To the several Teachers of Music, in this, and the adjacent States.

My Brethren,

I HAVE drawn up the rules of Practical Music, as concise as the nature of the thing would admit, and have inserted them in course, as they should be taught; I recommend it to you to teach after the manner they are inserted; it being the best method I have yet found, from long experience.


Lesson 1st. For Tenor, or Treble. For Counter. For Bass.

G sol.

A la.




B mi.

E la.

F fa.




G sol.

C fa.

D sol.




E la.

A la.

B mi.




C fa.

F fa.

G sol.




A la.

D sol.

E la.


F fa.

OBSERVE, that from E, to F, and from B, to C, are half Notes ascending, and from F, to E, and from C, to B, descending so that an Octave consists of five whole, and two half Notes: Likewise be very careful to make a proper distinction between the sound of B—mi, and C—fa; for many Singers who have not curious ears, are apt to strike B—mi, as high as C—fa, in sharp key’d tunes, which ruins the composition.

LESSON II. On Transposition.

THE natural place for Mi is in B: but if B be flat, Mi is in E. If B and E be flat, Mi is in A. If B, E and A be flat, Mi is in D. If B, E, A, and D be flat, Mi is in G. If F be sharp, Mi is in F. If F and C be sharp, Mi is in C. If F, C and G be sharp, Mi is in G. If F, C, G and D be sharp, Mi is in D. And when you have found Mi in any of these variations, the Notes above are fa, sol, la, fa, sol, la, and then comes Mi again, and the Notes below Mi, are la, sol, fa, la, sol, fa, and then comes Mi again.

LESSON III. On Cliffs.

THE Bass Cliff is always fixed on the upper line but one; it gives the line it stands upon the name of F. The tenor Cliff is fix’d in my work on the lowest line but one; it gives the line it stands upon the name of G; and, if it is removed to any other line, it removes G with it. The counter Cliff stands upon the middle line, in my work; but if it is removed to any other line, it gives the line it stands upon the name of C. The treble Cliff is fixed on the lower line but one, and gives the line it stands upon the name of G. This Cliff is never removed; but stands fixed an Octave above the tenor.

N. B. According to these Cliffs, a note on the middle line in the tenor, is a sixth above a note on the middle line of the Bass; a note on the middle line of the treble, is a thirteenth above the middle line of the bass, and an eight[h] above the middle line of the tenor; a note on the middle line of the counter, is a seventh above the middle line of the Bass, and one note above the middle line of the tenor, and a seventh below the middle line of the treble.

☞ To find the Octave to any sound, add seven to it, viz. The Octave to a third, is a tenth, and the Octave to a fourth is an eleventh, &c. &c.

LESSON IV. On Characters.1

THE names of the six Musical Notes now in use, and how they are proportioned from each other, together with their respective Rests.

1st. The Semibreve, which is the longest note now in use, though formerly the shortest; this note when set in the Adagio Mood, is to be sounded four Seconds, or as long as four Vibrations of the Pendulum which is 392/10 inches long. This is the measure note, and guideth all the rest, it is in shape something like the letter O.

2d. The Minum is but half the length of the Semibreve, having a tail to it.

3d. The Crotchet is but half the length of the Minum, having a black head.

4th. The Quaver is but half the length of the Crotchet, having the tail turned up at the end, except there are two, or three, or more together, and then one stroke serves to tie them all.

5th. The Semiquaver is but half the length of the Quaver, having the tail turned up with two strokes.

6th. The Demisemiquaver is but half the length of the Semiquaver having the tail turned up with three strokes; this is the shortest note now in use. A Rest is a note of Silence, which signifies, that you must rest, or keep silence as long, as you would be sounding one of the notes it is intended to represent. The Rest which is set to the Semibreve should be called a Bar-Rest, because it is used to fill an empty Bar in all the Moods of Time.

A Prick of perfection is not well named in my Opinion, because a Note may be perfect without it: a point of addition is the best name; because it adds one third to the time of any Note; for a pointed Semibreve contains three Minims, a pointed Minim contains three Crotchets, a pointed Crotchet contains three Quavers, a Pointed Quaver contains three Semiquavers, and a pointed Semiquaver contains three Demisemiquavers.

LESSON V. Or [On] the second Lesson of Characters.

1st. A Flat serves to sink a Note half a tone lower than it was before, and Flats set at the beginning serve to flat all Notes that are inserted on that line or space, unless contradicted by an accidental Sharp or Natural. Likewise they are used to drive Mi, from one place to another.

