Elected 21 November, 1895.
- BENJAMIN APTHORP GOULD, LL.D
- Hon. JOHN LOWELL, LL.D
- WILLIAM WATSON GOODWIN, D.C.L.
- HENRY WINCHESTER CUNNINGHAM, A.B.
- ANDREW McFARLAND DAVIS, A.M.
- HENRY HERBERT EDES, Esq.
- HENRY ERNEST WOODS, Esq.
Executive Members of the Council.
- HENRY PARKER QUINCY, M.D.
- FRANCIS CABOT LOWELL, A.B.
- EDWARD WHEELWRIGHT, A.M.
1 The names of all the signers appear in the Certificate of Incorporation, printed on page 12.
2 See Amendment, adopted 15 February, 1893, printed on page 20.
3 The Rt.-Rev. Phillips Brooks, D.D., was also elected at this meeting, but died on Monday, 23 January, 1893, before he received the official notification of his election; not, however, before his interest in the new Society and its purposes had been cordially expressed.
4 General Cobb’s commission and Mr. Paine’s letter have been printed in the New England Historical and Genealogical Register for July, 1891, xlv. 241–242. Mr. Baylies’s address appeared in the same journal in January, 1864, xviii. 5–17, and in a separate form with the imprint “Albany: J. Munsell, 78 State Street, 1864.” On the titlepage of the original is the following note by Mr. Baylies: —
“This Manuscript is presented to Mr. D. G. W. Cobb with liberty to correct and publish if he thinks proper. I was requested to furnish the printers in this Town, but fearing it might be considered too extravagant I thought it best to keep it awhile. I have looked it over and believe it will do. I wish Mr. Cobb to have one fair copy made and forwarded by mail to Gen. Wool at Washington.”
5 This volume has since been received. It belonged to David George Washington Cobb, and contains his family record. The following is a copy of it; —
“David G. W. Cobb and Abby Crocker were married May 16, 1822.
“Samuel Crocker Cobb, born July 4, 1823, at half-past 6 o’clock, morning.
“George Thomas Cobb, born September 5, 1824 (Sunday).
“Samuel Crocker Cobb, died November 30, 1824; buried Deer. 2d, Thanksgiving Day, in the morning.
“Samuel Crocker Cobb, born May 22nd, 1826 (Monday).
“Elizabeth Baylies Cobb, born February 17, 1828 (Sunday).
“Sally Crocker Cobb, born October 29th, 1831, at 2 o’clock in the morning (Saturday).”
David George Washington Cobb, youngest son of General David and Eleanor (Bradish) Cobb, was born 14 January, 1790. His wife was a daughter of the Hon. Samuel Crocker, of Taunton. Their third son was the late Hon. Samuel Crocker Cobb, Mayor of Boston, 1874–1876, and President of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati from 1880 till his death, 18 February, 1891. See Memorials of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati, Boston, 1890, pp. 136–144.
6 See Mr. Davis’s communications to the Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society for October, 1887, and October, 1892, New Series, v. 129–139; viii. 274–280; and the New England Historical and Genealogical Register, for July, 1892, xlvi. 234–235; and January, 1893, xlvii. 113–115.
7 Large extracts from Mr. Davis’s paper were printed in successive issues of “The Commonwealth,” newspaper, between 25 February and 13 May, 1893.
8 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Public Document No. 44.
9 See Report of Committee, printed in the Society’s Proceedings, vol. i. The historical sketch of the early days of the Society will repay careful examination.
10 The History of Land Titles in Massachusetts. By James Sullivan, LL.D. Boston. 1801.
11 Nearly every time that Savage refers to Hubbard in the notes to his edition of Winthrop’s History of New England, he does so with a sneer; but Charles Deane, in his chapter on “New England” (Narrative and Critical History of America, vol. iii. p. 362), very justly says, “This was by far the most important history which had then been written.” The publication of the works of Winthrop and Bradford materially lessened its value.
12 See Mr. Edes’s communication to the March Meeting of this Society, pages 113–114. This corroborates my conjecture as to the date.
13 See Bibliographical Contributions, Library of Harvard University, No. 45, p. 8.
14 the worcester county historical society.
The Worcester County Historical Society was incorporated 19 February, 1831, “for the purpose of collecting and preserving materials for civil and natural history.” A circular was issued without date, a copy of which is preserved in the American Antiquarian Society, in which the title of the Society was given as The Worcester Historical Society, and the purpose of the organization is there stated to be “collecting and preserving materials for a complete and accurate history of the County of Worcester.” The same title is given in Lincoln’s History of Worcester, published in 1836, and the statement is therein made that the Society requires as evidence of qualification for membership the publication of some work or some practical exertion in aid of these objects. At that date, Hon. John Davis had been President from the date of the organization of the Society.
On the fourth of October, 1831, the Society celebrated the centennial anniversary of the incorporation of Worcester County, selecting as an event suitable for such a memorial service the first sitting of the Supreme Judicial Court in Worcester County. The date which was adopted was Dot precisely coincident, but was selected because it was the first day of the session of that tribunal in the year 1831. An address was then delivered by the President, which, with a particular account of the ceremonies, was deposited in the American Antiquarian Society’s Collections.
Mr. Nathaniel Paine of Worcester has made search for the records of this Society without avail. He writes me that Mr. C. C. Baldwin, a former librarian of the Antiquarian Society, under date of 4 October, 1831, says in his diary that the Historical Society was greatly honored at the centennial celebration. Under date of 5 October, 1831, he says that he went to a meeting of the Society, and was chosen to make a report of all the proceedings at the celebration, which report, with a bottle of wine and other appropriate articles, he was to enclose in a tight and safe box, made for the purpose, and commit to the care of the Antiquarian Society. These were to remain in the hands of that Society unopened until the end of one hundred years, when it was intended that they should be brought forth and examined. Mr. Paine reports that the bottle, and presumably its contents, are still at the Antiquarian Hall, but the box has disappeared, together with the account of the proceedings at the celebration. To those of us who do not expect to be on hand when the cork is drawn in 1931, this is necessarily a source of regret, in which it is not improbable that those who shall be present at the ceremonial of opening the bottle will participate.
The Society is not known to have been in existence later than 1836 or 1837, and has not left any other traces of its existence than those I have mentioned.
15 The Census of 1790, and the Direct Tax of 1798, so far as it relates to Boston, have been printed in the Twenty-second Report of the Record Commissioners of the City of Boston.
16 The Gregg Genealogy Company was incorporated 18 May, 1893, “to carry on a search for historical and genealogical facts connected with persons in America by names of Gregg, Gragg, Greig, and lines collateral thereto, and to print and publish the results of such search.” Its headquarters are in Boston.
The Woodbury Genealogical Society was incorporated 23 June, 1893. Its headquarters are in Salem. Its purposes are “to collect and publish historical and genealogical information concerning the old planters, John and William Woodbury, their ancestors and descendants, and to perpetuate their memory by monuments or otherwise.”
17 A full history of the Institute will be found in the “Visitor’s Guide to Salem,” Salem, 1892, pp. 59–71; and Essex Institute Historical Collections (1868–69) ix. Part 2, 3–40; and (1871–72) xi. 1–18.
18 The collection of memorials is thus alluded to by Dr. George E. Ellis in announcing to the Massachusetts Historical Society the death of Dr. Henry Wheatland: —
“He identified the principal work and interests of his long life mainly with institutions in Salem devoted to the preservation and illustration of the historical relics of that, the first of the permanent settlements in the Bay Colony. Those relics in objects and documents are rich and copious, covering, indeed, in a wellnigh complete and exhaustive collection long under his charge as the head of the Essex Institute, the antiquities and memorials accumulating for nearly three centuries.
“They begin with the reconstructed rafters and timbers of the first meeting-house of the settlement, in which Higginson, Hugh Peters, and Roger Williams preached, and Governor Winthrop exhorted and ‘prophesied.’ In no other ancient town in our country, not even in the Pilgrim Hall, at Plymouth, is there gathered so full and continuous a collection of articles identified with the life of the succeeding generations of the people. The household, domestic, culinary, mechanical, and agricultural implements of the elders are all represented.
“Their apparels and furniture, as well as their effigies, journals, letters, and books, present themselves in order.”
19 The Diocesan Convention of the Episcopal Church has a collection of materials relating principally to that church in Massachusetts. It was formerly kept at the Theological School in Cambridge, but is now at the Diocesan House, Joy Street, Boston. Rev. Edmund F. Slafter is Registrar, has charge of the collection, and makes an annual report to the Convention.
20 In the winter of 1863–64, Mr. John B. Willard delivered two lectures on historical subjects at Harvard. Through his exertions an historical society was organized. It has not, however, accomplished any work, and the fact that it ever existed is known to but few of the citizens of the town of Harvard.
21 The title, “The Old Residents’ Historical Society, Lowell,” is improperly included in the list of Historical Societies of the United States issued by the American Historical Association.
22 This Society was incorporated 29 May, 1893. Its purposes, as described in the Certificate of Incorporation, are “to collect and preserve everything relating to the history, topography, and family genealogy of the town of Canton, Mass.”
23 The National Historical and Library Society, South Natick, is the title of a Society given in the Magazine of American History, July, 1890, page 424. The Historical Society, South Natick, is the title of a Society, and the Natural History and Library Society, South Natick, is the title of another Society, included in the list of Historical Societies issued by the American Historical Association. I have not been able to learn anything about these organizations.
24 The Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati was incorporated in 1806. The publications of the Society have been: 1872,— List of Members of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati, etc., with brief biographies, etc., by Francis S. Drake; 1873, — Memorials of the Society of Cincinnati of Massachusetts, by Francis S. Drake; 1883, — The Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati: An Historical Address delivered on the occasion of the Centennial Celebration, by Samuel C. Cobb; 1890,— Memorials of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati, 1890. This Society is in its nature a relief society, but its biographical publications are historical in character.
The Commandery of the State of Massachusetts Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States was incorporated 15 March, 1887, “to establish and maintain a library, reading-room, and museum, especially for the collection of books, pictures, and such other articles as may in any way illustrate the war for the suppression of the Rebellion against the United States, 1861–1865.” The commanderies of this Order in the several States where it is organized have published several volumes of war papers. The Massachusetts Commandery holds monthly meetings, at which papers are read treating of events or topics connected with the war. The library contains about two thousand volumes and five hundred pamphlets, beside scrap-books, maps, and photographs. See No. 45, Bibliographical Contributions, Library of Harvard University.
The Roxbury Military Historical Society has issued in pamphlet form a Constitution and List of Members. The objects for which the Society shall be maintained are stated in the Constitution to be: First, to perpetuate the history of Roxbury and of its military citizens and organizations, past or present; Second, to encourage the volunteer militia; Third, to advocate measures and principles that will tend to strengthen the patriotism of the community; Fourth, to foster social and fraternal intercourse between its members. The date of organization is not given in this pamphlet. The Constitution provides for an annual dinner, of which the Society has had two.
The Society of the Sons of the Revolution in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts was incorporated 9 October, 1891, for the purpose “of perpetuating the memory of the men who achieved American Independence, and furthering the proper celebration of the anniversaries of the birthday of Washington, and of prominent events connected with the War of the Revolution, collecting and securing for preservation the rolls and other documents relating to that period, inspiring the members of the Society with the patriotic spirit of their forefathers, and promoting the feeling of friendship among them.” The Society has issued a Register of Members (1893) which is full of interesting historical matter. It seeks to preserve a knowledge of historical sites by the erection of suitable tablets.
An organization to be known as the Naval Legion of the United States was recently instituted by naval officers and veterans, at the First Triennial Congress of the General Commandery of the Naval Legion, held in Faneuil Hall. “The purpose of the Association shall be to perpetuate the names, memories, and victories of naval veterans, to encourage research in the realm of naval art and science, and to establish a library, in which to preserve documents, rolls, books, portraits, and relics pertaining to naval heroes.” The eligible list for membership includes those in actual service in the navy and marine corps and other branches of that service, and honorably retired members. A new Constitution was adopted, and officers chosen to serve until the fifth of October, which date is identical with the anniversary of the commission of the first ship in the United States Navy.
25 See No. 45 Bibliographical Contributions, Library of Harvard University.
The Buchanan Anthropological Society was incorporated 27 January, 1890. Its purposes are “to spread the Science of Systematic Anthropology as discovered by Prof. Joseph Rodes Buchanan in 1841, and as promulgated by him since that time, by the publication and circulation of such books as may be prepared by Dr. Buchanan in explanation of his philosophy and its bearing on the life of man.” The title of this organization suggests the probability of an historical society. Its alleged purposes limit its work to the publication of Dr. Buchanan’s books.
26 In a list of Historical Societies in the Magazine of American History, July, 1889, p. 115, the following title is given, “The Berkshire County Historical and Scientific Society;” again, “The Berkshire County Historical Society” is given in a list, October, 1884, p. 380, and August, 1885, p. 217. The latter title is also included in the list of Historical Societies of the United States published by the American Historical Association. Mr. H. H. Ballard, Secretary of the Society described in the text, writes me that he knows of no other similar society in the County.
