A Modell For the Maintaining of Students & Fellows of Choise Abilities at the Colledge in Cambridge

By Jonathan Mitchell

c. 1663

Mitchell’s Modell


THIS document, closely written on ten leaves, is among the Hutchinson papers in the Massachusetts Archives,417 endorsed “Perused.” Although the name of the author does not appear in the manuscript, there is no doubt that it is by Jonathan Mitchell, successor to Thomas Shepard in the ministry at Cambridge. “Blessed Master Mitchell,” as Increase Mather called him,418 graduated from Harvard with the Class of 1647, and served as tutor from that date until about the time of his ordination on August 21, 1650.419 He was named Fellow of the Corporation in the charter of May 31, 1650, and was Senior Fellow from 1653 until his death, at the age of forty-three, on July 9, 1668.420 The document is in his handwriting, the same as that of The Lawes Liberties & orders of Harvard Colledge, in College Book I.421 Cotton Mather, who used the manuscript in preparing his biography of Mitchell,422 refers there to it thus:423

. . . and indeed the Colledge was nearer unto his Heart, than it was to his House, though next adjoyning to it. He was himself an Accomplished Scholar, and he loved a Scholar dearly; but his Heart was fervently set upon having the Land all over illuminated with the Fruits of a Learned Education. To this End, he became a Father to the Colledge, which had been his Mother, and sought the Prosperity of that Society, with a very singular Sollicitude; but among other Contrivances which he had for the Prosperity of the Colledge, One was, A Model for the Education of Hopeful Students at the Colledge in Cambridge. His Proposals were, for Septennial Subscriptions by the more Worthy and Wealthy Persons, in this poor Wilderness; to be Disposed of by Trustees (namely, the Magistrates and Ministers of the six next Towns, for the time being, with seven other Gentlemen by them Chosen out of the said Towns, of which any Seven to be a Quorum, if three Ministers were among them,) who should single out Scholars eminently pregnant and pious, and out of this Bounty support them in such Studies, as they should by these Trustees be directed unto, until they had either performed such profitable Services, as were Imposed on them in the Colledge it self, or prepared themselves for other Services abroad in the World.

This was at least the fourth “drive” to obtain funds for Harvard College after its foundation. The first, in 1641, was the English mission of Hugh Peter and Thomas Weld, for which New Englands First Fruits, published two years later, was written, and through which the Lady Mowlson (Anne Radcliffe) scholarship fund was obtained. From 1644 on, President Dunster made repeated applications to the New England Confederation, which inaugurated a system of voluntary contributions in kind, the “Colledge Corne,” out of which the fellows’ stipends and certain scholarships were paid in the years 1646–1653. A Proposal for the Enlargement of University Learning in New England was issued in 1659–1660 by certain English friends of the college, but too near the Restoration to accomplish much.424

It is possible to date Mitchell’s Modell within a few years, probably in 1663. Matthew Poole’s Model for the Maintaining of Students (at the University of Cambridge), which inspired Mitchell, and to which he directly refers on page six as having been “published some years since in England,” was printed at London in 1658. Mitchell died in 1668. One of the conditions which he wished to remedy, that “Divers schollers after their first degree, are through necessity forced to remove or discontinue, or occasioned to enter into the ministry raw & unfurnished,”425 came to a head in 1662. Not a single candidate for the master’s degree appeared at Commencement that year, although nine of the ten graduates of 1659 were eligible for it—a fact commented on by the Commencement orator.426 Since the New England churches ordinarily required a master’s degree of candidates for ministerial office, this was a very noticeable falling-away from earlier standards of excellence. And of the sixteen who entered with the Class of 1662, only six took the A.B. and only two the A.M.427 From 1665 until Mitchell’s death, there was a slight improvement in this respect. The other situation of which he complains, the youth and short terms of tutors, was also at its worst around 1663. Eight young men, very recent graduates, were appointed tutors between 1657 and 1664, and their average term of office was about three years.428

The natural person to present to the General Court a scheme of the sort outlined in the Modell was the president of the college. President Chauncy had, in fact, presented an “humble petition” for relief of himself and his family in 1663, which was rejected in curt and almost disrespectful terms by the General Court on June 13.429 It seems probable that, in consequence of this reception, the Corporation thought that Chauncy’s name should be kept out of this scheme. On October 20, 1663, Treasurer Danforth petitioned the Court to afford him some aid in the matter of college finances. The magistrates indorsed on this petition that they had also perused “sundry other petitions referring to the College.”430 Probably one of these petitions was Chauncy’s, and another, the Mitchell Modell.