2d. A Sharp serves to raise a Note half a tone higher than it was before, and sharps set at the beginning of the Staff serve to sharp all Notes which occur on that line or space, unless contradicted by an accidental Flat or Natural. They are also used to draw Mi from one place to another.

3d. A Repeat is to direct the performer, that such a part is to be repeated over again, that is, you must look back to the first repeat, and perform all the Notes that are between the two Repeats over again; it is also used in Canons to direct the following Parts, to fall in at such Notes as it is placed over.

4th. A Slur is in form like a bow, drawn over, or under, the Heads of two, three, or more Notes, when they are to be sung to but one syllable.

5th. A Bar is to divide the Time in Music, according to the Mood in which the tune is set; it is also used to direct the performers in beating Time; for the hand must be always falling in the first part of a Bar, and rising in the last part; both in Common, and Triple Time; it is also intended to shew where the Accents fall, which are always in the first, and third part of a Bar, in Common Time, and in the first part of the Bar, in Triple Time.

6th. A Direct is placed at the end of the Staff, to direct the performer to the place of the first note in the next Staff.

7th. A Natural is a mark of restoration, which being set before any note that was made flat, or sharp, at the beginning, restores it to its former natural tone; but not to its natural name, as many have imagined, unless it is set at the beginning of a strain, which was made flat, or sharp, and then it restores it to its former natural Key.

8th. A Single Trill is to direct the performer to divide the note it is set over into three. See the Example.

Example [A]. A Single Trill.

9th. A Double-Trill is to direct the performer, to divide the note it is set over into five parts. See the Example.

Example [B]. A Double Trill.

N.B. Many ignorant Singers take great licence from these Trills, and without confining themselves to any rule, they shake all notes promiscuously, and they are as apt to tear a note in pieces, which should be struck fair and plump, as any other[.] Let such persons be informed, that it is impossible to shake a note without going off of it, which occasions horrid discords; to remedy which evil, they must not shake any note but what is marked with a Trill, and that according to rule, which may be easily learned, under a good master.

10th. A Divider is to divide, or set off the parts which move together.

11th. A mark of distinction is set over a note, when it is to be struck distinct and emphatic, without using the grace of Transition.

Example [C]. Mark of Distinction.

N.B. This character, when properly applied, and rightly performed, is very majestic.

12th. A Close is made up of three four, or more Bars, and always set at the end of a tune; it signifies a conclusion.


An Explanation of the several Moods of Time.

THE first, or slowest Mood of Time, is called Adagio, each Bar containing to the amount of one Semibreve: Four seconds of time are required to perform each Bar; I recommend crotchet beating in this Mood, performed in the following manner, viz. first strike the ends of the fingers, secondly the heel of the hand, then thirdly, raise your hand a little and shut it up, and fourthly, raise your hand still higher and throw it open at the same time. These motions are called two down and two up, or crotchet beating. A Pendulum to beat Crotchets in this Mood, should be thirty nine inches, and two tenths.

THE second Mood is called Largo, which is in proportion to the Adagio as 5 is to 4, you may beat this two several ways, either once down and once up, in every Bar, which is called Minim beating, or twice down and twice up, which is called Crotchet beating; the same way you beat the Adagio. Where the tune consists chiefly of Minims, I recommend Minim beating; but where it is made up of less Notes, I recommend Crotchet beating: The length of the Pendulum to beat Minims in this Mood, must be seven feet, four inches, and two tenths; and the Pendulum to beat Crotchets, must be twenty two inches, and one twentieth of an inch.

N.B. When I think if advisable to beat Largo in Minim beating, I write “Minim beating” over the top of the tune, and where these words are not wrote, you may beat Crotcheat beating.2

The third Mood is called Aliegro, it is as quick again as Adagio, so that Minims are sung, to the time of seconds. This is performed in Minim beating, viz. one down and one up; the Pendulum to beat Minims must be thirty-nine inches and two tenths.

The fourth Mood is called two from four, marked thus 2/4, each Bar containing two Crotchets, a Crotchet is performed in the time of half a second; this is performed in Crotchet beating, viz. one down and one up. The Pendulum to beat Crotchets in this Mood must be nine inches and eight tenths long.

N.B. The four above-mentioned moods are all Common-time.