27 The Antiquarian and Historical Society, Newburyport, is the title of a Society improperly included in the list of Historical Societies of the United States issued by the American Historical Association. The attempt was probably made to define by its original title the Society described in the text.
28 See No. 45, Bibliographical Contributions, Library of Harvard University.
Three numbers of Transactions were issued (1859–61) by a Society called the New England Methodist Historical Society: No. 1. Introduction of Methodism into Boston, 1859; No. 2. History of North Russell Street Methodist Episcopal Church, 1861; No. 3. Half-Century of the Methodist Church, 1861. It appears from the first Annual Report of the present Society, issued 17 January, 1881, that “a Methodist Historical Society was instituted in Boston in 1859, which existed a few years. During the exciting scenes of the late Rebellion it fell into decay.… Nine years ago the coming spring (1872) the Historical Society of the New England Conference was organized. Annual sessions were held during the Conference week, of much interest and profit to the cause. Monthly meetings were also held for some years. At the last session of the Conference it was discontinued to make room for this organization, designed to unite the Methodists of the New England States for this common purpose.” The purposes of the new organization were set forth in detail by Dr. Dorchester, and are to be found in this Report.
The New England Methodist Historical Society, Malden, is included in the list of Historical Societies of the United States published by the American Historical Association. There is at present but one Society in Massachusetts of the above title, and its office is at 36 Bromfield Street, Boston.
29 The following papers read at meetings have been published: 1880, Reply to Francis Brinley on the claims of John P. Bigelow as Founder of the Boston Public Library, read 11 May, 1880, by Timothy Bigelow; 1885, William Cooper, Town Clerk of Boston, read 12 April, 1881, by Frederick Tuckerman.
30 The Huguenot Memorial Society of Oxford was incorporated 4 October, 1881, “to perpetuate by all appropriate means the memory of the early Huguenot settlement of Oxford.” The chief aim of this Society was the purchase of the old fort and the erection of a monument on that site. The object having been accomplished, the Society is no longer active, although the organization is maintained.
31 The Webster Historical Society was incorporated 7 March, 1884. Its purposes were to collect and publish original and other interesting matter illustrating the high character and services of Daniel Webster and other distinguished statesmen; to keep before the public, through libraries, publications, meetings, or otherwise, such matter as may serve as proper texts for political reform and improvement; to educate young men in the importance of a patriotic service to the true interests of their country; to purchase and mark with suitable monuments places of interest associated with Mr. Webster’s life. The Proceedings at Marshfield, 12 October, 1882, were published by the Society in 1883. The books, pictures, and collections of the Society were sold at auction a few years since, and the proceeds applied to pay debts.
32 The Historical Society, Rehoboth, is the title of a Society included in the list published by the American Historical Association. I cannot find that there ever was a society bearing this title.
33 See No. 45, Bibliographical Contributions, Library of Harvard University.
34 The Concord Lyceum was incorporated 9 February, 1881, for “the general diffusion of knowledge in historical, literary, and scientific subjects,” and other objects. The Publications of the Lyceum are: Address pronounced on the Anniversary of the Concord Lyceum, 4 November, 1829; and Semi-centennial,— Proceedings on the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Organization of the Lyceum, 7 January, 1879, Introductory Address by E. R. Hoar, Address by C. H. Walcott. Its work has apparently been rather in the field of lectures than historical papers.
35 The Ipswich Historical Society is included in the list of Historical Societies of the United States published by the American Historical Association. Mr. T. Frank Waters, the President of this organization, thinks the name “historical society” rather presumptuous to apply to the little circle of lovers of antiquarian research who have been in the habit of holding meetings since 1891, at which papers have been read covering points of local history, but who have neither Charter nor Constitution, library nor house. Monthly meetings have practically been held this winter (1892–93). It would be strange if the enthusiasm which has maintained this interest in the objects of the Society should not ripen into a permanent organization.
36 The Old South Museum Association was incorporated 21 February, 1877, “to form a collection of historic memorials and in other ways to encourage a public interest in American History.” This Association never proceeded beyond incorporation.
The Old South Association in Boston was incorporated 11 May, 1877, “for the purpose of acquiring and holding the Old South Meeting House in Boston and the land under the same upon the corner of Milk Street and Washington Street in said city, for public, historical, memorial, educational, charitable, and religious uses.” The main purpose of this incorporation seems to be to hold the property.
37 The following named Societies have been organized or chartered since this paper was read:
The Bedford Historical Society was organized 29 March, 1893, for the purpose of collecting and preserving objects and facts of local historical interest. Monthly meetings are provided for, at which papers are expected to be read. A valuable collection of historical material and relics, which has already grown up in connection with the Free Public Library, has fostered an interest in historical matters, and has led to the organization of the Society under the inspiration of Mr. Abram English Brown, the historian of Bedford.
“The Wakefield Historical Society was incorporated 5 May, 1893. Its purposes are the collection and preservation of all historical, genealogical, and antiquarian facts, records, and mementoes concerning the town of Wakefield and vicinity, and relating to the natural history of the region, with lectures, discussions, reports, and essays on the topics within the scope of the purposes set forth.”
The Massachusetts Society of Colonial Dames of America was incorporated 13 April, 1893. Its headquarters are in Boston. The purposes of the Society are “the collection of historical and genealogical information relating to the Colonial period of Massachusetts and the encouragement of interest in American history.”
The Society of Colonial Wars in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts was incorporated 29 April, 1893. Its headquarters are in Boston. Its purposes are “patriotic, antiquarian, and historical.”
38 Pilgrim Fathers Hall Association. A number of associates were by special act authorized in 1889 to incorporate under the general laws of the Commonwealth with the above corporate title. No certificate has been issued by the Secretary of the Commonwealth bearing this title. The name suggests a memorial association, but it probably is fraternal in its character. The curious character of the Act of Incorporation conveys the idea of an attempt at a joke.
The Plymouth Society, Plymouth, is the title of an Historical Society given in the Magazine of American History, July, 1890, p. 424. This title was also given in the list published by the American Historical Association in 1891, but does not appear in the 1892 list.
The Cape Cod Pilgrim Memorial Association, of Provincetown, was incorporated 29 February, 1892, for “the purpose of erecting at Provincetown a monument or other suitable memorial or memorials to commemorate the arrival of the ‘Mayflower’ and the landing of the Pilgrims at Provincetown on the twenty-first day of November, in the year sixteen hundred and twenty, and to perpetuate, by enduring memorials, the memory of the signing of the Compact, the birth of Peregrine White, the death of Dorothy May Bradford, and the other interesting historical incidents connected with the ‘Mayflower’ while at anchor in Cape Cod harbor, and for the purpose of acquiring and holding land upon which to erect such memorials, and of constructing a building or buildings to accommodate the meetings and to contain the cabinets, collections, and libraries of said Society.”
39 The Wadsworth Monument Association was incorporated 1825. The Duston Monument Association was incorporated 1856. The Standish Monument Association was incorporated 1872. A number of persons were made a corporation in 1874 to erect a monument to General Joseph Warren. All of these Associations partake somewhat of the character of the Bunker Hill Monument Association.
40 See No. 45, Bibliographical Contributions, Library of Harvard University.
41 “The American Congregational Historical Society, Chelsea,” is the title of a Society given in the Magazine of American History, July, 1890, p. 424. I have not been able to discover that there ever was such an organization in Chelsea.
42 The Boston Memorial Association was incorporated 2 April, 1880. Its purposes are “the ornamentation of the city of Boston, the care of its memorials, the preservation and improvement of its public grounds, and the erection of works of art within the limits of the city.” This Association is included in the list of Historical Societies in the United States issued by the American Historical Association. A society called the Boston Memorial Society is also included in the same list. This is obviously an error.
43 An interesting description of the historical features of the library is contained in No. 45, Bibliographical Contributions, Library of Harvard University.
The Becket Athenæum was incorporated 8 March, 1888, to establish and maintain, among other things, a library, and an antiquarian and art museum.
44 The Chelsea Veteran Firemen’s Association was incorporated 4 January, 1893, and one of its purposes is said to be “the preservation of historical matter relating to firemen.”
The Anchor Club Association was incorporated 19 May, 1893. It has its headquarters at Lynn. Its purposes are “to encourage and promote an interest in antiquarian and historical subjects.”
45 That clause, expressing, in part, the purposes of this Society, is in these words: “To inspire among our members a spirit of fellowship based upon a proper appreciation of our common ancestry.”
46 “The collection and preservation of materials for a … natural history of the United States.”— Massachusetts Special Laws, i. 487, 488.
47 The Commissioners are Alexander Strong Wheeler, A.B., William Cross Williamson, A.M., and Abner Cheney Goodell, Jr., A.M.
48 These documents are now in press, and will appear as Volume II. of the Publications of this Society.
49 The name still commonly applied to the channel between Beverly proper and “Ryal Side.” At its head, where it receives the brook which forms the upper part of Bass River, the farms of the “Old Planters” of Salem were laid out. This channel appears as “Beverly Creek” on the Coast Survey chart from which the map accompanying this paper is copied.
50 I regret to say I have not had opportunity to form an opinion as to how many of the signatures to this interesting document are autographic. Roger Conant, who heads the list, and Edward Bishop, the last subscriber, appear unquestionably to have written their own names.
51 These official memoranda are in the margin of the original, as shown in the plate.
52 These official memoranda are in the margin of the original, as shown in the plate.
53 See Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society for October, 1863, vii. 161–165; and its Collections, Fifth Series, vi. 16–20. Also, Moore’s Notes on the History of Slavery in Massachusetts, Appendix, pp. 251–256.
54 A copy was presented to the Massachusetts Historical Society in October, 1863, by the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop.
55 Sewall’s statement of the motive which led him to write his “Apology” for the negroes, provokes the surmise that Adam and his wife may have been the anonymous persons for whom Mr. Belknap informed him he intended to apply to the Legislature. It is given in his Diary (ii. 16) under date of 19 June, 1700, as follows: —
“Having been long much dissatisfied with the Trade of fetching Negros from Guinea; at last I had a strong Inclination to Write something about it; but it wore off. At last reading Bayne, Ephes. [Paul Baynes, “Commentary on the First Chapter of the Ephesians,” 1618. — Eds.] about servants, who mentions Blackamoors; I began to be uneasy that I had so long neglected doing any thing. When I was thus thinking, in came Bror Belknap to shew me a Petition he intended to present to the Genl Court for the freeing a Negro and his wife, who were unjustly held in Bondage. And there is a Motion by a Boston Com̃ittee to get a Law that all Importers of Negros shall pay 40s p̃ head, to discourage the bringing of them. And Mr. C. Mather resolves to publish a sheet to exhort Masters to labour their Conversion. Which makes me hope that I was call’d of God to Write this Apology for them; Let his Blessing accompany the same.”
56 Of Sewall so much is generally known that a biographical sketch of him here would be superfluous. But as Saffin is not so celebrated, it may be proper to say that he was born about 1634 (depositions, Suffolk Probate Records, vi. 356) of an old English arms-bearing family of Wolf-Heriston (Woolverston) in the County of Somerset, and that at one time he owned lands in Bicester in Oxfordshire (New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 1891, xlv. 42). He appeared in Scituate about 1645–1647 (Middlesex Court Files and N. E. H. G. Reg., 1877, xxxi. 115), and removed thence to Virginia in 1654, where he remained a few years (deposition of Lieut.-Col. Samuel Smith and others in Saffin v. Green, Middlesex County Court Files, 29 Dec., 1657), and returning married Martha, daughter of Capt. Thomas Willett, at Plymouth, 2 Dec., 1658 (Plymouth Colony Records, viii. 22). After this marriage he removed to Boston, where he appears to have been a successful merchant, and engaged for a time, with other Boston merchants, in the clandestine importation of negroes from Guinea (N. E. H. G. Reg., 1877, xxxi. 75, 76). His wife, with two of her children, died of the smallpox in 1678; and in 1680 he married Elizabeth, widow of Peter Lidget. She died 1 Nov., 1687, and he married for his third wife Rebecca, daughter of the Rev. Samuel Lee and sister of Cotton Mather’s third wife. This last union proved an unhappy one, and ended in a separation shortly before his death, which induced Mather to volunteer as peacemaker in a remarkable letter to Saffin printed in 3 Mass. Hist. Coll., i. 137–139. He was chosen a deputy to the General Court, from Boston, and was the last speaker of the Colonial House of Representatives. Some time between 1687 and 1689 he removed to Bristol, where he had previously held land (he being one of the company of purchasers of Mount Hope) and had been engaged in business. He represented Bristol in the General Court of Plymouth in the latter year, and served on important committees. Upon the union of the colonies in 1692, he was appointed the first justice of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas for Bristol County, and from 1693 to 1699 inclusive he was also annually elected councillor. He was again elected to the Council in 1703, but negatived by Dudley. He seems to have been a man of extraordinary force and ability. His reply to Sewall contains all the most cogent arguments that have been since put forth in defence of slavery, and shows the writer to have been a skilful polemic and not unfamiliar with literature.