A committee of the Court, to which were added Mitchell and Zechariah Symmes, was appointed on October 21 to consider the “addresse of Mr. Thomas Danforth.” It returned, on May 27, 1664, a report which has been lost; but the action taken on it by the General Court suggests that the Mitchell Modell had made no impression on the Court, even if it had on the committee.431 As Cotton Mather explained it:432

But if New-England then had not many Persons in it, of the same Inclination with Pope Paul 2. who pronounced them, Hereticks, that should mention the Name of an Academy, and exhorted People, that they would not put their Children to Learning, inasmuch, as it was enough if they could but Read and Write: yet, through the Discouragements of Poverty and Selfishness, the Proposals came to nothing. . . .

No Harvard Fund was raised, outside the Portsmouth, New Hampshire, donation in 1669, and the college had to get along as best it could on an income of about £250 a year. Yet the Modell is full of significance for the history of the college and of the times. It emphasizes what we already know, that the college was in a declining state during the sixteen-sixties, when New England as a whole was enjoying unexampled prosperity. The arguments addressed to ignorance and prejudice permit the inference that opposition to a well-educated ministry, which has cropped up in every century of Christian history, had lingered on in New England after the banishment of Anne Hutchinson. And while Mitchell’s emphasis is on “training up” a learned ministry—the aspect of the college nearest to his heart, and the one most likely to appeal to the persons he addressed—he also shows that President Dunster’s ambition to make the college a seminary for learned schoolmasters, trained physicians, and magistrates skilled in the law, had not been forgotten. His suggestion of founding readerships or chairs of ancient languages, history, law, and divinity, although taken from the English Model, was prophetic, as indeed was his closing hope that “God may raise up more Harvards whose Dying Bequeathments of their estates to this work . . . may give life to it.” Two centuries and more have but confirmed the truth of most that Mitchell said about the value of education to the Commonwealth; and it was expressly to remedy one condition that he deplored—the want of material encouragement to learning, leading “most men, even the Richer sort . . . to put their children to more advantageous Imployments”—that a new Society of Fellows was established at Harvard University in the year 1933.

S. E. Morison


A Modell For ye Maintaining of students & fellows of choise Abilities at ye Colledge in Cambridge

Tending to advance Learning among us, & to supply the publike with fit Instruments, principally for the work of ye Ministry

Drawne out of a like Model printed in England some years since, & accommodated to ye use of this Country.

with an Hortatory preface & Answers to Objections.

PROV. 3. 9.

Honour the Lord with thy substance & with the first-fruits of all thine Increase.

Si quid Scholasticis confers Deo ipsi contulisti

Luther in Genes, fol. 399. [2]

the Preface

THE Light of nature [er]go433 Hath taught all Civill nations (as, the Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians, Grecians & Romans) to erect & Incourage schooles of Learning: And what is it but Learning yt hath put yt vast difference between ym & salvage Barbarians. Moses & Daniel are famous in ye scripture for yr Learning. Act. 7. 22. Dan. 1. 17. we read of sundry Schools or colledges in Israel wherein scholars (or sons of ye prophets)434 were trained up, some of wch Elijah (as their visitor) did visit, before He went to Heavn. 2 King. 2. 1–5. See also 1 Sam. 19. 20. 2 King. 22. 14. the Jews marvelled at Christ’s Learning, having never gone to School to Learn wch was (it seems) ye ordinary way of attaining such Knowledge [J]oh. 7. 15. Christ sent not out his Apostles to preach till they had been trained up as Disciples or Scholars under Him (laying aside [3] all other occasions) for a good space of time; And then what was wanting He furnished them with by miracle in the gifts of Tongues Acts 2 & opening of their understandings to understand the Scriptures Luk. 24. 45. which Gifts we now obtain from God by ye Breathing and working of His spirit in ye use of ordinary means.