The next Mood is called six to four marked thus 6/4, each Bar containing six Crotchets, three beat down, and three up. The Pendulum to beat three Crotchets in this Mood, must be thirty-nine inches and two tenths long.3

The next Mood is called six from eight, marked thus 6/8, each Bar containing six Quavers, three beat down, and three up. The Pendulum to beat three Quavers, in this Mood, must be twenty-two inches and one twentieth.

N.B. The two last Moods are neither Common, nor Triple time; but compounded of both, and in my opinion, they are very beautiful movements.

The next Mood is called three to two, marked thus 3/2, each Bar containing three Minims, two to be beat down, and one up; the motions are made after the following manner, viz. Let your hand fall, and observe first to strike the ends of your fingers, then secondly the heel of your hand, and thirdly, raise your hand up, which finishes the Bar: These motions, must be made in equal times, not allowing more time to one motion than another. The Pendulum that will beat Minims in this Mood, must be thirty-nine inches and two tenths long.

The next Mood is called three from four, marked thus 3/4, each Bar containing three Crotchets, two beat down, and one up. The Pendulum to beat Crotchets in this Mood, must be twenty-two inches and one twentieth long.

The same motion is used in this mood, that was laid down in 3/2, only quicker, according to the Pendulum.

The next Mood is called three from eight, marked thus 3/8, each Bar containing three Quavers, two beat down, and one up. The Pendulum to beat whole Bars in this Mood must be four feet, two inches, and two tenths of an inch long. The same motion is used for three from eight, as for 3/4 only quicker; and in this Mood you must make three motions of the hand, for every swing of the Pendulum. N.B. This is but an indifferent Mood, and almost out of use.4

N.B. The three last mentioned Moods, are all in Triple Time, and the reason why they are called Triple, is, because they are three fold, or measured by threes; for the meaning of the word Triple is threefold: And Common Time, is measured by Numbers,5 as 2–4–8–16–32,—viz. 2 Minims, 4 Crotchets, 8 Quavers, 16 Semiquavers, or 32 Demisemiquavers, are included in each Bar, either of which amounts to but one Semibreve; therefore the Semibreve is called the Measure Note; because all Moods are measured by it, in the following manner, viz. the fourth Mood in Common Time, is called two from four, and why is it called so? I answer; because the upper figure implies that there are two Notes of some kind included in each Bar, and the lower figure informs you how many of the same sort it takes to make one Semibreve. And in 3/8 the upper figure tells you, that there are three Notes contained in a Bar, and the lower figure will determine them to be Quavers; because it takes eight Quavers to make one Semibreve.

N.B. This Rule will hold good in all Moods of Time.

Observe, that when you meet with three Notes tied together with the figure 3 over, or under them, you must sound them in the time you would two of the same sort of Notes, without the figure. Note, that this Character is in direct opposition to the point of addition; for as that adds one third of the Time to the Note which is pointed, so this diminishes one third of the Time of the Notes over which it is placed; therefore I think this Character may with much propriety be called the Character of Diminution.

Likewise, you will often meet with the Figures 1, 2, the Figure one standing over one Bar, and Figure two standing over the next Bar, which signifies a Repeat; and observe, that in singing that strain the first time you perform the Bar under Figure 1, and omit the Bar under Figure 2, and in repeating you perform the Bar under figure 2, and omit the Bar under Figure 1, which is so contrived to fill out the Bars; for the Bar under figure 1 is not always full, without borrowing a Beat, or half Beat, &c. from the first Bar which is repeated, whereas the Bar under Figure 2. is, or ought to be full, without borrowing from any other but the first Bar in the Tune, and, if the first Bar is full, the Bar under Figure 2 must be full likewise. Be very carefull to strike in proper upon a half Beat, but this is much easier obtained by Practice than Precept, provided you have an able Teacher.


Syncope, syncopation, or driving Notes, either thro’ Bars, or thro’ each other, are subjects that have not been sufficiently explained by any writers I have met with; therefore I shall be very particular, and give you several Examples, together with their Variations and Explanations.

Example first. The time is Allegro, and the Bar is filled with a Minim between two Crotchets; you must take half the time of the Minim, and carry it back to the first Crotchet, and the last half to the last Crotchet, and then it will be equal to two Crotchets in each beat. See the Example, where it is expressed two or three different ways.

In the 2d Example, the time is Allegro, and the Bar is filled with a Crotchet before a pointed Minim; take half the Minim and carry back to the Crotchet, which makes one Beat; then the last half of the Minim, together with the point of Addition, compleats the last Beat.