He had the misfortune to survive his eight sons, the last of whom, according to Sewall (Diary, i. 192), was buried 15 Oct., 1687, about the time that tidings arrived from London of the death of another son, Thomas. The latter, “much favored of his prince,” died of the small-pox at the age of twenty-three, and was buried in the churchyard of Saint Dunstan’s, Stepney. His curious epitaph is given by Henley in No. 518 of the “Spectator,”— his name being disguised as “Thomas Snapper” or “Sapper.” Lysons, in his “Environs of London,” gives what appears to be a more exact version of the lines on his tomb which, he says (Second Edition, ii. 686*), was restored by “his countrymen” in 1750.
Saffin died in Boston, 28 July, 1710. This is contrary to the opinion generally entertained upon the authority of the editor of the Hutchinson Papers (in 3 Mass. Hist. Coll., i. 139), who says that he died at Bristol Savage fails to remove the doubt by stating that he died “at B.”— which may mean either Bristol or Boston. The circumstance that Sewall records his death the next morning and makes the further entry that Mr. Pemberton of the Old South in Boston was at the bedside of the dying man, leaves little doubt as to the fact, which is fully established by the declaration of his executors in their probate account (Suffolk Probate Files, Case No. 3264).
Besides his homestead and farm lands in Bristol County and another estate on Mill Creek in Boston, in the triangle now formed by Union, Blackstone, and Hanover Streets, and a wharf and land at the Town Dock, he had a mansion-house, outbuildings, and an enclosed pasture on the site of the present American House, and here undoubtedly he died. That his inventory, filed by his executors, shows no real estate is probably owing to the fact that upon his marriage with Elizabeth Lidget he settled upon her by way of jointure for her life after his decease, his mansion-house, yard, garden, and pasture-field adjoining, etc., and also his land and wharf upon the town dock with a new warehouse thereon then building; and charged his feoffees upon the decease of himself and his wife to convey the same to his heirs-at-law (Suffolk Deeds, xii. 159). The estate on the Mill Creek he had conveyed to John Hull, 28 April, 1680 (Ibid. xii. 175). This afterwards came into the possession of Samuel Sewall, who married Hull’s only daughter. In 1708 Sewall built a malthouse there. (Cf. Letter to Saffin 27 Sept. 1708, in Sewall’s Letter Book, i. 373. and his Diary, ii. 242.)
For the identification of the localities above described I am indebted to my friend, Mr. Henry H. Edes. The mansion-house estate he has traced back probably to the original allotment to Governor Leverett which certainly included the estate adjoining on the east. It was here, possibly in the same house, that Dr. Joseph Warren resided at the time of his death at Bunker Hill.
57 This title will be given in full, further on in this essay.
58 When used by Dr. Moore, Saffin’s pamphlet was in the possession of the late George Brinley, at the sale of whose library it was catalogued as No. 853 of Part I. I am under great obligation to Wilberforce Eames, Esq., Librarian of the Lenox Library, for procuring for me the privilege of copying both the pamphlet and the appendix.
59 These extracts were made to be used in preparing a note explanatory of the resolve of the General Court which appears later on in this article, and which constitutes Chapter 8, of the resolves for the year 1703–4 in the forthcoming eighth volume of the Province Laws.
60 Suffolk Court Files.
61 He was nominated by a bare majority of the Council. This was after the deaths of Bellomont and Stoughton, when the Council was exercising the full executive function.
62 Suffolk Court Files.
63 Clarke, in conjunction with Thomas Brattle, was appointed by the Legislature to manage the expenditures for fortifying Castle Island under the direction of her majesty’s engineer, Col. Wolfgang William Römer. See Province Laws, vii. (Resolves) 1702–3, chapter 4, and note, et passim.
64 After the verdict against Adam, and before this term of the Court, Queen Anne succeeded King William.
65 Diary, ii. 64.
66 Both were among the first attorneys sworn in before the Superior Court of Judicature, 24 June, 1701. See note to No. 20 of Private Acts: Province Laws, vol. vi., now in press.
67 Records of the Superior Court of Judicature, 1700–1714, fol. 84.
68 Suffolk Court Files.
70 Records in the office of the Clerk of the Superior Court for civil business, in the County of Suffolk.
71 It was not judicially determined until a year later that appeals lay from judgments on pleas in bar or abatement. The decision was subsequently confirmed by statute. See notes to Resolves, 1703–4, chapters 47 and 89, Province Laws, vol. viii.
72 Suffolk Court Files.
73 Records of the Superior Court of Judicature, 1700–1714, fol. 100.
74 Massachusetts Archives, ix. 152.
75 To be held on the first Tuesday of July following.
76 Sewall, whose sympathies continued strong for the negro, indignantly minuted in his Diary (ii. 79), under date of 8 June, 1703, the following: —
“Adam is again imprison’d to be Tryed at Suffolk Sessions. Trial order’d by the Genl Assembly.
Superanuated Squier, wigg’d and powder’d with pretence,
Much beguiles the just Assembly by his lying Impudence.
None being by, his bold/sworn Attorneys push it on with might and main
By which means poor simple Adam sinks to slavery again.”
From which verse it appears that, in the honest judge’s eyes, Saffin’s offence had been greatly aggravated by his wearing a periwig— the good judge’s particular abomination.
77 Suffolk Court Files.
78 Records of the Court of Sessions, in the office of the Clerk of the Supreme Judicial Court for the Commonwealth.
79 Suffolk Court Files.
80 Records of the Superior Court of Judicature, 1700–1714, fol. 114.
81 Massachusetts Archives, ix. 153.
82 Boston Record Commissioners’ Report, No. 11, Selectmen’s Records, 1701–1715, p. 137.
83 See New England Historical and Genealogical Register, xxxi. 115, where the name is misprinted Laffin.
84 The Narrative begins near the bottom of the fifth page of the pamphlet.
85 The deposition referred to appears to be entire except the introductory recital of the names of the deponents, etc. It was sworn to by Griffin, 13 Oct. 1701, before Isaac Addington as justice of the peace, and by Shine and Lee on the 27th, before Addington Davenport, Clerk of the Court of Sessions for Suffolk County, and is here printed from a copy attested by Davenport, and preserved in Suffolk Court Files, No. 5173; namely, —
“[*****]d William Lee al[l of f*]ull age being Imployed as Labourers in the Works on Castle Island Testifie and say that on Tuesday the Seventh of October 1701 Capṭ Timothy Clarke one of the Overseers of sḍ Works, Speaking to Adam a Labourer and negro at the Castle to Direct him about his Work, the sḍ negro Shewed himself very Surley and gave Saucy Answers to sḍ Capṭ Clark refuseing to observe his Directions; Whereupon the Capṭ with a Small Stick which lie then held in his hand struck his Tobacco-pipe out of his mouth, gave him a Shove with his hand & Struck him a blow over the Shoulders with the sḍ Stick; the sḍ negro in great Fury & rage Shoved the Capṭ again wrested the Stick out of his hand and broke it, & lifted up the Shovel wherewith he was at work and with the Iron upward offered a Stroke to the sḍ Capṭ which he fended off with his Arm; otherwise might in all probability have been grieviously mischiefed thereto; butt the Depontṣ with some others ran into the rescue of the Capṭ but the sḍ negro was so furious & outragious and putt forth so great Strength that it was as much as Six or Seven of us could do to hold and restrain him —
* Manuscript mutilated.
Boston October 13tḥ 1701 —
John X Shine —
John Griffin —
Willṃ Lee — ”
86 Dealings with the Dead, ii. 519.
87 See Mr. Davis’s query respecting the destination of the Palatines, in Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography for 1887, xi. 243, 244.
88 Peter Baynton, a wealthy merchant of Philadelphia, born 27 December, 1695, was a son of Benjamin and a grand-nephew of Peter Baynton, an early emigrant to Pennsylvania, who came about 1686 from Bedminster, near Bristol, England. Peter, the emigrant, married Annika (Kyn) Sandelands, widow of James, and the wealthiest woman in the Province. As their only child was a daughter, Rebecca, who in 1713 married Thomas Weston, the name became extinct in that line at his decease.
Peter Baynton, to whom Faneuil’s letter was addressed, was a Vestryman and Warden of Christ Church, Philadelphia. He married first, in Charleston, S. C., a Miss Paris, and second, in 1723, his cousin Mary, daughter of John and Rebecca (Smith) Budd, of New Jersey. He resided at Burlington, N. J., near which place he was drowned in the Delaware, 22 February, 1743–4. His son Benjamin, bred to the law, died at the age of twenty-one. Another son, John, of the Philadelphia firm of Baynton, Wharton, and Morgan, born 17 December, 1726, married Elizabeth Chevalier, 17 December, 1747, and was father of Peter Baynton, third of the name, born in 1754, who in 1799 was Adjutant-General of the militia of Pennsylvania. The Baytons are among the most ancient families of England. Cf. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, i. 351, 352, 466; ii. 443–448; vi. 17, 18; Christ Church “Inscriptions,” p. 50; and p. 369, post.
89 Burgess Hall, in 1733 or 1734, was a householder in Stratfield, a parish of Stratford, Connecticut, where he was baptized in November, 1701, a son of Isaac Hall, Jr., of Redding, Connecticut. This family descended from Francis Hall of New Haven, Fairfield, and Stratford, who was son of Gilbert Hall who emigrated from Kent, England. See Orcutt’s History of Stratford and Bridgeport, Conn., i. 502; ii. 1210.
For the identification of Captain Hall and Peter Baynton, I am indebted to Mr. Walter Kendall Watkins, the courteous Assistant-Librarian of the New-England Historic Genealogical Society, in the Cabinet of which a part of one of Faneuil’s Letter-Books is preserved.
90 Mr. William Sigourney Otis was also elected at this meeting, but died on Thursday, 20 April, 1893, before receiving official notice of his election.
91 This valuable document, dated 26 December, 1672, was printed at length, its quaint orthography being preserved, in the April 1892 number of the New England Historical and Genealogical Register, xlvi. 127–133. Cf. Ibid. xxiii. 312–335; Winthrop’s History of New England (edition of 1853), ii. 318; and Felt’s History of Ipswich, pp. 164–167.
92 On the “last of August, 1645,” sixty-four of the inhabitants of Roxbury subscribed an agreement, still extant, to build and maintain a free school to be managed by seven feoffees, and to allow to the schoolmaster £20 per annum, to be raised annually among themselves in sums ranging from two shillings to £1 4s. In the Agreement and in the records of the feoffees the subscribers are termed “Donors.” William Denison agreed to give eight shillings annually. His son, Edward Denison, was chosen one of the feoffees 15 February, 1662–3. See “A History of the Grammar School or ‘The Free Schoole of 1645 in Roxburie,’” by C. K. Dillaway, Roxbury, 1860, pp. 1–13; 28.
93 “1638, 2 May. It is ordered that Newtown shall henceforward be called Cambridge.” Massachusetts Colony Records, i. 228.
94 Johnson’s “Wonder-Working Providence” (Poole’s edition), p. 66.
95 See Winthrop’s History of New England (edition of 1853), i. 98.
96 New England’s Prospect (Prince Society’s edition), p. 43.
97 Dudley is characterized as “a man of sound judgment in matters of religion, and well-read, bestowing much labor that way” (Johnson’s “Wonder-Working Providence,” Poole’s edition, p. 52); as “a lover of justice, order, the people, Christian religion,— the supreme virtues of a good magistrate” (Morton’s “New England’s Memorial,” Judge Davis’s edition, p. 255). He was a principal founder and pillar of the Massachusetts Colony, of which he was several times Governor or Deputy Governor.
98 Winthrop’s History of New England (edition of 1853), i. 164. See also Massachusetts Colony Records, i. 123.
99 New England’s Prospect (Prince Society’s edition), pp. 48, 49.
100 John Dane. See his Narrative in New England Historical and Genealogical Register (1854) viii. 154.
101 Concerning the Antinomian Controversy, cf. Dr. George E. Ellis’s “Life of Anne Hutchinson,” and Charles W. Upham’s “Life of Sir Henry Vane,” both in Sparks’s American Biography; Mr. Goodell’s “A Biographical Sketch of Thomas Maule, of Salem,” etc., in Essex Institute Historical Collections (1861), iii. 238–253; Mr. Goodell’s Remarks on pages 132–145 post; Winthrop’s History of New England, passim; Memorial History of Boston, i. 171–177, and notes; Harvard College Library Bulletin, No. 11, p. 287; and the forthcoming volume of the Publications of the Prince Society, “Antinomianism in Massachusetts Bay, 1636–38,” edited by Charles Francis Adams.
102 Cf. Winthrop’s History of New England (edition of 1853), i. 239, 294, 309, 313, et passim; ii. 164; and Hutchinson’s History of Massachusetts Bay, ii. appendix.
103 Massachusetts Colony Records, i. 207.
104 Massachusetts Colony Records, i. 211, 212.
105 “Wonder-Working Providence” (Poole’s edition), pp. 192, 193.