when the Lord would destroy Antichrist & spread the light of the Gospel in these latter dayes, the Angel is seen come downe with a Book open, & men become Heluones Librorum435 Revel. 10. vid Brightman, Pareus in vers. 9.436 the Benefits that we in these Latter ages have had by Learning & Learned men are unspeakeable As the Translation of ye Holy scriptures out of ye originall languages: the Cleering up & vindicating of ye Truth beyond gainsaying by ye Lord’s worthies; the Discovery & Dissipation of Antichristian errours and Heresies. What can be more absurd then to Call learning an Antichristian thing; when as the Decay of Learning ushered in, the greatest want of learning was in ye greatest prevalency of, & the Reviving of Learning was ye Means to disperse Antichristian darknes as the meanest Reader knows. In the time of ye Rising of Antichrist It is observed437 that unlearned men crowded into the ministry. Pope Paul the 2d pronounced them Hereticks that should mention the name of an Academie, and exhorted peopl not to put their Children to Learning, saying it was enough if they could but Read and write.438 when Learning was revived by Erasmus (being the morning-starre that ushered in the rising sun of Gospel-light by Luther) the popish Crew were filled with rage and Indignation against it. Before that, to have skill in Greek was counted suspitious, but in Hebrew almost Hereticall. These & many other Instances yt might be given tell us w[hat] spirit it is that doth neglect or contemn Learning [4]

Luther, a while after yt God by His ministry had begun to set up ye light of ye Gospel & to cast down the corruptions of ye Papacy, found need solemnly to stirre up the princes & peopl of Germany, in a Treatise by Him published,439 to erect and Incourage schooles & Learning, & not to spare either Care or Cost to that end. “When satan was beat out of his former Trade of monasteries and abuse in popish Learning, now (saith Luther) He turnes Him to ye tother side & contends that there must be no Learning at All.” It is no new thing for a Reforming peopl to need excitation to ye maintenance of Learning, without wch all their Endeavours after Reformation will soon Come to nothing. For (as Luther in yt treatise speakes) “If ever there be any Considerable Blow given to ye Devils Kingdome, It must be by youth excellently educated. And therefore (saith He) Res Seria est, Ingens est &c. It is a serious thing, a great thing & which hath in it much of ye Interest of Xt & of all Xtianity, that youth be well trained up & want no Helps to that end, that schools and schoolemasters and poore scholars be maintained &c. Where we spend one crowne against ye Turk, we should spend an Hundred for this—the Devil was Liberall to monkes & Friars but is a niggard Here because He perceives this makes not for his market—It is the flourishing of a Commonwealth to be well-furnishd with Learned worthy & able Men for all purposes—And God will not give us such men by miracle, seeing He hath vouchsafed us other wayes & means to obtain ym—Learning is an unwelcome Ghuest to the Devil & therefore He would starve it out—But we shall never long retain the Gospel without the Help of Learning & of ye toungues. It[em] not long after ye Apostles times upon the Decay of Learning followd the Decay & corruption of Religion—Many of ye Fathers though Holy men wanting skill in ye Toungues often missed it much in Interpretation of scripture—Bee it [5] that some may without much Learning speak good things; yet they will unavoidably often wander from ye true sense of scripture; they are unarmed for ye defence of ye faith & confutation of errours; their work will goe on poorly, & becom nauseous to yir Hearers as Crambe bis recocta &c—But if we should have no regard to Religion, even the outward prosperity of a people in this world would necessarily require schools & Learned men—this one thing I observe to be awanting, in that none are Carryed with alacrity & seriousnes to take Care for ye education of youth & to Help the world with eminent & able men. &c &c.” thus Luther many more of whose sayings in yt excellent Treatise of His we should transcribe were we not confined unto Brevity.