In Example third, you will find a Minim in one Bar tied to a point of Addition, in the next Bar, which signifies that the sound of the pointed Minim is continued the length of a Crotchet into the next Bar; but the time which is occasioned by the point of Addition, is to help fill the Bar it stands in.

Example fourth is the same in 2/4, as the first Example in Allegro.

Example fifth is the same as Example Second.

Example sixth is the same in 3/2, as Example third in Allegro.

Example seventh is in 3/2, as difficult, as any part of Syncope; therefore I have given several Variations from the Example, in which the Bar is filled with two pointed Minims, which must be divided into three parts, in the following manner, viz. the first Minim must be Beat with the ends of the Fingers, secondly the point of Addition, and the first half of the last Minim, must be beat with the Heel of the hand, and thirdly, the last half of the last Minim, together with the point of Addition, must be beat with the hand rising; and in the several variations you must divide the Notes into three equal parts, so as to have one Minim in each Beat:

And in all the Examples with their variations, you must first inform yourself what particular Note goes for one Beat, whether Minim, Crotchet or Quaver, and then divide the syncopated note accordingly. As this subject has not been very fairly explained by any of our modern Authors, I have great reason to think that it is not well understood; therefore I recommend it to all Teachers, to insist very much on this part of practical Music; it is a very essential part of their office: And if any who sustain the office of Teachers, should not be able to perform this Branch of their Business by the help of these Examples; (for their Honor and their Pupils interest) I advise such Semiteachers to resign their office, and put themselves under some able Master, and never presume to commence Teachers again, until they thoroughly understand both Syncope and Syncopation in all its variations.

N.B. The same Examples of Syncope and Syncopation, which are set down in 3/2, you may have in 3/4; only observe to substitute[e] Minims for Semibreves, Crotchets for Minims, and Quavers for Crotchets; and in 3/8, you must make the Notes as short again as they are in 3/4.

☞ When you meet with the two [with two] or three Notes standing one over the other, they are called choosing Notes, and signify that you may sing which you please, or all, if your part has performers enough, and remember that they add not to the time; but to the variety.


THE Grace of Transition is sliding; not jumping, from one note to another; therefore, it is called a Grace, because it is doing the work gracefully; it is intended as an ornament, which it really is, if it is well performed; it is also intended to sweeten the roughness of a leap. In my opinion, the turning thirds up and down, is a beautiful part of music; but you must not use the Grace of Transition or lean on the intermediate Note in thirds, where the Notes are but a half beat in length; for that makes them sound like Notes tied together in threes; but you must strike such Notes as distinctly and emphatically as possible. See the Example, where I have set down, first the plain Notes, with the Grace following; and the halfbeat Notes are inserted in the Grace, as they are in the Example, which signifies that the Grace of Transition is not used in such Notes, in any case whatever.


THERE are but four Primitive Concords in Music, viz. the Unison, Third, Fifth and Six[th]; their Octaves are also meant. The Unison, is called a perfect Chord; the fifth is also called perfect: The third and sixth are called imperfect, because their sounds are not so sweet as the perfect. The Discords are, a second, a fourth, and a seventh, with their Octaves.

Here take an Example of the several Concords and Discords, with their Octaves under them.

A Table of Concords and Discords.




































  • Primitive Sounds.
  • Their Octaves.
  • And their Octaves again.
  • And their triple Octaves.

By this Example, we see that there is a Discord between almost every Concord, which shews the extream difficulty of selecting the Concords from the Discords. For instance, if I attempt to strike a third, and strike it a little too flat, I run into the second; and if I strike it too sharp, I run into the fourth. Again, suppose I aim to strike an eighth, and strike it too flat, I fall into the seventh; or if I strike too sharp, I run into the ninth; so that to err, on either hand, is equally pernicious, and destructive to the Harmony.

Many persons imagine, that if they strike within a half note of the true sound, they are tolerable good singers; for they say, “we strike it almost right, and therefore, we are very excusable.” But let such persons be informed, that to strike a Note almost well, is striking it very ill indeed; for they had better strike it ten Notes off from the true sound, than to strike it a half Note; because a tenth is a Concord, and a half Note is a Discord; hence it appears that the nicer the Ear, the truer the sound; for as the ear is the umpire of all sound, I recommend it to all, who are blessed with musical ears, to study the art of music, and I presume they will not lose their labour; and, if they have not very extraordinary voices, yet by the help of their ear, they will harmonize well in concert. And those who have not a curious ear, I heartily wish could be perswaded to leave to practice of music to such as have;6 for I hereby inform them, that if they had the wisdom of Solomon, and the voice of an Angel, yet for want of a distinguishing ear, they would never make any proficiency in this sublime Art.