106 Printed in the Atlantic Monthly for January and February, 1893, lxxi. 25–31, 201–213. A good account of this contest is also given by John George Bourinot, D.C.L., President of the Royal Society of Canada, in his recently published work, entitled Historical and Descriptive Account of the Island of Cape Breton, and of its Memorials of the French Regime, with Bibliographical, Historical, and Critical Notes, Montreal, 1892. See, also, Winthrop’s History of New England, passim; 3 Massachusetts Historical Collections, vii. 90–121; Ibid. Fourth Series, iv. 462; Charles C. Smith’s chapter on “Boston and the Neighboring Jurisdictions,” in Memorial History of Boston, i. 282, et seq, and the same writer’s chapter on “Acadia” in Narrative and Critical History of America, iv. 135, et seq.
107 Cf. Massachusetts Colony Records, ii. 157–159, iii. 74, 75; and Winthrop’s History of New England (edition of 1853), ii. 334, 373, 377.
108 History of New England, ii. 389.
109 Printed in 4 Massachusetts Historical Collections, ii. 115–118.
110 Massachusetts Colony Records, iv. Part 1, 141.
111 See Acts of the Commissioners of the United Colonies, printed in Plymouth Colony Records, x. 54, 57.
112 Massachusetts Colony Records, iv. Part 1, 337, 350.
113 Denison had been associated with Samuel Symonds and Joseph Hills in a similar commission as early as 3 May, 1654. (Massachusetts Colony Records, iv. Part 1, 182.) For an admirable account of the legislation concerning the revision of the laws during the Colonial period, see Mr. William H. Whitmore’s Bibliographical Sketch of the Laws of the Massachusetts Colony prefixed to “The Colonial Laws of Massachusetts, reprinted from the Edition of 1660.… Published by order of the City Council of Boston.” Second edition, Boston, 1890.
114 19 October, 1658. Massachusetts Colony Records, iv. Part 1, 356.
115 Cf. Acts of the Commissioners of the United Colonies, printed in Plymouth Colony Records, x. 102, 110–111, 114, 329; Massachusetts Colony Records, iv. Part 1, 196–197.
116 Plymouth Colony Records, x. 180–181.
117 Cf. Acts of the Commissioners of the United Colonies, printed in Plymouth Colony Records, x. 387; Massachusetts Colony Records, iv. Part 2, 572, 573; and Massachusetts Archives, lxvii. 173.
118 Whitman’s History of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company (Second edition), p. 170.
119 Preserved in Massachusetts Archives, lxvii. 208.
120 The History of the Indian Wars in New England (Drake’s edition), ii. 129.
121 Ibid. ii. 176, 189 et seq.
122 Massachusetts Colony Records, v. 311–313. Cf. Ibid. v. 303, 398.
123 That is, four sessions: May and October, 1649, October, 1651, and May, 1652.
124 This essay was printed in the same volume with Hubbard’s Funeral Sermon on General Denison, and is included between pages 175–218. The imprint is, “Printed at Boston by Samuel Green, 1684.” The above extracts may be found on pp. 179, 218.
125 Report to the Lords of Trade, 12 October, 1676, printed in Hutchinson’s Collection of Original Papers (Prince Society’s edition), ii. 236.
126 Edition of 1853, ii. 318.
127 The extracts here printed may be found on pp 151, 157–159.
128 See The Heraldic Journal, i. 91; ii. 141.
129 See note on page 140 et seq., post.
130 “This gentlewoman was of a nimble wit, voluble tongue, eminent knowledge in the Scriptures, of great charity, and notable helpfulness, especially in such occasions where those of that sex stand in need of the mutual help of each other.”— 2 Massachusetts Historical Collections, v. 283.
131 Backus’s History of the Baptists (Backus Historical Society’s Edition), i. 500.
132 Among the purposes of the “Massachusetts Society of the Sons of the American Revolution” are “the encouragement of historical research in relation to the Revolution, and the publication of its results, the preservation of documents and relics, and of the records of the services of Revolutionary soldiers and patriots.”
133 The text of this document has been printed in the Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society for October, 1887, N. S. v. 132–133; and in the New England Magazine for February, 1894, ix. 779.
134 Since Professor Goodwin made the above communication to the Society the following additional references to Alderman Mowlson have been gleaned from the Calendar of State Papers: —
December, 1626. Thomas Moulson, appointed one of the Commissioners for French Goods, to the Mayor of Plymouth. (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1625–1626, p. 511.)
27 January, 1627. A letter dated at Westminster was addressed to the Commissioners, the name of Thomas Moulson being included. “By commission, dated December 8 last past, the persons now addressed were appointed Commissioners to arrest all French ships and goods in England, and authority was given to the Lord Admiral to direct the king’s ships to stay French ships which they found at sea. The king directs that ships stayed at sea are not to be dealt with by the Commissioners, but to remain in the custody of the Lord Admiral.” (Ibid. 1627–1628, p. 32.)
22 July, 1628. The petition exhibited to the king by Robert Alt, on behalf of the poor spectacle-makers, was read to the Court of Aldermen, and Alderman Moulson was appointed one of a Committee, the other members being the Lord Mayor, the Recorder, and the Sheriffs, to whom the petition was referred with instructions to consider the conveniency or inconveniency thereof. (Ibid. 1628–1629, p. 226.)
8 October, 1633. The Lord Mayor, in obedience to an order of the Council of 29 May last, reported that he had made inquiry of all such persons as since the last certificate had come to lodge (termers excepted) in London. The certificates as to the several wards accompanied this report. Among them was the following from Alderman Thomas Mowlson: No lodgers in Broad Street Ward. 20 June, 1633. (Ibid. 1633–1634, p. 237.)
135 Mr. Henry F. Waters has forwarded to the New England Historical and Genealogical Register, an abstract of the will of Anthony Radcliffe, a brother of Lady Mowlson. This abstract will appear in the Waters Gleanings in the April, 1894, number of the Register. The will was proved 25 June, 1628. Alderman Moulson, his well beloved brother-in-law, was appointed his sole and only executor.
From this document it appears that the testator had three sisters,— Dorothy, who was married to a Gerrard, and who was probably the mother of Sir Gilbert Gerrard, of Harrow on the Hill, Middlesex, Baronet, a legatee under Lady Mowlson’s will; Elizabeth, who was married to a Harvey, and who may perhaps be connected with Lady Mowlson’s will through one of the legatees, Mr. Cary Mildmay, otherwise Harvey, of Marks, in Essex; and Anne Moulson, who, as we have seen, herself signs her name Ann Mowlson.
In this will the testator expresses the desire that his body should be buried in the parish church of Harrow, “Where the Bodyes of my Father and Mother and divers of my Friends lye buried.”
136 The gift of £100 to Harvard College and the subscription of £600 to the loan raised to pay the Scottish army, are perhaps evidence enough that Lady Mowlson was a woman of means; but the following item taken from the Calendar of State Papers shows not only that she had large sums to lend, but that she was not disposed tamely to acquiesce in the illegal detention of her funds by others: —
(5 May, 1652. Council of State. Days Proceedings.)
“Order on the report of the examination of Wm. Abel, late alderman of London, concerning dangerous words against the public peace lately spoken by him in Northall Woods, near Hatfield Co., Herts. That it appears that Abel has been prisoner to Sir John Lenthall since 12 March last, at the suits of Ann, relict of Sir Thos. Moulson, for 1,500l., borrowed for the use of the Vintners’ Company. Also of the executors of Thos. Hammond for 1000l, and of Richard Woodward, merchant, for 600l. for the same business.”
137 This reference, undoubtedly, is to John Alborough, or Albro, with whom Judge John Saffin had a contention in 1679 concerning the title of lands in King’s Province, then claimed both by Massachusetts and Rhode Island. (Rhode Island Colonial Records, iii. 75.) Alborough was very prominent in Rhode Island affairs. He rose to the rank of Major in the militia; was a Commissioner for Portsmouth, where he resided, in 1660 (Ibid. i. 437); was appointed, 10 November, 1679, with John Smith, to survey and ascertain the boundary line between Rhode Island and Connecticut (Ibid. iii. 73); served frequently as a Deputy to the General Assembly; and later was an Assistant of the Colony. In 1686 he was appointed to a seat in Andros’s Council, and attended its first meeting, in Boston, 20 December of that year (Ibid. iii. 219–220). Savage says he died 14 December, 1712, aged 95 years.
138 Petaquamscott was within the limits of Old Kingston, R. I., and probably in that part of the town set off in 1723 and now known as South Kingston. There is a neck of land on the shore of Narragansett Bay, and within the limits of this town, still known as “Boston Neck,” and as it is bounded on the west by Petaquamscott River, it is possible that it is identical with Sewall’s tract. On 19 September, 1699, Sewall writes: “Goe with Tho. Hazard to Mattoonuck, view the bounds and add to the heaps of Stones at 3 Corners. Go back and lodge on Boston Neck at Tho. Hazard’s” (Diary, i. 501). As Mattoonuck is immediately south of Kingston, this entry may refer to the land given, in 1696, to the College.
139 14 Geo. III. Chap. 19.
140 Ibid. chap. 39.
141 Ibid. chap. 45.
142 See page 176 et seq.
143 Life and Works of John Adams, x. 247.
144 Ibid. viii. 384.
145 Ibid. ii. 323.
146 Boston Record Commissioners’ Reports (Town Records), xviii. 48.
147 See “The Boston Massacre,” by A. C. Goodell, Jr., 1887, p. 3, reprinted from the Boston Daily Advertiser.
148 Printed in New England Historical and Genealogical Register, xiiv. 282–283.
149 These Minutes and those of the Bristol Convention of 4 and 5 January, 1775 (printed on pp. 255, 256, post), are written on seven pages of cap paper. The manuscript consists of two separate sheets: page 1 contains the Preamble and Resolve 1; page 2, Resolves 2 to 7; page 3, Resolves 8 to 11; page 4 (reversed), the paragraph which, as here printed, immediately precedes the Preamble, the rest of the page being blank; and page 5, the two Resolutions printed between Resolves 7 and 8, the three Resolutions printed between Resolves 10 and 11, and— at the bottom— the first two paragraphs above printed. These manuscript pages are indicated in the printed text by broadfaced figures enclosed in brackets. The Minutes of the Convention of 1775 fill pages 6 and 7 (reversed) of the second sheet, the eighth, and last, page of which is blank.
The words in the margin are from the Resolves of the Bristol Convention in the Appendix to the printed Journals of the Provincial Congress, and the marks of reference indicate where these words occur in the paragraph. The Resolutions are not numbered in the printed Journals, but the order in which they are printed therein is indicated in the margin by numerals enclosed in parentheses. Differences of spelling and punctuation are not noted.
150 Quincy, in his History of Harvard College (i. 274), says: “The President and Fellows of Harvard College being the only Corporation in the Province, and so continuing during the whole of the seventeenth century, they early assumed, and had by common usage conceded to them, the name of The Corporation, by which they designate themselves in all the early records.” At the period of which Quincy was then treating there was no other corporation in the Province, but it is an error to say that they designate themselves as “The Corporation” in all early records. Prior to 1650, generally, and for some time thereafter, occasionally, the College is designated in the records as “The Society.” In the fac-simile of the records (Quincy, i., facing 48), the term used is “the Governours of the College.”
151 The Charters and General Laws of the Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay, Boston, 1814, pp. 8, 9.
152 The Charters and General Laws of the Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay, Boston, 1814, p. 14.
153 Hazard’s State Papers, i. 103.
154 Rymer’s Fœdera, xii. 595. The O. S. year 1495 is given in Hazard’s State Papers, i. 9.
155 Rymer’s Fœdera, xiii. 37.
156 Hazard’s State Papers, i. 24.
157 Ibid. i. 33.
158 Ibid. i. 43, 45.
159 Hazard’s State Papers, i. 50.
160 Ibid. i. 54.
161 Ibid. i. 67.
162 Ibid. i. 72.
163 Ibid. i. 134, 206.
164 Ibid. 143: “Damus et concedimus dicto domino Willielmo Alexandro, suisque prædictis, liberam potestatem stabiliendi et cudere causandi monetam pro commercio liberiori inhabitantium diotæ provincæ, cujusvis metalli, quo modo et qua forma voluerint et eisdem præscribent.” See also Ibid. pp. 209, 214.
165 Ibid. i. 137: “Nos pro nobis nostrisque successoribus et hæredibus, cum avisamento et consensu prædictis, virtute præsentis cartæ nostræ damus et concedimus liberam et plenariam potestatem præfato domino Willielmo Alexandra suisque prædictis, conferendi favores, privilegia, munia, et honores in demerentes, etc.”
166 In 1625 Charles I. issued a proclamation, in which he ordained that the government of the Colony of Virginia should immediately depend on himself, and not be committed to any company or corporation. (Rymer’s Fœdera, xviii. 72.)
In 1627 a special commission was issued to “Sir Kenelme Digby, Knight, one of the gentlemen of our Privy Chamber,” as a discoverer, in which “our loving subjects,” “whose company, assistance, or service the said Sir Kenelme Digby” should use, were commanded “to yield all duty, obedience, and respect unto him.” (Ibid. xviii. 947, 948.) This is the same Sir Kenelme Digby who gave books to Harvard College Library.
