and no Longer Continue to be of the Corporation, & his place Shalbe Supply’d wth the Election of A New Member; And That upon the Death or Removal and dismission of the Presid’ V. P. or any of the ffellows Such Vacancy Shalbe filled up wth in the Space of three moneths next after. And further, of our Special grace Certain Knowledge & meer motion, for us Our heirs and Success We do by these presents grant & Ordain, That the sd Corporation shall have full power & Authority to Elect Appoint and Settle Professrs Tutrs a Publick Orator, A Proctor or Proctors, and All other Officers belonging to an Academy requisite for the better Inspecting and Instituting the Studts and Member yrof in all Liberal Arts Sciences, Learned Faculties And good manners according to the Orders & Statutes of the sd College to be made & Established for the Good & Wholesome Governmt of the sd College and all that bear Office, or reside therein or belong thereto.

    And further Wee do by these presents for us our heirs and Successrs Grant establish and Ordain That the Presidt for the time being of the Corporation and in Case of his Death or Absence, the Vice Presidt for the time being of the same shal and may from time to time pro re nata at any other time besides the stated and fixed times above menc̄on’d appoint and792 Assembling and meeting together of the sd Corporation to Consult and Advise of, Debate Direct and determine upon the Affairs and busieness of the Corporation to Choose Officers as aforesd As also Menial Servts the sd Menial Servts not to exceed the Number of thirteen, three for the Presidt One for the Vice Presidr and One for the Professr of Divinity and eight for the College and them to remove and upon death or removal to chuse such others, and to Appoint Salarys, and make Suitable Allowces to them, And to make Statutes orders and Laws for the better Ordering the Affairs and Governmt of the sd College or Accademy So as Such Orders Statutes and Laws be not repugnt or Contrary to the Laws of Our Realm of Great Britain, or to the Laws of our Province of the Massachusets Bay, And that any tenn or more of the Members of the sd Corporation whereof the Presidt or Vice presidt to be One being so Assembled shalbe taken held and reputed to be a full sufficient and Lawfull Assembly for the Ordering directing and Concluding of the Affairs busienesses and Occurrces of the sd Corporation; and that in case of the Death or removall or Absence out of our sd Province, The Senir Fellow for the time being residing in Cambridge may call and hold a Corporation untill the return or New Election of A Presidt A V. Presidt: Provided nevertheless and our Will and Pleasure is, That no meeting shalbe held for the displacing or New Election of any Member or Members of the sd Corporation, for the Nominating and Appointing Proffessrs Proctrs Orators Tutrs or other officers, or the making statutes, rules orders or By-Laws for the ordering the affairs & Governmts of the sd College or for the Purching,793 Selling or Letting Lands or Tenemts or Disposal of the stock or Revenues belonging to the sd College, without Issuing out a Sumons and Notification directed to Each member of the sd Corporation in Writing under the hand seal of the Presid’ or other pson that may call & hold a meeting of the sd Corporation intimating the time and Occasion of Calling such Meeting five days at least before hand.

    And our further Will and Pleasure is, That in passing of all Votes and Acts of the Corporation in any of the Meetings thereof the Determination shalbe made by the majr pt of those assembled, the Presidt of the sd Meeting having a Double Vote.

    And We do by these Presents for us our heirs and Successrs further Grant establish and Ordain, That the Presidt of the sd Corporation and the Professrs shall reside in Cambridge, as also all the Fellows and Tutrs receiving Salarys from the Corporation out of the College-revenue shall reside within the sd College, and that no One shall Enjoy a Fellowship or Tutorship with such salary for more then four years unless continued by a New Election.

    And That the Persons and Estates of the sd Presidt Fellows Professrs and other officers concerned in the Governmt and Institution of the studts residing at the College, shalbe Exempt free from all Rates and Taxes and likewise that the sd Presidt Vice-Presidt Fellows of the sd Corporac̄on and the Officers aforesd with their Domestick or Menial servts shalbe Exempt from all ꝑsonal Civil Offices, Military Offices Military Exercises, Watchings and Wardings. And Whereas it is a Laudable Custom in Univ̄itys, whereby Learning hath bin Encouraged and Advanced to Conferr Academical Degrees or Titles on those who by their good manners & Proficiency as to knowledge in Theology, Law, Physick Mathematicks Philosophy, and other Liberal arts and the Learned Languages have bin Judge worthy therof We do therefore further of Our special grace Certaine Knowledge and meer motion by these present for us our heirs & successrs Will grant and Ordain That the Presidt and Fellows of the aforesd Corporation shal have power and Authority from time to time to grant and Admitt to Academical Degrees, as in the Universitys in Our Kingdom of Great Britain such as in Respect of Learning and Good manners they shal find Worthy to be promoted thereunto.

    And also of our Special Grace, certain knowledg & meer motion We have given and Granted And by these prests for us our heirs and Successrs do give and Grant to the said Presidt Fellows Professrs and Masters of Art of the sd College and residts in the Town of Cambr. and belonging thereto, and of Lawfull Age full and absolute power Liberty and Authority to Nominate Elect and Constitute One Discreet and Able Person of their Own Number Or of the Better Sort of Inhabitants of our Province of the Massachusets Bay in New England, having bin Educated and Graduated as aforesd in the sd College or in any of the Universitys in Our kingd. of Great Britaine, to be present in the House of Representatives of the Great and Genl Court or Assembly of our Province of the Massachusets Bay aforesd, And there to Act & Consent to Such things, as by Comon Advice of or sd Province

    And Whereas there have bin heretofore Divers Gifts Grants, Divises of Houses Lands, Tenemts Goods, Chattels Legacie & Conveyces made unto the sd College or to ye Presidt and Fellows thereof, We do for us our heirs and Successrs ratify and Confirm the sd Gifts grants, Devises, Legacies, Conveyces and Every of them according to the true Intent of the Donr or Donrs Gratr or Grantrs Devisr & Devisrs And further of our Speciall grace certain and certain knôle and meer motion have Granted We have given and granted by these prests for us our heirs & successrs do give and grant our special Lycence as far as in us lyes to All and any ꝑson or ꝑsons piously disposed whatsoever, that they or any of them may & shal have power to give grant devise, assign & bequeath any Lands Tenemts Rents Services Portions Annuities ꝑsons and Exhibitions & all manner of Inheritances Franchises and possessions to the sd Presidt and Fellows of ye sd College for the time being & their Successrs what Soever to the Value of Two thousand pounds ꝑ annum

    Mr. Alfred Johnson communicated a Memoir of Henry Herbert Edes, which Mr. Johnson had been requested to prepare for publication in the Transactions of the Society.