It is an observation not to be despised concerning the sons of Japhet440 that they Transplanting themselves into places remote from the seat & Center of Religion & Learning (in those first ages of ye new world after ye Flood) did in a little time lose both, tho the first planters were pious & Religious. In later times the Kingdome of Nubia once peopled by Xtians, utterly lost all Christianity for want of ministers to Instruct ym as Historians tell us.441 wee in this Country being farre removed from the more cultivated parts of ye world, had need to use utmost care & diligence to keep up Learning & all Helps of Education among us, lest degeneracy, Barbarism, Ignorance and irreligion doe by degrees breake in upon us. wee Have great Cause of thankfulnes to God for what He hath done for us already in erecting not only other Schools But a Colledge among us, By ye pious Gift of mr. John Harvard Founder thereof, together with ye Beneficence of other worthy Gentlemen & the publik care & contribution of ye Country; whereby in this Day of our small things that society hath been upheld Hitherto. And it Hath not been Barren but (tho Labouring under many difficulties) Blessed with a plentifull offspring, our Jerusalem cannot say that shee hath none to guide Her of all the sons she had brought up. God hath raised up of our sons for prophets & of our young men for Nazarites. Few churches or townes in the Country without some out of this Seminary in ym Besides many [6] yt have been serviceable in other parts of the world, we should [er]go be unthankfull unto God & forgetfull of our selves, if we now let that society languish for want of further needfull Incouragement either as to the edifice or maintenance of scholers there, the papists stick not to be at vast expenses for maintain[in]g their monasteries, seminaries, Libraries, &c. How doe they lavish gold out of ye bag in building Schooles for satan! And shall Xtians be backward or sparing to uphold schooles & nurseries for promoting ye Interest of Jesus Christ? Speed Tells us that the valuations of Religious Houses in ye dayes of K. Henry ye 8t founded by Benefactours in times of popery amounted in England & Wales to 1865 12li 08s 01d, besides divers not Reckoned.442 It is no such great things yt can be expected or attained in this wildernes, when we have done all we can, Learning must be carryed on in this poore Country (as all things else) with difficulty, Hardship & selfe-denyall. But let us not withhold our mite from ye Lord’s Treasury, or neglect to Help on this good work to the uttermost of our power

Finding therefore that the want of needfull maintenance for fellows & of somewhat to enable other scholars to continue at ye Colledge till they be well & thoroughly furnishd for publike service (the whole Charge whereof but few parents among us are able or willing to beare of yms.) is a cause of ye languishing of yt society, & is like to enforce a decay of Learning among us if not timely remedyed. And Having seen a modell published some years since in England for maintaining students of choice Abilities at ye university443 the designe and contrivance whereof was deservedly approved by judicious men, wee Have reduced & accommodated the same to the state of things with us, & thought meet to propose it unto all whose Hearts God may stirre up to consider & advance a work of so great Importance for the good of present and after generations.

that very much of ye Interest of Xt, of His church, of the publike weal & of ye souls of men is wrapt up in this work none will doubt yt doe impartially consider yreof; And if so, none can want Argum[en]ts to excite ym to [7] Contribute to it, yt look into ye scriptures, wch are so Abundant in propounding as to this excellent Trade of turning our Temporalls into Eternalls by giving to ye Lord i.e. to pious uses for ye Lord’s sake seeing our estates whatever contentm[en]t their lives Have must all fail. Xt gives us excellent Counsell, Luk. 16. 9 to make our selves Friends with ye false mammon, yt then they may receive us into everlasting Habitations, one of these Friends will say (as Lyserus upon ye place speaks)444 Ego miser Scholasticus &c—I a poor scholar had in my youth been undone & haply been made an Hogsherd or put to other mean Imployments, But this man was my Benefactour & kept mee to my studies, this Gentleman, that worthy matron gave mee support yrein. Lord Jesus reward it unto ym in life eternall! &c. Remember yt your works only Rev. 14. 13 (not your estates, pleasures &c) shall (tho not through any merit in ym yet thro ye Grace of God so accepting and rewarding ym) follow you into another world, would you give any thing to Xt Jesus who Hath done so much for you, give it to His peopl & to ye furtherance of His Kingdom among men & what you doe to one of yese little ones much more to a whole Body & Community of ym, shall be accounted as done to Him. we have indeed nothing but what is His we are not absolute owners but stewards of what we Have, yet He will take it as our gift if out of our affection to ye House of our God we set it apart for Him 1 Chron. 29. 3, 9, 14. But it may be you are not so free to give, you Had rather Lend could you meet with one yt were able & faithfull to let you Have your own again especially with advantage: why, this is ye proposition the Holy Ghost makes you by ye pen of Solomon, Prov. 19. 17 Here is a faire Bill of Exchange from Him whose word none ever had cause to return protested. Are you not willing to lend ye Lord somewhat, trust Him give Him credit for it? He hath given it under His Hand to be your Debtour for the repayment thereof445 we think it a Blessed thing to receive, but Xt saith it is more Blessed to give. Are the times evill? the Scripture saith therefore give Eccles. II. 1, 2. Are we poore & Low? It was ye Macedonians Commendation yt yr deep poverty abounded to ye Riches of their Liberality. 2 Cor. 8. 1, 2. there is that scattereth & yet increaseth; but the pinching Hold-fast will be ye poorest man in conversion Prov. II. 24, 25. In the Hardest times & after poorest crops, men will make shift to get seed & spare their Best grain for that. And such is this 2 Cor 9. 6, 10. [8] Galat. 6. 8, 9, 10. Are we Carefull to provide for our Children? this is the best way psal. 37, 36.446 & 112. 2, 3, 5, 9. But for further arguments persuasive to this work we shall referre the Reader to the Epistles of Two Reverend persons in England published with ye modell above-mentioned, wch we have thought meet here to annex. The Lord continue to owne this our day of small things, establish to us ye light of His Gospel & all ye Helps yreof; richly reward those yt shall Contribute to this good work, & carry down ye Blessing thereof unto many generations.