167 Porro ne Viris honestè natis et se ad præsentem Expeditionem accincturis, ac bene de nobis et Regnis nostris Pace et Bello mereri cupientibus in tam remota longèque dissita Regione omnis ad Honores et Dignitates Via præclusa et penitus obsepta esse videatur propterea Nos pro Nobis Hæredibus et Successoribus nostris præfato modò Baroni de Baltimore et Hæredibus et Assignatis suis liberam et plenariam Potestatem damus Favores Gratias et Honores in benemeritos Cives infra Provinciam prædictam inhabitantes conferendi Eosque quibuscunque Titulis et Dignitatibus (modo tales non fuerint quæ in Anglia nunc sunt in Usu) pro Arbitrio suo decorandi Villas item in Burgos et Burgos in Civitates ad Inliabitantium Merita et Locorum Opportunitates cum Privilegiis et Immunitatibus congruis erigendi et incorporandi. (Hazard’s State Papers, i. 333.)
It would seem as if the use of titles the value of which was understood in England would have stimulated emigration better than to have compelled the use of new dignities. Such titles as “landgrave” and “cacique,” granted in Carolina, could not have been as well appreciated as if power had been given to grant titles without the limitations in the patent. See foot-note to Sir William Alexander’s grant, ante, p. 187.
168 Hazard’s State Papers, i. 160.
169 Ibid. i. 442, 448, 470, 480.
170 An Historical and Chronological Deduction of the Origin of Commerce, etc. [Adam Anderson], London, 1720, ii. 128; Narrative and Critical History of America, v. 291.
171 Massachusetts Colony Records, i. 393.
172 I quote what follows from an exhaustive article entitled “History of the Law of Business Corporations before 1800,” by our associate, Samuel Williston: “The following things were said to be of the essence of a corporation: First, Lawful authority of incorporation, and that may be by four means; viz., by the common law, as the king himself, etc.; by authority of Parliament; by the king’s charter; and by prescription. The second, which is of the essence of the incorporation, are persons to be incorporated, and that in two manners; viz., persons natural, or bodies incorporate and political. Third, A name by which they are incorporated. Fourth, Of a place, for without a place no incorporation can be made. Fifth, By words sufficient in law, but not restrained to any certain, legal, and prescript form of words.” (Harvard Law Review, ii., No. 3.)
173 Sutton’s Hospital Case. (Coke’s Reports, Part 10, 30 a.) The reporter digests a portion of the opinion in these words: “The words incorporo, fundo, erigo, etc., not necessary to create a corporation.”
Ibid. 30 b. “To the creation of an incorporation the law had not restrained itself to any prescript and incompatible words.”
174 Thomas v. Sorrell (Vaugh. 330, 340), quoted by Chief-Justice Gray, in Hill v. Boston, 122 Mass. 349.
175 The important part of the form in this connection is as follows: —
Whereas our soṽaigne lord the king pleased to betrust us, T. P., W. B., E. W., &c., Wth the goṽment of so many of his subjects as doe or shalbe pmitted to live Wth in this goṽment of New Plym̃, and that it seemeth good unto us to begin, set up & establish a neighborhood or plantac̄on, at a place called, being bounded, and lying miles westward from s̃d towne of New Plym̃; and whereas, by reason of the distance of the place and our many weighty occaations, we can not so well see to the receiving in of such psons as may be fitt to live together there in the feare of God, and obeydyence to our said soṽaigne lord the king, in peace and loves, as becometh Christian people, all Wch we earnestly desire— that our care therefore may apeare in the faythfull discharge of our duties towards God, the Kings Matie, and the people oṽr whom we are, wee have thought good to betrust our wel beloved T. B., A. C., G. D., &c. then follow powers to receive peaceable and faitful people and to allot lands to them according to their rank and that they follow instructions from the Government. (Plymouth Colony Records, i. 113.)
176 Hill v. Boston, 122 Mass. 349.
177 Massachusetts Colony Records, iii. 207; iv. Part i. 9; New England Historical and Genealogical Register, xi. 206–210.
178 Massachusetts Colony Records, iv. Part i. 368.
179 Ibid. iv. Part ii. 26.
180 Ibid. iv. Part ii. 56.
181 Ibid. iv. Part ii. 99.
182 Memorial History of Boston, i. 219.
183 Province Laws, v. 177, 187.
184 Constitution of Massachusetts, Part the Second, chap. 1, sect. 2, art. 2.
185 Ibid. Sect. 3, art. 2.
186 Chief-Justice Gray, in Hill v. Boston, 122 Mass. 349. I am indebted to our associate, Professor James B. Thayer, for calling my attention to the marvellous resources of this remarkable opinion.
187 Massachusetts Colony Records, ii. 137; iii. 48.
188 Ibid. ii. 60.
189 Ibid. ii. 61.
190 Ibid. ii. 81.
191 Ibid. ii. 104; iii. 58.
192 Ibid. iii. 371. Another suit, in May, 1655, was thus entered in the records:
“In the case between Capt. Robt. Keane, plaintiff, and commissioner for the undertakers of the iron works, and Mr. Robt. Knight, defendant.” (Massachusetts Colony Records, iii. 381. See also iii. 369–372, 379.)
In a suit, in 1654, a question of personal liability was raised. The defendant was entered of record as John Becks & Company, of the iron works. (Ibid. iii. 351.)
193 Ibid. ii. 138; iii. 53.
194 Ibid. ii. 249, 250.
195 Massachusetts Colony Records, ii. 253.
196 Ibid. under date of June, 1650, iii. 207.
197 Ibid. iv. Part i. 12.
198 Massachusetts Colony Records, iv. Part i. 99.
199 Our associate, Mr. Henry H. Edes, has furnished the following interesting items, which show the existence of the Company at a later day. The Conduit itself was apparently in working order in 1737, and is incidentally referred to in the Selectmen’s Records as late as 1763: —
There were thirteen corporators named in the Act (Massachusetts Colony Records, iv. Part i. 99), who appear to have had an equal interest in the undertaking. An intimation that the Conduit had been built before the Charter was granted (1 June, 1652) is found in the Act itself, which provides that the corporators “shall take order for the due pajment of theire annuall rent to Mr. Willjam Ting, according to theire couenant and agreement wth him.” The fact that it had been built and was in use, certainly as early as 24 (11) 1651, is fully established by a deed of that date whereby Valentine Hill, one of the corporators, conveyed to William Awbrey, “for the vse of the Vndertakers of the Iron workes in New England,” land and a wharf “on the Southerly side of the streete or highway neere the bridge over the mill Creeke … together with all water Courses,” etc., and “it is further explajned that by water courses is vnderstood the priviledge of the Conduite in the streete for two shares as well as any other priviledges of water courses.” (Suffolk Deeds, i. 178–180.) The street, apparently, had not as yet become known as “Conduit Street,” but a year later it is so designated in a deed given by William Hudson, another corporator, to Robert Petershall, 27 March, 1652 (Ibid. i. 219). The annual expense of the Conduit privileges is shown by a deed dated 22 October, 1652, by which Leonard Buttles, a third corporator, conveys to Capt. Nicholas Simpkins an estate near the Dock with “right & priviledge to fetch water at the Conduite for his owne house only paying therefor yearely two shillings & Sixe pence to the wardens of the Company for the time being” (Ibid. iii. 302). Three years later, on 20 February, 1655, Buttles conveys to Richard Staines an estate which “fronteth the Conduit Street” and “a fifteenth part of the water Conduit” (Ibid. ii. 258). This would indicate that two other “proprietors of lands, wthin the sajd streete or elsewhere,” had “come into the sajd body,” as permitted by the Charter; but the surmise that a clerical error occurred in recording Butties’s deed is warranted by reference to an instrument dated 13 July, 1656, by which Joseph Armitage conveys to Capt. Thomas Savage “two thirteenth shares in ye Condit … wch two said shares” had been taken on execution from the estate of the “Vndertakrs of ye Iron workes” (Ibid. iii. 3).
Conduit Street was known later as Ann Street, and is now North Street. In the title of the estate now and for many years known as “Oak Hall,” and of the estate adjoining it on the Southwest, are references to the Conduit. These estates are on the Northerly side of North Street, between Union and Blackstone Streets, and nearly opposite the end of Merchants’ Row. The Southwesterly part of the Oak Hall estate belonged to Major Thomas Savage, who conveyed it in 1659, describing it as “on the North side of the Conduit Street” (Ibid. iii. 488). In the Inventory of the estate of William Ballantine, a founder of the Scots Charitable Society, this estate is mentioned with wharf and Conduit privileges (Suffolk Probate, No. 516). William Ballantine’s heirs, for £275, conveyed the estate to Col. John Ballantine (the eldest son), 28 July, 1680, together with “one share in the Conduit in the Conduit Street,” and wharf privileges (Suffolk Deeds, xii. 95). By deed dated 3 January, 1692, Bozoun Allen granted to Ballantine and others the right of laying pipes for the use of the Conduit in Conduit Street (Ibid. xx. 29). Colonel Ballantine bought several contiguous parcels, and died 27 April, 1734. His administrator conveyed the enlarged estate to Charles Coffin by deed dated 25 May, 1737, together with wharf and other privileges, “and the use and privilege of the well and water from the Conduit, as the same Premises were heretofore held, used, occupied, and enjoyed” by Ballantine (Ibid. liv. 139). The Ballantine lot had a frontage of about 22 feet on Conduit Street. The lot, about 17½ feet front, adjoining it on the Northeast is now included in the Oak Hall estate.
Conduit Street is also referred to in a deed from Abigail Woodbridge, of Hartford, Conn., to Joseph Belknap, 15 March, 1753, conveying the estate adjoining the Ballantine lot on the Southwest. (Ibid. lxxxii. 48.)
See also Shurtleff’s Topographical and Historical Description of Boston, pp. 398–404, 640, 645, 683; Boston Record Commissioners’ Reports, ii., vii., viii. (Town Records, 1634–1728), passim, x. 1–54 (Capt. Robert Keayne’s Will, 1653), 86, and xi., xiii., xix. (Selectmen’s Records, 1701–1763), passim; and Memorial History of Boston, i. 233, 234, 546.
200 Patents.— In May, 1646 Joseph Jenkes, who was reputed to be a man of ability “in raising the manufacture of engines of mills to go by water,” “for the speedy despatch of much work with few hands,” was granted the exclusive use of “such new inventions” for fourteen years. (Massachusetts Colony Records, ii. 149.)
In May, 1652 Edward Burt, who was supposed to have discovered a new way to make salt, was granted the monopoly for ten years of the manufacture of salt by the new method. (Ibid. iii. 275.) Our associate Mr. Henry H. Edes is authority for the statement that Burt was of Charlestown, where he was Town Clerk 1658–1662, and married Elizabeth, daughter of George Bunker. Governor Bradstreet was concerned with him in building there the Saltworks, in 1652 (Suffolk Deeds, ii. 256, 257). Cf. Wyman’s Genealogies and Estates of Charlestown, i. 115, 150, 160; Suffolk Deeds, i. 99, 238, ii. 112, 156, 163, 167, 169, 170, 171, iii. 66, 324; Middlesex Deeds, i. 142, 143; Boston Record Commissioners’ Reports, iii. (Charlestown Land Records) passim; and Massachusetts Colony Records, iii. 421, iv. Part. i. 91, 272, 283, 334.
In October, 1652 John Clarke was granted the exclusive use for three years of his invention “for saving firewood and warming of rooms with little cost and charge, by which means great benefit is like to be to the country.” (Massachusetts Colony Records, iv. Part i. 104.) This grant was extended in May, 1656 for the term of Clarke’s life. (Ibid. iv. Part i. 260.)
In May, 1655 Joseph Jencks, Sr., and his assigns were granted the exclusive right for seven years to make and use an engine that said Jencks had proposed to the Court for the more speedy cutting of grass. (Ibid. iv. Part i. 233.) In May, 1656 John Winthrop was granted an exclusive privilege for twenty-one years of making salt after his new way, within this jurisdiction. (Ibid. iii. 400.) In October, 1670 Richard Wharton petitioned the Court (Ibid. iv. Part ii. 467) relative to the manufacture of salt. A committee was appointed to treat with him. It may be gathered from the report of this committee in June, 1671, that he had information of the “making of salt by improving the advantage of the sea-water by the sun,” as practised elsewhere, and that he wished to secure a charter for a company. (Ibid. iv. Part ii. 505.) The committee recommended the grant of “a charter for empowering a company of adventurers thereunto,” and the Court approved the proposition, but recommitted it for future report, after settlement of details.
In June, 1671 the Court passed an order to the effect that no person, except Richard Wharton, John Saffin and Company, could make or produce (any other way than hath been practised in former times in this country) any pitch, rosin, turpentine, oil of turpentine, or mastic of the pine or cedar trees in this jurisdiction. This monopoly of the manufacture of these articles by any other methods than those previously in practice had one exception. Any person could manufacture for his own use by new methods. The order was to remain in force for ten years, and was accompanied by grants of pine and cedar trees. (Massachusetts Colony Records, iv. Part ii. 499.)