THERE are but two natural primitive Keys in Music, viz. A. the flat Key, and C. the sharp Key. No Tune can be formed rightly and truly, but on one of these two Keys, except the Mi be transposed by flats, or sharps, which bring them to the same effect, as the two natural Keys. B—Mi, must always be one Note above, or one Note below they [the] Key; if above, then it is a flat Key, and, if below, then it is a sharp Key. But to speak more simply, if the last Note in the Bass, which is the Key Note, is named fa, then it is a sharp Key, and if la, then it is a flat Key; and observe, that it cannot end properly with Mi, or Sol.

N.B. It is very essential that these two Keys should be well understood, and must be strictly enquired into by all musical Practitioners; for without a good understanding of their different natures, no person can be a good judge of Music. The different effects they have upon people of different Constitutions, are surprizing, as well as diverting. As Music is said to cure several disorders, if I was to undertake for the Patients, I should chuse rather to inject these two Keys into their Ears, to operate on their Auditory, than to prescribe after the common custom of Physicians.

☞ Choristers must always remember to set flat Keyed Tunes to melancholy words, and sharp Keyed Tunes to chearful words.

LESSON XI. Concerning Slurs.

in turning a chain of Notes under a Slur, you must keep your lips assunder, from the first Note to the last; for every time you bring your lips together you break the Slur, and spoil the Syllable, which is very disagreeable to the Ears of all good Judges; because it destroys the Pronounciation; but to avoid that, you must keep your lips and teeth asunder, till the Slur is finished, and if it be possible, hold your breath to the end of the Slur; because stopping for breath, makes great breach in Pronounciation. And in order to do that more effectually, I advise you to take breath just before you get to a Slur; and then you may go through with ease; and I think it is ornamental to sing a Chain of Notes something softer than you do where they are plain.

Be sure not to force the Sound thro’ your Nose; but warble the Notes in your Throat; and by following these directions, you may presently become expert in the practice; and in performing Pieces where your part is sometimes silent, after you have beat your empty Bars, you must fall in with7 spirit because that gives the Audience to understand another part is added, which perhaps they would not be so sensible of, if you struck in soft.

LESSON XII. Concerning Pronounciation.

many words which end in Y, and I, should be pronounced as ee, but not all words; for instance, the words sanctify, magnify, justify, glorify, &c. must be pronounced as they are spelt, otherwise they would run thus, sanctifee, magnifee, justifee, glorifee, which sort of pronounciation would utterly destroy the sense. Musicial [Musical] pronouncers must never sacrifice the sense, for the sake of softening the sound; but were [where] the sense and the sound run counter to each other, the sound must give way. Yet there are many words which end in Y, that may be pronounced as ee, without hurting the sense: as for instance, the words majesty, mighty, lofty, &c. these words strike the Ear much pleasanter, when ty, is softened into tee, and the sense is as well (or better) expressed, than it could be the other way; but I have heard some singers pronounce my as me, because they were strenuously set against ending any syllable with Y, or I, which I think is very absurd, and is very often in the face and eyes of common sense; for supposing these words should occur, My soul praise the Lord, speak good of his name. According to their manner of pronounciation, it would run thus me soul praise the Lord, &c. So that by substituting E in the room of Y, they confound the whole sentence; for it would sound to the Audience, as if they had begun to sing by Note, and fell into the words inadvertently, Me soul, having the same sound in singing, as, mi sol, and all this confused jumble arises from the misapplication of one letter.

But however, if the sense of the subject obliges you to sound ty, or ti according to the strictness of the letter, you must not strike them so emphatically, as you would tee; but endeavour to slide over them smoothly and easily, and with a (seemingly) careless air; ease in singing is very ornamental, and a good Pronouncer is accounted almost half a Singer.


sing that part which gives you least pain, otherwise you make it a toil, instead of pleasure; for if you attempt to sing a part which is (almost or quite) out of your reach, it is not only very laborious to the performer; but often very disagreeable to the hearer, by reason of many wry faces and uncouth postures, which rather resemble a person in extreme pain, than one who is supposed to be pleasantly employed. And it has been observed, that those persons, who sing with most ease, are in general the most musical; for easy singing is a distinguishing mark of a natural Singer, and it is vastly more agreeable (at least to me) to hear a few wild uncultivated sounds from a natural Singer, than a Concert of Music performed by the most refined artificial singers upon earth; provided the latter have little or not [sic] assistance from nature.