Two Epistles to ye modell above-mentioned as it was published in England.

To the Rich yt love Christ, the Church, the Gospel & themselves.447

leaving out a passage or two

A word to ye Rich yt desire to give up their account with Comfort [9]

A Model for the Education & Maintenance of students of choise abilities at ye Colledge in Cambridge to the service of God & His people in publike especially ministeriall work448

Chap 1.

of the Contributors & Contributions

1. that they who through their Affection to Gods Glory & the Good of men in the Advancement of Learning & piety shall be willing to Contribute to this work be Intreated to signify their Desires by way of subscriptions, that so it may be more Certain in it selfe & more visible & exemplary to others.

2. For the Better Carrying on of ye whole design, and lest through ye uncertainty or failing of continued supplyes, youths of excellent parts should be left Destitute in the mid-way: It is earnestly desired that what persons shall please to give they would doe it in Annuall way for 7 or eight years, or if it may be for ever: which will be deservedly looked upon as a noble & eminent act of Charity & wch present & future Ages may have Cause to Blesse God for. Yet if any shall contribute any thing in any other way It will be Acceptable.

3. that the name of every Contributor be fairly written in a Book appointed for the purpose together with ye summ wch it shall please Him to contribute to this work.

Chap. 2

Of the Trustees & three officers

1. that the money collected be disposed of & the Election of Schollars made by Trustees, viz the Magistrates & Teaching elders Inhabiting within the Townes of Boston, Roxbury, Dorchester, Charlestown, Cambridge & Watertown together with 7 other Gentlemen by them Chosen out of those Townes: of all which any seven shall make a Quorum in ordinary cases, whereof three to be ministers provided [10] alwayes that all the Trustees have notice of the meeting, & of ye end of it.

2. that the Trustees proceed in all things without partiality, as they shall judge best for the publike Good, and suffer not themselves to be Byassed from it by any favours or Recommendations whatsoever. And particularly yt in the election of Scholars when there are any vacancies, the Trustees declare themselves that they will according to their Trust proceed therein with all fidelity & Integrity.

3. that when any one of the foresayd 7 Gentlemen-Trustees dyes or removes out of ye Townes abovementioned, or refuseth to act further in ye Busines, or by ye Rest of ye Trustees is judged to deserve Dismission from his Trust; The Rest of ye Trustees or Any 7 of them (3 of ym being ministers & notice of ye meeting given to all) proceed to chuse Another: And that they chuse one whom for wisdom, candor, activity, publick-spiritednes, Integrity, affection to Religion & Learning & other necessary qualifications they judg fit for ye work.

4. that the Trustees doe (once in 2 or 3 yeare) chuse from among themselves one Magistrate & one Minister, who shall be desired from time to time to appoint meetings of ye Trustees, & to be present at all meetings & transactions & to take speciall care to promote ye work.

5. that the Trustees doe also chuse a person who may perform ye office of Treasurer449 (being one of unquestionable fidelity) making a new election in ye month of April every 3 years. And that the Treasurers Discharge shall be sufficient to any yt shall pay ye money. And that the Treasurer be accountable to ye Trustees once a year: & that He shall not dispose of any of ye moneyes but according to ye Direction of the Trustees or any 7 of ym as aforesayd

6.450 that a clerk be chosen to be present at all meetings to draw & enter all orders made by ye Trustees & keep the Books & write such things as are necessary; & yt He have such salarie as the Truste[es] shall think fit

6.451 that All ye charges Incidentall to the work which the trustees shall judge expedient, but with the utmost frugality yt may be shall be allowed out of ye stock.