In May, 1681 the “undertakers of the outworke or wall before the toune of Boston, to the seaward,” were granted power to hear and determine controversies among themselves, and impose fines among themselves. (Ibid. v. 310.) Although this is not a corporation, yet considering the scope of our review, it ought not to be passed by without notice. It is not mentioned here, because the grant is considered as qualifying the statement in the text.
The attempt to improve the mechanical application of water-power is what might have been expected in Massachusetts; but that the mowing-machine should have been anticipated, seems, on the whole, strange. It was also natural that attention should be turned toward improvements in the manufacture of salt. What was known in this direction can probably be ascertained; but it would be interesting to learn what was the proposed economy of John Clarke in the use of firewood.
201 Ibid. iv. Part ii. 535; Quincy’s History of Harvard University, i. 592.
202 New-England Historical and Genealogical Register, xi. 206–210.
203 Paige’s History of Cambridge, p. 42, note.
204 Quincy’s History of Harvard University, i. 587. In the Convention for the revision of the Massachusetts Constitution in 1820, the act of 1642 was spoken of by Quincy as the Charter of the College, and he even went so far as to describe the Act of Incorporation in 1650 as the “Supplemental Charter.” (Journal of Debates and Proceedings, Boston, 1821, p. 44.) Daniel Davis of Boston took substantially the same ground. (Ibid. p. 46.) Daniel Webster, at a later stage of proceedings, made a report in which he gave a history of the Charter, and showed the points of difference between the act of 1642 and the Charter of 1650. (Ibid. pp. 236, 237.)
205 Quincy’s History of Harvard University, i. 58, 276. The effect of the annulment of the Colony Charter was discussed by Hon. Emory Washburn in 1875. He said: “There is no doubt, however, that opinions have at times prevailed in the community that the Colonial Statutes were annulled by abrogating the Charter.” (Proceedings Massachusetts Historical Society, xiii. 454.) James Savage, discussing the same question in the Massachusetts Convention for the revision of the Constitution in 1820, said: “The rights of all sorts dependent on that Charter were annulled. Not, sir, that my ancestors, or yours, were, or could be, deprived of the actual possession of their highest rights; they held them by something better than paper.” (Journal of Debates and Proceedings, etc. Boston, 1821, p. 48.)
206 The account books from which these entries are transcribed mouldered and rotted, and were riddled by insects for many years in a loft in John Hancock’s stable. Mr. Sibley published an account of their recovery by the College, and gave a detailed description of their contents. (Proceedings Massachusetts Historical Society, 1862–1863, vi. 337.) The historical value of the books is greatly increased by these entries, the first being illustrative of the chaotic condition, at that time, of affairs in this country, and the second indicating that the representative of the Crown considered the organization at Cambridge as having its origin from the Colonial government, and therefore as being under his control.
207 Brief Account concerning Several of the Agents of New England, their Negotiation at the Court of England, with some Remarks, etc. [Increase Mather.] London, 1691, p. 21.
208 Province Laws, i. 38, and note at the end of the chapter; vii. 452, 608; Quincy’s History of Harvard University, i. 77, 594.
209 Quincy’s History of Harvard University, i. 85; Province Laws, vii. 608.
210 Quincy’s History of Harvard University, i. 82.
211 Province Laws, i. 288; vii. 608, 609; Quincy’s History of Harvard University, i. 86.
212 Province Laws, vii. 228.
213 Quincy’s History of Harvard University, i. 100, 607.
214 Province Laws, vii. 230.
215 Ibid. vii. 245.
216 Province Laws, vii. 252, 253.
217 Ibid. vii. 257, 643.
218 Ibid. vii. 260.
219 Ibid. vii. 635, 643.
220 Ibid. vii. 265.
221 Ibid. vii. 272, 644.
222 Ibid. vii. 698.
223 Ibid. vii. 308.
224 Ibid. vii. 312.
225 Ibid. vii. 703.
226 Quincy’s History of Harvard University, i. 153.
227 It will be observed that the details relating to the foregoing analysis of the legislation with reference to the government of Harvard College during this ad interim organization are mainly derived from the copious notes furnished by Abner C. Goodell, Jr., in the seventh volume of the Province Laws. Quincy covered this ground with great detail, but the patient industry of Mr. Goodell has added new material, and has made plain much that was left obscure by Quincy. For a just appreciation of the value of Joseph Dudley’s intervention, through which the charter of 1650 was saved to the College, and for the proper understanding of these proceedings, which were rendered complex through the ambition of Mather to retain the presidency without complying with the order of the Court that he should reside in Cambridge, it is desirable to read the explanations and comments of the learned annotator, in connection with Quincy’s elaborate account.
228 Samuel Nowell was a Charlestown man. We therefore look to our associate Mr. Henry H. Edes for information concerning him. He contributes the following facts: —
Samuel Nowell was a graduate of the College in 1653. He was a son of Elder Increase Nowell of Charlestown, where he was born 12 (9) 1634. Two years after graduation, in 1655, he was elected a Fellow of the College. He was also a Chaplain in the army during Philip’s War, and was in the great Swamp Fight, 19 December, 1675. Nowell also served the Colony as an Assistant and a Commissioner of the United Colonies, and in 1687 accompanied Increase Mather to London on a mission to the English Court.
Nowell’s appointment as Treasurer of the College in January, 1682/3, was pro tempore, the Corporation “still reserving Liberty for the worshipfull Captn, Richards to reassume the place at his return” from England. Nowell’s instructions for the management of the College finances are printed in 4 Massachusetts Historical Collections, viii. 694. He died in London in August or September, 1688. (Cf. Wyman’s Genealogies and Estates of Charlestown, ii. 710–711; Sibley’s Harvard Graduates, i. 322, 335–342, 553, 592)
229 I am indebted to our associate, Abner C. Goodell, Jr., for calling my attention some months since, when I showed him copies of these entries, to the technical legal point, of the recognition of the College as a corporation, by the representative of the Crown, which was involved in the order issued by Andros to the College to submit their accounts to his inspection.
230 The Charters and General Laws of the Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay. Boston, 1814, pp. 26, 27.
231 Province Laws, iii. 708, 744.
232 Ibid, iii. 778, 818.
233 Ibid, iii. 891, 951.
234 Ibid, iv 463, 542.
235 Ibid, iv. 518, 560.
236 Province Laws, iv. 520, 560.
237 Ibid. iv. 806.
238 Ibid. v. 177, 187.
239 Ibid. v. 179, 188. et seq. The passage of this act and of the act incorporating the Overseers of the Poor in the Town of Boston led to the discussion of a curious technical point. Both these corporations were originally created under acts which, following the analogy of king and Parliament, authorized the Governor to grant the Charters. This he declined to do; but when the acts were passed in the form of direct incorporations, he submitted them to the Lords of Trade. The question whether the power of granting Patents of Incorporation was or was not vested in the General Court was submitted to an attorney, Richard Jackson, who decided that under the Province Charter it was so vested. (Province Laws, v. 191.) Jackson’s opinion was given 13 April, 1774.
240 Ibid. v. 200, 262.
241 Ibid. v. 295, 354.
242 Province Laws, v. 1129, 1270 et seq. In making up this list of Province Corporations, my first impulse was to draw the line at the Declaration of Independence. This excluded from my list the Massachusetts Charitable Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Trustees of Phillips Academy, Andover. Mr. Goodell called my attention to the method of the Commissioners for the Publication of the Province Laws in the treatment of Laws passed during this transition period, when the future classification depended somewhat upon the result of the pending struggle. If that result had been adverse to the hopes of the Americans, there would have been no State under which to classify these corporations. They are therefore properly to be included among the Province Corporations.
243 Province Laws, v. 1194, 1369, 1370.
244 Ibid. v. 1418, 1456 et seq.
245 Statutes at Large, vi., 14 George II., chap. 37, pp. 164–168
246 Quincy’s History of Harvard University, i.160.
247 The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and other Organic Laws of the United States, Ben: Perley Poore, ii. 1890.
248 The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and other Organic Laws of the United States, Ben: Perley Poore, ii. 1908.
249 Narrative and Critical History of America, iii. 146; Political Annals of the United Colonies, George Chalmers, i. 62.
250 Early Coins of America, Sylvester S. Crosby, p. 21.
251 Early Coins of America, Sylvester S. Crosby, p. 23.
252 Memorials of the Discovery and Early Settlement of the Bermudas or Somers Islands, Major-General John Henry Lefroy, i. 59.
253 Ibid. i. 98.
254 Early Coins of America, Sylvester S. Crosby, p. 17.
255 The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and other Organic Laws of the United States, Ben: Perley Poore, i. 931.
256 Massachusetts Colony Records, i. 16.
257 The phrase “not contrary to the laws of England,” was construed by the colonists to mean, not contrary to the spirit of those laws, so that any modification that took place gradually, or was due to a change of circumstances, was not looked upon as in violation of their chartered rights and obligations.
258 Massachusetts Colony Records, i. 19.
259 Early Coins of America, Sylvester S. Crosby, pp. 45–54.
260 Massachusetts Colony Records, iv. Part ii. 213.
261 Hutchinson’s Collection of Original Papers (Prince Society’s Edition), ii. 213.
262 State Papers, in the Public Record Office, London. I refer to these papers under two headings: State Papers, Colonial; and State Papers, Colonial Entry Book. The papers of the first series are in what are called bundles. The present reference is, State Papers, Colonial, Bundle 52, 112.
263 State Papers, Colonial, Entry Book, cv. 60.
264 Ibid. cv. 89.
265 State Papers, Colonial, Entry Book, cv. 95.
266 Ibid. cv. 99.
267 8 Massachusetts Colony Records, v. 203.
268 State Papers, Colonial, Bundle 53, 212.
269 Ibid. Bundle 53, 216.
270 Massachusetts Colony Records, v. 347.
271 Ibid. v. 351.
272 State Papers, Colonial, Bundle 54, 105.
273 Ibid. Bundle 54, 188.
274 Massachusetts Archives, cvi. 334.
275 Early Coins of America, Sylvester S. Crosby, p. 89.
276 Andros Council Records, p. 56. These records are the original minutes of the early Council meetings. They are in manuscript, and in possession of the American Antiquarian Society. They differ somewhat from the copies at the State House, which were procured from England.
277 Sir William Alexander and American Colonization (Prince Society’s Publications), p. 143.
278 Ibid. p. 229.
279 Captain John Mason, the Founder of New Hampshire (Prince Society’s Publications), p. 191.
280 The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and other Organic Laws of the United States, Ben: Perley Poore, i. 812.
281 The County of Durham, Joseph Richard Boyle, pp. 68, 74.
282 Early Coins of America, Sylvester S. Crosby, p. 130
283 Maryland Archives, i. 400.
284 Ibid. i. 429.
285 Sir Ferdinando Gorges and his Province of Maine (Prince Society’s Publications), ii. 127.
286 The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and other Organic Laws of the United States, Ben: Perley Poore, ii. 1383.
287 Ibid. ii. 1397.
288 Mr. Thorndike here exhibited a Charles I. prayer-book with Sternhold and Hopkins bound in at the end, and stated that there were in the Athenæum and other large libraries many Bibles with the same appendix.
289 Mr. Thorndike here exhibited a copy of the edition of 1565, and various others earlier than 1620, including two copies of Este’s harmonized edition.
290 Mr. Thorndike here exhibited a copy of the 1618 edition of Ainsworth.
291 The Committee of Publication would call attention to Mr. Goodell’s letter on page viii., ante, in which he states that he has changed his opinion as to the handwriting of this manuscript. The statement made on page 249, that Washington wrote this document, should of course be changed to correspond with the views expressed in this letter.
292 The Hon. Samuel Crocker Cobb succeeded to the Presidency of the Society in 1880, on the death of Rear-Admiral Henry Knox Thatcher. See pp. 14 and 15, ante.
293 The manuscript pages are indicated in the printed text by broad-faced figures enclosed in brackets. The words in the text in full-faced letters were substituted by Washington for the words of Knox, which are given in the margin. Editorial comments in the margin are put in brackets, and when given in connection with Knox’s words, the latter are put between quotation marks. The words in italics in the text were underlined by Washington in his manuscript. The punctuation is Washington’s.
Knox’s draught is dated “West point, 15 Apl. 1783,” and headed, on the left, “Cincinnati.” It is among the Knox Papers (xii. 92–93) in the cabinet of the New-England Historic Genealogical Society. A fac simile is in Memorials of the Society of the Cincinnati of Massachusetts (edition of 1873) between pp. 6 and 7.
298 A draught of these Articles, apparently a copy by Colonel Shaw, endorsed, in another hand, “Original Constitution of the Society of Cincinnati,” is in the Library of Harvard College, received from the estate of our associate, the late Francis Parkman. On comparison it is found to agree substantially with the copy printed in the Memorials of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati (edition of 1890, pp. 7–13), from which the present impression was made.