One very essential thing in Music, is to have the parts properly proportioned; and here I think we ought to take a grateful notice, that the Author of Harmony has so curiously constructed our Organs, that there are about three or four deep voices suitable for the Bass to one for the upper parts, which is about the proportion required in the laws of Harmony; for the voices on the Bass should be majestic, deep and solemn; the tenor, full, bold and manly; the Counter loud, sclear and lofty; the Treble soft, shrill, and sonorous; and if suitable voices cannot be had, to sing each part properly, some of the parts had better be omitted; for it is a maxim with me, that two parts well sung, are better then four parts indifferently sung; and I had rather hear four people sing well, than four hundred almost well.


good singing is not confined to great singing, nor is it entirely dependent on small singing. I have heard many great voices, that never struck a harsh Note, and many small voices that never struck a pleasant one; therefore if the Tones be Musical, it is not material whether the voices be greater, or less; yet I allow there are but few voices, but what want restraining, or softening upon high notes, to take off the harshness, which is as disagreeable to a delicate ear, as a wire-edged raisor to a tender face, or a smoaky House to tender eyes. It is an essential thing in a master, to propagate soft singing in the school; because soft musick, has a great tendency to refine the ears of the performers, and I know by experience, that a new piece may be learned with more ease to the master and scholars, where they practice soft singing, and in less than half the time, it would otherwise require. Here take a few hints, viz.

  1. 1. Let the low notes in the bass be struck full, and the high notes soft.
  2. 2. Let not the upper parts overpower the lower ones.
  3. 3. Let each performer attend critically to the strength of his own voice, and not strive to sing louder than the rest of the company; unless he is in the place of a leader.
  4. 4. Let each performer sing the part that is most suitable to his voice; and never stretch it beyond its proper bearing.
  5. 5. If you are so unhappy, as to set a piece too high, it is best to worry through without lowering the pitch; because that has a tendency to take away the spirit of the performers; but if you set a piece too low you may raise it according to your judgment, and that will serve to animate the performers.
  6. 6. Do not set the pieces so high as to strain the voices; for that takes away all pleasure in the performance, and all music from the composition.
  7. 7. Finally let every performer be fully qualified for a leader.

☞ I would take this opportunity, to acquaint my younger Pupils, that it is deemed a point of ill manners to invade the province of another, by singing a Solo, which does not belong to your part, for it will admit of these two constructions, viz. that the persons to whom it is assigned, are not capable of doing justice to the piece, or at least, that you are more capable than they. It is also very degrading to the author to sing, when he (for reasons perhaps unknown to you) by presenting a number of empty Bars, tacitly forbids your singing, and no doubt this intention of his, is to illustrate some grand point, in the plan of the composition; when, by your ill-timed interuption, you not only destroy the sense, intended to be conveyed in the composition; but convey a very different sense to the audience: therefore for you to sing, when the author forbids your singing, is both unmannerly and ostentatious.

It is also well worth your observation, that the grand contention with us, is, not who shall sing loudest; but who shall sing best.

N.B. Although these lessons must be well understood by the scholars; yet I do not insist upon their being kept from sounding until they have thoroughly attained them; but before the school is finished, you must read lectures upon every lesson, and they must read them until they remember the substance without a book, so far as to recite each lesson, and if they do not understand all the terms that are made use of, they may find them in the Dictionary, in which, I have been very careful to insert as many musical words, as I thought necessary.

Rules how to call the Notes readily in all the parts.

Suppose, for instance, you can call the Notes in the Tenor, by the same rule you may call them in the Treble, because the Mi is fixed on the same line, or space. The Mi in the Bass is two Notes lower than it is in the Tenor, or Treble, as thus. If the Mi is on the middle line in the Tenor, then it is on the lower line but one in the Bass. The Mi in the Counter is but one Note lower than it is in the Tenor, or Treble, therefore if the Mi be on the upper line in the Tenor, or Treble, than [then] it is in the upper space in the Counter, and the Mi in the Counter is one Note higher than it is in the Bass.

Observe these Rules for regulating a Singing-School.

As the well being of every society depends in a great measure upon good order,8 I here present you with some general rules, to be observed in a Singing-School.

1st. Let the society be first formed, and the articles signed by every individual; and all those who are under age, should apply to their parents, masters or guardians to sign for them: the house should be provided, and every necessary for the school should be procured, before the arrival of the Master, to prevent his being unnecessarily detained.