7. that the Alteration or addition of circumstances in this modell be left to ye wisdom of ye Trustees—provided alwayes yt ye substantialls [remain] untouched. [11]

Chap 3d

of the Quality of Schollers to be chosen

1. that the Schollars to whom the exhibitions shall be granted, be chosen out of the Colledge, or out of Schools as the Trustees shall find expedient: And that strict enquiry & diligent examination be made & all possible Care used that fit persons be chosen. And that no shollers hereafter shall be chosen but such as have been personally & diligently examined by Two at least either of the Trustees themselves (who are scholars) or of such as shall be chosen & desired by ye Trustees to examine them, & doe attest their fitnes under their Hands.

2. that the Schollers to be chosen be of Godly Life, or at ye least Hopefull for Godlines, of eminent parts, of an Ingenuous disposition, & of a modest & Humble spirit; and such as are poor or have not a sufficient maintenance any other way: that not only the pregnancy but the solidity of their parts be observed. And that a speciall regard be had to Godlines.

3. that the exhibitions be given not only to such as Intend the ministry & direct their studies that way, (tho principally to them; it being ye principall aim of this work to supply ye churches with choise & able ministers) But also to such as may probably be fit for speciall service in the Commonwealth.

4. And for as much as the want of Able Fellows of competent standing, eminent Learning & good Authority to continue in ye Colledge is a great Hindrance to ye Advancement of Learning & Governm[en]t yrein, that such moderate additions to what the Colledg can allow for yr maintenance be exhibited, as may Incourage deserving Fellows to a meet Continuance in ye Colledge, provided alwayes that great & exact Care be had in the choise of Fellows; & that the exhibitions be made or continued only to such as doe well approve yms: & that no Idle Drones or unworthy & unprofitable persons be hereby maintained.

5. And whereas Divers schollers after their first degree, are through necessity forced to remove or discontinue, or occasioned to enter into the [12] ministry raw & unfurnished; that a speciall regard be had to such of them as during their Continuance have given the Best proof of their parts, Learning & Godlines & they be enabled to continue four years after yr degree of Batchelour; whereby they may be solemnly prepared & well fitted for the weighty work yt God may call them to. Also that these or such of ym as are fittest for it, be imployed & incouraged in ye work of reading Lectures in ye Colledge upon ye severall Arts, for example & Instruction unto younger scholars. [13]

Chapt. 4.

of the education of the Schollars

1. that the exhibitioners shall be obliged to study to be eminent in ye Latine, Greek, Hebrew & other Oriental Languages, & in the severall Arts & Sciences, so farre as their time & Ability will permit.

2. that such exhibitioners as are taken from Schools be placed under Good Tutours in the Colledge, who shall be entreated to have a speciall eye upon ym, as to their Godlines & to presse them to a diligent attendance upon all means publike & private conducing thereunto.

3.452 that none of ye exhibitioners be absent from ye Colledge above a month in a yeare unlesse extraordinarily visited by sicknes.

4. that once in a yeare or two the Trustees or some three of ym (who are scholars) goe to the Colledge & there with the Help of the president & Fellows (who shall all be entreated to take Constant, speciall notice of the exhibitioners) find out their profiting & diligently enquire into their Abilities & Conversations & encourage them accordingly. And that in their presence the exhibitioners or some of ym doe some short Learned exercises sutable to their standing & proficiency.

5. that such of ye exhibitioners as shall at any solemn examination be found eminently to excell the Rest in ability & piety shall have such speciall Incouragem[en]ts as the Trustees shall judge fit.

6. that when there shall be satisfying Evidence of the Idlenes or dissolutenes, or any depravednes of any of ym, the Trustees may after admonition & Tryall either wholy or for so long time as they shall think fit, withdraw the exhibition from them and chuse others in their places.