299 The Journals of Major Samuel Shaw, etc., p. 111.
300 The above conjectures have been since rendered more certain by our associate, Mr. Henry H. Edes, who has found that in his last will, proved 23 January, 1809 (Suffolk Probate, No. 23,283), Jackson directed his executor to separate all moneys, notes, or certificates of any kind in his hands as Treasurer of the Cincinnati, and to pay over the same to his successor. General Cobb was one of the subscribing witnesses to this will, and in the performance of this particular duty very likely assisted the executors, neither of whom was a member of the Cincinnati. The draught of association, being not a document belonging to the Treasurer’s custody, might have been retained by General Cobb, who became Vice-president of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati in 1810, before the final settlement of Jackson’s estate.
301 Concerning the unreasonable popular prejudice against the Cincinnati, and the attitude of Washington, Knox, Lafayette, John Adams, and others towards it, much can be learned from the correspondence of Washington and John Adams. Cf. letters of Knox, Lafayette, and Benjamin Hawkins to Washington, in Sparks’s Correspondence of Washington, iv. 58–60, 71; Washington’s letters to Knox, Jefferson, Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., Madison, and William Barton, in Sparks’s Writings of Washington, ix. 26, 29, 35, 216–218; xii. 298–299; also Appendix No. 1, in ix. 495 et seq.; Lafayette’s letter to John Adams, and Adams’s letter to Charles Spener, in Life and Works of John Adams, viii. 187; ix. 523–524. See also Austin’s Life of Elbridge Gerry, i. 416 et seq.; Wells’s Life and Public Services of Samuel Adams, iii. 201 et seq.; and Memorials of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati (Boston, 1873), pp. 3–41, 534; (Boston, 1890) pp. 3–52, 531.
302 See footnote on page 176, ante.
303 An erased word that is illegible in the manuscript follows the word “money.”
304 The title adopted by the Society is the “Daughters of the Revolution, Commonwealth of Massachusetts.”
305 The Quincy Historical Society, Quincy (ante, pp. 182, 183), and the Groton Historical Society, Groton (ante, p. 266), have been organized since the list of the American Historical Association was published.
306 If Church Historical Societies are properly to be included, there should be added to this list of omissions: Shepard Historical Society, Cambridge.
307 See what Parkman says about Rev. Samuel Moody, Minister of York, in the Atlantic Monthly for March, 1891, lxvii. 321. There is a cut of this Cross in the frontispiece of Vol. ii. of the Memorial History of Boston.
308 Historical and Descriptive Account of the Island of Cape Breton, etc. Montreal, 1892.
309 A Journal of the late Siege by the troops of North America against the French at Cape Breton, etc., by James Gibson, Gentleman Volunteer, at the above Siege. London, 1745. This edition is prefaced with a large folded sketch of Louisburg.
In 1847, this Journal was re-published, under the editorship of Lorenzo D. Johnson, with some additional matter, but without the sketch of Louisburg, under the title, “A Boston Merchant of 1745, or incidents of the life of James Gibson,” etc. Boston, 1847.
310 Memorial History of Boston. Vol. ii.
311 Harvard University, Library Bulletin, No. 8, 1 June, 1878: Notes.
312 This structure was of wood, and in the rear of where the Charles River National Bank now is, having been approached through the alley-way by the side of the old Court House.
The beautiful and truthful panorama was purchased at London, in 1819, by the late Theodore Lyman, jr., and presented by him to Harvard College. Efforts to obtain the means for constructing a suitable building for its exhibition having proved unsuccessful, the plan was deferred until the accumulated interest upon the amount already secured for the purpose should suffice. (See Quincy’s History of Harvard University, ii. 401, 592.)
The building, which was nearly or quite circular, was erected in 1842, and free access to it given students of the College. But it only endured for about three years; for the building, with the panorama, was consumed on the night of the sixth of June, 1845, the flames having reached it from a carpenter’s shop, set on fire by an incendiary.— G.
313 The writer especially acknowledges his obligations for material used in this paper to Bell’s “John Wheelwright” (Prince Society Publications), Bell’s History of Exeter, N. H., Bourne’s History of Wells and Kennebunk, and Folsom’s “Saco and Biddeford.”
314 Letter to George Vaughan, in Belknap’s History of New Hampshire, Appendix.
315 Bilsby is a hamlet adjoining the market town of Alford. The shire town of York County, Maine, takes its corrupted name, Alfred, from that of Alford, England.
316 The use of this material previous to its publication by the Massachusetts Historical Society has been allowed through the courtesy of Charles F. Adams, Esq., the owner of the copies of these records, and of Dr. Samuel A. Green, Librarian of the Society.
317 Permission is not given to cite the legal authority referred to. The opinion is as follows: “I should say that the probability is that the incumbent simoniacally agreed to resign, probably with the patron, and so the turn went to the King. I am not sure that a simoniacal contract to present as patron would vacate the benefice, but the other piece of misbehaviour seems to me natural enough and to fit the facts.”
318 Rev. Hanserd Knollys, born about 1598, at Cawkerell, Lincolnshire; graduated at Cambridge; inducted to the living of Humberston, Lincolnshire, 23 August, 1631, which he held until 8 January, 1633; came to Massachusetts 1638, where, being suspected of “Antinomianism,” he was refused residence. He was pastor at Dover, N. H., for nearly four years, when he returned to England. There he taught school, and was chaplain in the Parliamentary army. He was the author of several religious works, and an incomplete autobiography. A Baptist publication society in London is called the Hanserd Knollys Society. See Congregational Quarterly, vol. xiii.; Second Series, vol. iii.
319 Cotton Mather’s letter to George Vaughan.
320 See the Remarks of Mr. Abner C. Goodell, Jr., on the Antinomian Controversy at the April, 1893, Meeting, ante, p. 132 et seq.
321 The Lincolnshire men in the Exeter Colony were Wentworth, Storre, Helme, Lawson, Leavitt, Rishworth, Hutchinson, Pormortt, Fish, the Wardwells, and the Littlefields. There was a family connection between several of these colonists, of which Anne Hutchinson was the central figure; her father, Rev. Francis Marbury, was the uncle of Wentworth and the great-uncle of Helme and Lawson; Augustine Storre married her husband’s sister Susanna, another sister married a Leavitt, another a Rishworth; Samuel Hutchinson was her husband’s brother. John Wheelwright married first, Augustine Storre’s sister, and as his second wife, Mary Hutchinson, Anne’s sister-in-law. Anne Hutchinson’s mother was a cousin of John Dryden, the poet. The Marburys, Drydens, and Wentworths were arms-bearing families; the Hutchinsons laid claim to like distinction, but their pedigree, filed during the last century in the Heralds’ College, was endorsed “respited for proof.” See New England Historical and Genealogical Register, xx. 355; Heraldic Journal, ii. 83, 171, 183.
322 Bell’s History of Exeter, appendix.
323 Tuttle’s Historical Papers, appendix.
324 “When a boy on the Wheelwright farm I ate fruit from trees planted by Samuel and his sons Joseph and John. We have held the homestead two hundred and fifty years, but last year (1893) it was sold, as no one wished to live on it, no member of the family I mean.”— Letter of Rev. John Bourne Wheelwright, of Minneapolis, Minn.
325 “The people in the province of Maine may be divided into Magistrates, Husbandmen, or Planters and Fishmen; of the Magistrates some be Royalists, the rest Perverse Spirits; the like are planters and fishers both, others mere fishers. Handicraftsmen there are but few; shopkeepers there are none, being supplied by the Massachusetts Merchants with all things they stand in need of.” John Josselyn’s Two Voyages to New England.
326 Gorges pedigree, Harleian Society’s “Visitations of Somersetshire.”
327 Champernowne pedigree, Harleian Society’s “Visitations of Devonshire.” See Berry’s “Hampshire Genealogies” for marriage of a Richard Champernowne and Elizabeth, daughter of Chief Justice Popham.
328 Josselyn pedigree, Harleian Society’s “Visitations of Essex,” pp. 65, 230.
329 See “George Cleaves of Casco Bay” (Gorges Society Publications), p. 37, footnote.
330 Henry Boade in his will makes his “loving cousins, Mr. John Winthrop, Esq. and Rev. Timothy Dalton,” his executors. The pedigree of Bode in Berry’s “Kent Genealogies,” gives a Henry Bode, and the marriage with John Winthrop of a distantly removed step-cousin of this Henry Bode, Mariam Ford, daughter and heir of John Ford of Buckley Abbey, Suffolk.
331 Bolles pedigree, Harleian Society’s “Visitations of Nottinghamshire.” For will of John Bolles, Esq., in which he mentioned his “brother Joseph in New England,” see Waters’s “Gleanings in England.” New England Historical and Genealogical Register, xlvi. 34.
332 See Maine Historical Collections, ix. 297–384.
333 General Knox attempted a large landed proprietorship in Maine, but this enterprise met with dismal failure.
334 The name was variously spelled, “Storr, Storre, Storer, Story, Storey, Storah.” William, the son of Augustine, spelt his name Storer and Story. Cf. Savage’s Genealogical Dictionary of New England, iv. 211.
335 Hutchinson’s History of Massachusetts (ed. of 1765), i. 193, note.
336 Wheelwright, in the conveyance of land to Richard Crispe, his son-in-law, dated 22 October, 1677, described himself as “late of Belleau, in the County of Lincoln.” (Suffolk Deeds, x. 215.) At Belleau was Vane’s country-seat.
337 Mr. Abner C. Goodell, Jr., found that this portrait was not that of John Higginson, as it had been labelled; close examination disclosing, painted in a slightly darker shade of the background color, an inscription giving an age and date that proved the portrait to be either John Wheelwright or Roger Conant, presumably the former. See “First Church, Quincy,” Appendix.
338 Thomas Wheelwright is supposed to have lived in a part of Wells called Batcombe, which took its name from a hamlet similarly related to Wells, England. He is said to have been the only man of Wells of the first three generations, other than those who met untimely ends, who was a life-long bachelor. What is left of the house he began for his intended bride is known as “Thomas’s Cellar.”
339 Col. Richard Nichols, Sir Robert Carr, George Cartwright, and Samuel Maverick.
340 At a court held at Saco, 1666, an indictment was found against one “Francis White for saying that Samuel Wheelwright was a lying justice.”
341 Maj.-Gen. John Leverett, Edward Tyng, Capt. Richard Waldron, Capt. Richard Pike.
342 William and Harlakenden Symonds were settlers at Wells. They were sons of Deputy Governor Samuel Symonds of Massachusetts. For Symonds and Harlakenden pedigrees, see Harleian Society’s “Visitations of Essex.”
343 The Bay Colony appointed as its government: President, Thomas Danforth; Council, Capt. John Davis, Major Brian Pendleton, Capt. Joshua Scottow, Capt. John Wincoll, Edward Rishworth, Francis Hooke, Samuel Wheelwright, Capt. Charles Frost.
344 Massachusetts Archives, lxviii. 88.
345 Confident of victory, Mather relates, “they fell dividing persons and plunder, and agreeing that such an English Captain should be a slave to such a one, and such a gentleman in the town should serve such a one, and his wife be maid of honor to such or such a squaw proposed, and Mr. Wheelwright (instead of being a worthy Counsellor of the Province, which he now is), was to be the servant of such a Netop.” A French officer, “habited like a gentleman,” stepped to the front. He exhorted the band in English to attack fearlessly, assured them that victory was easy, that it would be a great prize to any of them to capture John Wheelwright as he was the life and strength of the town.
346 Burroughs was at one time Rev. John Wheelwright’s assistant at Salisbury.
347 Province Laws, vii. 129, 521.
348 Province Laws, vii. 618.
349 See also Chap. 18 of the Resolves of 1699–1700, Province Laws, vii. 222, 618.
350 Abbé Tanguay’s “A Travers les Registres.”
351 John Plaisted, their son, when a lad, was captured by Indians and taken to Canada.
352 It would so appear from petitions and letters, but on the other hand, Col. Samuel Wheelwright’s wife and some of Joseph Bolles’s children could not write.
353 The Indian deed of 1629 was a later forgery, of which, however, no suspicion rests on any member of the Wheelwright family. It was made to serve the defendant in one of the suits of the purchasers of the Mason Patent for the recovery of lands in 1708. There possibly was an earlier Indian deed than that of Exeter made to Rev. John Wheelwright and his company, for Wheelwright made affidavit at Hampton, 13 October, 1663, that there had been a purchase made, through an agent, from certain Sagamores “of which Runawit,” who was not party to the Exeter transaction “was one.” Some credence may also be given to Cotton Mather’s statement that “good men … knew of such an instrument, but concluded it lost and gone beyond recovery.” The tradition of the existence of an early deed probably suggested the forgery. Wheelwright’s affidavit and Cotton Mather’s letter are given in Belknap’s History of New Hampshire, appendix.
354 Capt. Johnson Hammond, the leader of this expedition, laid before the Massachusetts Council twenty-five Indian scalps and the scalp of Ralle. He received a bounty of four hundred and five pounds for the Indian scalps, and one hundred pounds for that of the priest, to be divided among his officers and men. See Letters of Major Thomas Westbrooke and Others, in New England Historical and Genealogical Register, xlviii. 187–188.
355 In Massachusetts Archives, lii. 232, is a letter of 26 July, 1725, from Capt. Samuel Wheelwright, reporting the capture at Wells of ten Indian deserters, showing the employment of Indians as enlisted men. Letters of Major Westbrooke and Others, in New England Historical and Genealogical Register, xlvii. 319. In the same collection are other references to Col. John and Capt. Samuel Wheelwright.