2d. The Members should be very punctual in attending at a certain hour, or minute, as the master shall direct, under the penalty of a small fine, and if the master should be delinquent, his fine to be double the sum laid upon the scholars—Said fines to be appropriated to the use of the school, in procuring wood, candles, &c. N.B. The fines to be collected by the Clerk, so chosen for that purpose.

3d. All the scholars should submit to the judgment of the master, respecting the part they are to sing; and if he should think fit to remove them from one part to another, they are not to contradict, or cross him in his judgment; but they would do well to suppose it is to answer some special purpose; because it is morally impossible for him to proportion the parts properly, until he has made himself acquainted with the strength and fitness of the pupil’s voices.

4th. No unnecessary conversation, whispering, or laughing, to be practised; for it is not only indecent, but very impolitic; it being a needless expence of time, and instead of acquiring to themselves respect, they render themselves ridiculous and contemptable in the eyes of all serious people; and above all, I enjoin it upon you to refrain from all levity, both in conduct and conversation, while singing sacred words; for where the words God, Christ, Redeemer, &c. occur, you would do well to remember the third Commandment, the profanation of which, is a heinous crime, and God has expressly declared he will not hold them guiltness [guiltless] who take his name in vain; and remember that in so doing, you not only dishonor God and sin against your own souls; but you give occasion, and very just ground to the adversaries or enemies of music, to speak reproachfully. Much more might be said; but the rest I shall leave to the Master’s direction, and your own discretion, heartily wishing you may reap both pleasure and profit, in this your laudable undertaking.

An Historical Account of G. Gamut, as related by herself, taken in short hand by the Author.

I, G. Gamut, was neither begotten, nor born; but invented9 by the Royal Psalmist, that great master of Sacred Music, who in an extacy of joy, was inspired by God, and assisted by me, to “to break forth into joy” saying, “I will bless the Lord at all10 times, his praise shall continually be in my mouth” and not contenting himself with this Divine Soliloquy, he earnestly, in the vehemence of his spirit, calls upon “every thing that hath breath, to praise the Lord” sweetly inviting them in these enchanting strains, “O! taste and see that the Lord is good,” and again “O magnify the Lord with me, and let us exalt his holy name together” “O sing unto the Lord a new song; worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness.[”] And by way of adoration, he seems fully determined, to praise the Lord, in such strains as these, “O God, my heart is fixed, I will sing and give praise, I will sing praise unto my God while I have being.[”] It has been judiciously observed, that the staff which David carried in his hand, when he went forth against Golia[t]h, was a musical staff; and the five stones which he put into the bag, were but types of the five lines, of which that staff was composed. It is also supposed by some, that the stone mentioned, wherewith he slew the giant, was a Dominant Tone11 taken from me and discharged out of a canon12 of David’s invention. This canon was afterwards, in great estimation among the children of Israel; it was the only engine, or implement of war made use of13 in King Jehoshaphat’s army, when three mighty nations fell, slain before them. A frequent discharge of this canon by Paul and Silas, caused the earth to reply14 by way of unison, in such an extraordinary manner, that it produced a great earthquake, so that the foundations of the prison were shaken, the doors (in spite of locks, bolts and bars) flew open, the handcuffs and shackles relinquished their hold; so that the house was no longer a prison; for all restraint was miraculously taken away. By way of gratitude, I acknowledge myself much indebted to Pythagoras, that Prince of Philosophers, who introduced me into the Royal Family, or number15 seven: Nor can I, injustice to Guido Aretinus,16 pass by his great merit unnoticed; for before this great Musical Physician undertook for me, my habit of body was so decayed, and my constitution so much impaired, by the quackery of many musical impostures, that many of my true votaries began to despair of my recovery.—And, here it may not be amiss to inform you, that I am a very fruitful matron, being always pregnant; and it is in the breast of the operators, to deliver me of either gender they think proper. The children being equally handy to the birth. I am exempted from the common curse of mothers in general; for I bring forth without pain: Though sometimes at my delivery, I am so roughly handled, that it causes abortion, or some monstrous birth. But, thanks to great Guido, my habit of body is so strong, and my constitution so firm, that I receive no manner of injury thereby. I am a great lover of my natural offspring; yet so great is my impartiality, that I have given a power of attorney to Harmony, who has made choice of these three sagacious gentlemen to be present at my delivery, viz. Tune, Time, and Concord: And if they (in their great wisdom) shall judge the issue to be unnatural, I chearfully consent that the law should take place upon it, viz. That it should be smothered: And if any piece, which stands thus legally condemned, should chance to escape the vigilance of this Committee, I hereby declare (in spite of the paradox) that it is not mine; but illegitimate.