Chap. 5.

of the selection of some Schollers for speciall uses

1. That (besides supplyes made to the churches for the work of ye ministry) there be some fit persons Chosen out of the exhibitioners or others by the Trustees [with the] advice of ye president and fellows of ye colledge [of sufficient] standing & Convenient [14] Leisure, & employed in that way wherein they are most eminent; one to be the Linguist & principally for Greek & Hebrew & for Jewish and Rabbinicall Learning; Another the Historian & Antiquary especially for Ecclesiasticall Antiquity: Another the Civilian well-studyed in the Law & especially in the Laws of ye English nation: Another the polemicall Divine, well versed in all theologicall Controversies,453 that so this poore remote Country may not be utterly destitute of eminent Helps in these kinds. And that each of these employ themselves (when occasion shall require & the Trustees reasonably desire) in such works as shall be usefull & necessary for the publike Good; & Have such Allowances as ye Trustees shall Judge Fit & as the exellency of their parts & the nature of ye work shall require. Neither need this selection Hinder any of these persons from being afterward Imployed in particular places of service to ye churches or Country as God shall call them thereunto.

2. Forasmuch as some parts of Virginia & some other places Have sent Hither for Labourers in ye Ministry;454 & there is also yet much want of such in sundry out-places in ye Borders of this Country, whereby many souls are destitute of ye Lord’s appointed Helps for salvation; the Trustees may incourage some of those exhibitioners or others whom God shall qualify for a service, to goe forth yreunto; & those places may be incouraged to send & look out for Labourers in yt work, when they shall be sure not to fail of good supply.

3. some may be set apart for Choise & Able Schoolmasters in ye severall townes, & for Teachers of the Mathematicks. some for physitians who may become able eminent & approved in yt faculty, & be a priviledged society or Colledge in time, some of singular Integrity & Ability may Have ye eyes of ye Country upon ym for ye magistracy besides others employed in Inferiour Civill offices.

Chapt. 6.

of some speciall Helps for ye advancem[en]t of Learning among us

1. Forasmuch as a Compleat & well-furnishd Library is altogether necessary unto eminent degrees of Learning in any Faculty. And to Have at least one such in ye Country is needfull for ye publike & Common good, as well as for the [p]rofit of particular scholars. It is [er]go a needful & would be a N[oble ?] work to Inlarge the L[ibrary of t]he Colledge at C[ambridge] [torn] [15] And should it please any to contribute either particular summes, or any Annuity to that end It would be a worthy & renouned service to ye publike. provided Alwayes that the Trustees above-sayd doe with ye Help of the President & Fellows take a speciall & extraordinary care for the Keeping & well-ordering of ye Library, & to prevent all Abuses therein; & that (as soon as may be) the Bookes may be chained as they are in other places.455 In ye mean time yt the president and senior Fellow456 with some one or two of ye Trustees, doe every quarter goe into ye Library & take a strict account of ye Library-Keeper yt no Book may be so lent out or disposed as to be in Hazard either of being lost or abused.

3.457 that it be the serious & Constant Endeavour of all sorts of men in their places, to promote & Encourage Grammer-schooles in ye severall townes of ye Country, wch are the springs of Learning; & without wch the streames thereof cannot replenish either Colledge, or Churches, or ye Country. Let all be stirred up in the fear of God to promote them both by providing comfortable stipends for school-masters & by putting children to School some in order to further progresse, But all to Have so much cultivating as may render them Intelligent & usefull in their Generations; that our Children become not Barbarians & that our present Light be not turned into darknes.

2 seeing the present Edifice of the Colledge is old & Ruinous & will not long suffice to ye end (tho for a while with reparations it may)458 the Lord stirre up some who may to their eternall Honour become Founders or Builders of another & Better structure wch may longer last to bear ye memory of so noble a work, & be a more Comfortable Habitation for stud[ents] [torn] & Hopes of ye [cou]ntry who [torn] under a continuall [torn] [16]

An Answer to some objections yt may be raised against this work.

Obj. 1. what need we so much Book-Learning or a Learned ministry? may we not doe well enough without it?

Ans. He that despises Booke Learning forgets that God Hath put our All into a Book or Bible for the understanding & Improving of wch Book, all sorts of other usefull books & All Arts & sciences are no more yn necessary, to despise any kind or degree of usefull Learning is to despise the propheticall office of Jes. Xt the scope whereof is to restore Knowledge to ye sons of men; & inferiour parts of Knowledge as needful & Helpfull to ye superiour. Neither can we doe well without a Learned ministry, yea such as are eminently learned in ye Arts & Languages, as He will readily grant who considers, that the scriptures & the Best Helps to understand ym are written in ye Learned Languages; that there is ye use & Result of All Arts in ye scriptures & all needful to a distinct understanding yreof, that the Oppositions & disputes wch Satan Hath at all Times & in yese our dayes especially raised up against ye Truth, require much learning to Resist & Refute ym.