My sons17 have a strong propensity to mirth and chearfulness, always delighting to frequent weddings, festivals, concerts, &c. and some of them seem to be greatly pleased in warlike atchievements, and tho’ they carry no instruments of death or destruction, yet they are so extremely animating18 that they cause even cowards to fight, and pusillanimity to perform wonders. And though they are often times exposed to the hottest fire of the enemy, yet they are never in danger, because Apollo has rendered them invulnerable.

My Daughters19 have as great a propensity to grief and melancholy, as their brothers to mirth and chearfulness; always attending absent lovers and singing funeral Elegies, Dirge’s, &c. And though their dispositions are so diametrically opposite to each other, yet it is very common to find them both in the same Anthem, not by way of contradiction, or confusion; but in exact conformity to the time mentioned by the wise man, who said, “There is a time to mourn, and a time to rejoice.”

For one says, “O my God, my soul is cast down within me,” and again “My soul cleaveth to the dust, my soul melteth for heaviness.” The other saith, “Sing ye merrily unto God, our strength; make a chearful noise unto the God of Jacob.” And again, “Make a joyful noise20 unto the Lord all ye lands; serve the Lord with gladness.”

Sometimes, my Sons attempt to21 mourn, and my daughters to rejoice; but these attempts are such an open violation of their own natures, and are always attended with such hideous shrieks and dolorous outcries, that, to prevent such absurdities for the future, I have put them under the inspection of Ingenuity and Propriety.

sometimes (as the subject matter of a flat key) I take up a Lamentation, that I have not been introduced into Africa; for I have been informed by historians; that “If the mental acquirements of the natives, were adequate to their mechanic powers, they would be able to do me much greater honor, and infinitely more justice, than any set of people I have ever been conversant with heretofore.” Although I am a solid body, yet I afford abundance of Air.22 And I heartily wish, that justice would allow me to say, the air was always pleasant.

History informs us, that Dr. De Maris, a Frenchman, was the first that invented and ascertained the length of the notes, and their proportion from each other, viz. “That the Semibreve is twice as long as the Minim; the Minim twice as long as the Crotchet, &c.[”] N.B. He lived about the year 1330.To confirm what I have before asserted, I think it expedient to inform you, that in my perigrination through the wilderness of this world, I became intimately acqainted with a certain species of something, vulgarly called Time;23 which (as Dr. Young elegantly expresses it) “was cut from out eternity’s wide round.” And although we have each of us the same set of admirers, yet we never view each other as rivals, but assistants; for we are continually lending new graces, and affording new beauties to each other; and are so closely connected, that our true votaries are free to declare, they know not where to give the preference: For tune without time, is destitute of order; and time without tune, is destitute of harmony. Indeed there is at certain seasons, such uniformity and exactness in our movements, that many persons (who you may reasonably suppose, are not connoisseurs in this sublime art) have possitively affirmed, that time and sound were synonymous terms.

I am, this day, several hundered years old, and yet I find myself as strong as I was when Guido left me; for my constitution is no ways impaired, nor my natural forces in the least abated. And if I may be allowed to judge of things future by things past and present, I may reasonably conclude, that I shall not be extinct; but continue without any great variation or change, till that grand period shall arrive, when my dear friend and ally shall be swallowed24 up in eternity. When my daughters shall be consigned over to perpetual oblivion,25 and my sons shall rise and shine as stars of the first magnitude. Then shall I “be changed in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye. This corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality” Then shall these temporary distinctions of Preceptor and Pupil, Performer and Auditor, be done away; for (as Milton expresses it) “No one exempt, no voice but well could join melodious part; such concord is in Heaven.”

Here shall be no jaring strings, no dissonant voices in this grand chorus; here are no double Bars to pause at, nor Notes of Silence to breathe at; but an infinity of vibrations, and an uninterrupted and eternal coincidence shall finally and fully take place. Here is harmony in purity, and music in perfection: Here the king and the peasant, the prince and the porter are in unison with each other. Here are pleasures extatic, and joys never fading. “Alleluia; for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.”

“There’s no distinction here, join all your voices,

“And raise your heads ye Saints, for Heaven rejoices.”

“And again they said, Alleluia