Let it never be forgotten by us what the policies of Julian ye Apostate were to root out Christianity (viz 1. By taking away ye maintenance of ministers 2. By Tolerating all opinions. 3. By Keeping ye children of Xtians from schools of Learning.) Let us use the Contrary wisdom to promote & establish it. see more to this in ye preface. [17]

obj. 2. But much Hath been given to the Colledge already what becomes of that, & what needeth more?

Answ. 1. If we Have any charity toward men, we may Rest assured that what Hath ben given, being in ye Hands of men faithfull & Able is carefully preserved, improved & disposed in ye Best way yt may be: the Accounts of this Have been presented to ye Generall Court, viewed by their Committees, & may be seen in ye Hands of ye Treasurer of ye Colledge by any yt shall desire it. 2. what Hath been given comes not to so much as many Imagine; But if it were more yn it is, It would fall farre short of what is needfull, as any one yt considers ye nature & compasse of such a work will easily see. the whole Annual Revenues yt any way Come to ye College (for support of ye president, fellows, scholars & Edifice) amount but to 250l. And ye Greatest part of yt in such wayes as are difficult, Troublesom & Inconvenient, though yr necessity makes for a shift till Better doe occurre. 3. the principall scope of this Design is not so much to maintaine the society of ye Colledge as particular persons yrein of choise abilities for ye service of ye Country: And this will also make ye society flourish, wch now languisheth for want of students yt continue.

Obj. 3. the Colledge as it is Breedeth as many or more than can Have imploym[en]t in this small Country in ye work of ye ministry.

Answ. 1. How is it then yt some out-places are destitute & others not fully furnished? 2. the designe of this modell is not only to send forth ministers but choise & eminent ministers, the number will not it may be Hereby be much augmented, but their Abilitys & advantages for greater attainm[en]ts by being Inabled to Continue at ye Colledge & furnishd with choise Tutours there. 3. It sufficeth not to Have supplyes for ye ministry, for time will shew yt unlesse we Have ye Helps of Learn[in]g & education to accomplish persons for ye magistracy & other civill offices, things will languish & goe to decay among us. 4. Advantages & preferments by Learning Here are not attractive & considerable, as yy are in other places. Hence few will be of themselves at ye charges to Bring up yr children to Learning, without Help, wee see by experience yt most men, even ye Richer sort doe chuse to put yr children to more advantageous Imployments. [18]

Obj. 4. the Colledge-Diet & Accommodations is uncomfortable & prejudiciall to ye Health of students yre, also the manners of sundry are Dissolute; these things are a discouragm[en]t both to parents from putting yr children thither & to Benefactours.

Answ 1. there is and will be care taken that the Accomodation at ye Colledge be in all respects as good as can be according to the present expenses & allowances, yet it hath been ye wisdome of all nations & ages to attend frugality & somewhat of severity in such societies. 2. If more & better be desired the charge must needs be greater; & parents will find that Heavy, unlesse some Assistance be lent ym, the Obtaining whereof is our designe of this proposall 3. were there more meanes to maintain Good & able Fellows in ye Colledge, Both the manners of students & what else is amisse might by their Help be Rectifyed. 4. In all societies there will be Bad as well as Good; yet if we Remember How many Have ben there bred of ye better sort, we shall Have no cause to Insist too much on ye former. But according to this Modell there will be such a Carefull Election of scholars & they kept under such obligations & Inspection as will through ye Blessing of God, render them a Rejoycing to all pious Benefactours.

Object. 5. the Country is poore & Hath Little to spare for such uses

Answ. 1. Necessary things must be provided for though we make the Hardest shifts; & such a thing is the maintenance of Learning for the work of present & after ages. 2. the proposall is tendered to such as God hath Blessed with estates in some Comfortable measure; 3. It is not great matters that we aim at, but a competent & necessary subsistence for learning according to our day of small things in a wildernes. 4. though it is but Little that each single person can doe, yet many drops united may make a small stream 5. It is Hoped that in a little time God may raise up more Harvards whose Dying Bequeathments of their estates to this work (& Haply to be improved according to this modell) may give life to it. And thus the Contributions of many particular persons may be spared, In the mean time let us creep as we can & be doing something that Learning among us may not fall or Languish, but may stand & flourish to ye Good of us & our posterity after us.