356 The John Wheelwright who served in the Louisburg campaign is not known to have been a descendant of Rev. John Wheelwright. He came to Cohasset, Massachusetts, about 1720, and was the ancestor of our associate Mr. Edward Wheelwright.
357 See Journal of Rev. Joseph Baxter of Medfield, Missionary to the Eastern Indians, in New England Historical and Genealogical Register, xxiv. 52.
358 The English branch of the family uses the same coat-of-arms with a difference in one of the colors indicated in the King’s Chapel carving; the motto “Spectemur Agendo,” used with the coat of the English family, is an assumption not unwarranted by the story of the family, but there is no evidence authorizing the coat-of-arms. It may be that an enterprising English stone-cutter or Boston carriage painter, who profited through the social aspirations of many New England families of that day, acted in stead of the Heralds’ College.
359 The Rev. Charles Apthorp Wheelwright, the grandson of Nathaniel, was Prebendary of Lincoln. His son Rev. George and his grandson Rev. Charles Apthorp Wheelwright were clergymen of the Church of England.
360 Hon. John Wheelwright, formerly a Councillor of the Province, son of Samuel, was chosen in 1779 to prosecute all who were inimical to the patriot cause. Aaron, grandson of Joseph, was one of the Committee of Correspondence at the same time. Capt. Daniel, brother of John above-mentioned, died in service, 1778. Jeremiah of Gloucester, son of Lieut. Jeremiah of Portsmouth, was Commissary in Arnold’s Expedition to Canada; he died in 1778, from the effects of exposure in this campaign; his son, Abraham, served in the Continental army from December, 1775, to July, 1777; from that time until or near the close of the war he was first officer on several privateers.
361 See By-Laws, chap. ii. art. 1.
362 Sibley’s Harvard Graduates, i. 496 et seq.; iii. 323 et seq.
363 DeForest’s History of Westborough, p. 65.
364 DeForest’s History of Westborough, p. 187.
365 Ibid. p. 87.
366 Ibid. p. 191, note
367 Montcalm and Wolfe was published in 1884.
368 DeForest’s History of Westborough, p. 189.
369 Ibid. pp. 18, 479.
370 Montcalm and Wolfe, ii. 163.
371 DeForest’s History of Westborough, p. 136.
372 Ibid. p. 163. At page 181 it is said that in December, 1776, “at least two of his (the minister’s) sons were in the army.”
373 Quincy’s History of Harvard University, ii. 416.
374 Sibley’s Harvard Graduates, i. 496–507.
375 It is possible that Francis Parkman may have partly inherited from these Puritan ancestors the strong interest he felt in the Indians. It does not appear, however, that he ever learned their language, and it may be regarded as certain that he never preached to them.
376 Sibley’s Harvard Graduates, iii. 323–326.
377 History of Medford, by Charles Brooks, revised and enlarged by J. M. Usher, 1886.
378 Brooks’s History of Medford (1886), p. 300.
379 Brooks’s History of Medford (1886), p. 509.
380 The Art of Authorship, personally contributed by leading authors of the day. Compiled and edited by George Bainton. London, James Clark & Co., 1890.
381 Boston Daily Advertiser, 7 May, 1885.
382 George Francis Parkman.
383 He was always Parkman 2d, his cousin, George Francis Parkman, being Parkman 1st.
384 Tributes of the Massachusetts Historical Society, p. 6.
385 In the Knickerbocker Magazine for April, 1845, was published a “Sketch,” entitled the “Scalp-Hunter,” in which the final scene takes place in the identical locality of Parkman’s adventure. Though it is unsigned, there is strong internal evidence that Parkman was the author.
386 It was on this journey that Parkman saw the remains of Fort William Henry, as he describes them in “Montcalm and Wolfe,” i. 492, and as mentioned on page 493, note 2. It was perhaps also this journey that he refers to in a note on page 258 of volume ii. of “Montcalm and Wolfe,” where he says: “I once, when a college student, followed on foot the route of Rogers from Lake Memphremagog to the Connecticut.”
387 A Half Century of Conflict, ii. 230. See also Mr. George S. Hale’s address at the meeting of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 21 November, 1893.
388 In a note to the above, Mr. Cushing adds: “No doubt Parkman had in mind his Indian Expedition, which occurred soon after.”
389 The Oregon Trail, p. 204.
390 A Half Century of Conflict, i. 333; ii. 38–41.
391 Vassall Morton, p. 37.
392 “The Book of Roses,” published in 1866. See a paper read before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society by Dr. Henry P. Walcott, in the Boston Transcript, 16 December, 1893.
394 See The Jesuits, p. 448.
395 The Old Régime in Canada, p. 314.
396 Mr. Fiske has kindly furnished a copy of this paragraph.
397 A Half Century of Conflict, ii. 92.
398 The closing paragraph of Mr. John Fiske’s address has been already quoted on page 310.
399 Pedigrees of Hertfordshire Families. Collected by William Berry. Lithographed (not printed). London (no date), pp. 109–110. This volume also gives twelve generations of the pedigree of Alderman Anthony Radcliffe.
400 Sir William Alexander and American Colonization (Publications of the Prince Society), p. 73.
401 The words “Confirmaõn de 1631,” are written in the upper left hand comer of the Commission.
402 This seal, unfortunately, is missing from the Commission.
403 Savage (i. 270) records the death of Dorothy, widow of the Hon. John Brown, at Swanzey, 27 January, 1674, at the age of 90. As this statement, taken in connection with that of Judge Saffin, at once challenged attention, inquiry was made at Swanzey upon the points at issue. The courteous and obliging town clerk, Mr. Henry O. Wood, has kindly furnished the following verbatim extract from the ancient records in his official custody: —
“Mrs. Dorothy Brown wife of John Brown Senṛ deceased the twenty seaventh day of January 1673 being the ninety and eighth year of her age or thereabouts and was buryed uppon the 29th of January 1673.” (Book A. Page 143.)
Mr. Wood communicates the interesting fact that the name and memory of this Colonial dame is perpetuated in Swanzey by the “Dorothy Brown Rebekah Degree Lodge 122 I. O. O. F.”
See Judge Davis’s edition of Morton’s Memorial, pp. 295–297.
404 The Boston Town Records as printed in the Record Commissioners’ Reports (ix. 124) state that Benjamin, son of John and Martha Saffin, was born 15 June, 1672.
405 See Whitmore’s Copp’s-Hill Epitaphs, p. 34.
406 By the inscription on the gravestone of Rachel, wife of John, it appears that she died 6 July, 1690, twenty-three days before her husband.
407 This fire occurred on the fifth of July, 1692, according to Laurence Hammond, who adds that it “began in ye King’s-Head Tavern in Boston, by Halsy’s Wharf, betw 11 & 12 at night,” and that it “destroyed about 20 Dwelling Houses & Warehouses.”— Diary: 2 Massachusetts Historical Society’s Proceedings, vii. 162.
408 Suffolk Deeds, xiii. 438–440.
409 Ibid. xxii. 425.
410 Massachusetts Archives, xvi. 476.
411 Ibid. xvi. 475.
412 Suffolk Probate Files, No. 1739.
413 Suffolk Deeds, xxii. 424, 425.
414 Ibid. xvi. 408–410.
415 Ibid. xxii. 425–428.
416 The first letter is dated 13 June, 1737, the last 5 May, 1740.
417 Dealings with the Dead, ii. 515.
418 Boston Newsletter, No. 1769.
419 Suffolk Probate Files, No. 7107.
420 Dealings with the Dead, ii. 509, 550–551.
421 An examination of the Ledger discloses transactions with correspondents in Antigua, Bristol, Eng., Canso, Connecticut, Guernsey, Jersey, London, Louisburg, Martinique, New York, Pennsylvania, Rotterdam, Rhode Island and Virginia, besides Boston and many of the smaller towns in Massachusetts. It is interesting also to note the names of the following families which appear in this ponderous tome: Barrett, Boylston, Boutineau, Bromfield, Cabot, Chardon, Coffin, Colman, Cushing, DeLancey, Folger, Hallowell, Hooper, Hutchinson, Jackson, Johonnot, Lloyd, Lyman, Maverick, Minot, Palfrey, Parkman, Paxton, Phillips, Pickman, Quincy, Royall, Salter, Savage, Scollay, Sewall, Sturgis, Verplanck, Waldo, Wendell, and Winslow.
422 Peter Faneuil was born 20 June, 1700, at New Rochelle, N. Y.
423 The earliest entry is dated 9 April, 1725, and the latest 21 October, 1730. The Invoices are consecutively numbered, and cover consignments to Andrew and Peter Faneuil, which are entered indiscriminately.
424 This is probably an abreviation of “Merchandise Account.”
425 Dealings with the Dead, ii. 507.
426 By Mr. Walter Kendall Watkins.
427 Rhode Island Colonial Records, iii. 73.
428 The text of the essential parts of this Indenture is as follows: —
This Indenture made the fifteenth day of June Anno Dom. 1726, & in the twelfth year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord King George over Great Britain &c. Between Peter Baynton of the City of Philadelphia in the province of Pensilvania mercht. & Mary his wife only Child of John Budd late of Philadelphia aforesaid but now of Hanover in the province of New Jersey Esqṛ & Rebecckah his wife decēd which said Rebekah was only Daughter & heir of John Smith late of Newport in the Colony of Rhode Island &c. Surveyor decēd on the one part & Thomas Child, Joshua Wroe & John Marshall all of Boston [etc. on the other part, Witnesseth the conveyance, for £400, of] One full Thirty-third Part of the Township of Sutton in the County of Suffolk & province of the Massachusetts bay aforesaid which they the said Peter Baynton & Mary his wife do now hold and Enjoy in right of their said Grandfather John Smith, who was one of the original Grantees or proprietors of the said Township in the same manner as other the original Proprietors of the sd Township do now hold & enjoy their rights therein, etc.
Richard Waite and
Suffolk Deeds, xliii. 304. See also Ibid. xliv. 2.
429 The History of Sutton (pp. 1–2) states, that the township was bought of John Wampus and other Nipmug Indians; that it was a tract eight miles square, embracing in its limits an Indian reservation of four miles square called Hassanimisco; that the deed from Wampus was lost; that the Proprietors met on 22 February, 1731–2 and ordered “a new book” for records to be provided wherein the Wampus deed and the grant of the General Court of 1704 were to “be first placed;” and that the book was procured, but that while the grant of 1704 was recorded in it the Wampus deed was not. Probably it had already disappeared.
430 With Captain Peleg Sanford (Rhode Island Colonial Records iii. 26). The next year Smith was appointed by the General Assembly to survey Mount Hope Neck. (Ibid. iii. 55.)
431 Recorded with Suffolk Deeds, xvi. 89–90.
432 Resolves of 1703–4 Chap. 101, Province Laws, viii. 46.
433 Recorded with Suffolk Deeds xxxv. 260.
434 This Society was chartered 10 September, 1894. Its object is “to perpetuate the memories of the men who completed the work of the Revolution, in upholding the principles of the Nation against Great Britain in the conflict known as the war of 1812; to collect and secure for preservation rolls, records, books, and documents relating to that period, and to encourage research, and publication of the same; to foster true patriotism, and to cherish, maintain, and extend the institutions of American freedom.”
435 Acts and Resolves, 1884, chap. 60.
436 Massachusetts Colony Records, i. 73.
437 Thornton’s Pulpit of the American Revolution, p. xxiii.
438 Magnalia (edition of 1702), Book iii. p. 21. Mather may refer here to the sermon which Cotton preached on 24 August.
439 History of Massachusetts-Bay (edition of 1764), i. 45.
440 Winthrop’s Journal (edition of 1853), i. 168.
441 See “Election Sermons,” a disappointing article, by Barnes in the “Christian Spectator,” vol. x. It is merely a review of some Connecticut and New Hampshire sermons, in which the reverend reviewer finds “an occasion for offering some considerations on the influence of religion and law.”
442 Johnson’s Wonder-working Providence (Poole’s edition, 1867), p. 77.
443 Winthrop’s Journal, i. 256.
444 Ibid. i. 264.
445 Ibid. ii. 73
446 New England Historical and Genealogical Register, xxiv. 361–366.
447 Judges, ix. 14, 15.
448 Magnalia, Book iii. p. 118
449 New England Historical and Genealogical Register, xxvi. 162.
450 Winthrop’s Journal, ii. 42; quoted also in Lechford’s Plain Dealing (Trumbull’s edition), p. 68.
451 Printed in 3 Massachusetts Historical Collections, viii. 191.
452 History of Massachusetts, i. 329–332.
453 Winthrop’s Journal, ii. 141.
454 Magnalia, Book ii. p. 10.
455 Ibid. Book iii. p. 102.
456 Massachusetts Colony Records, ii. 62.
457 Ibid. ii. 71.
458 See note by Dr. George H. Moore in Historical Magazine, February, 1867, p. 116.
459 Massachusetts Colony Records, iv. Part ii. p. 424.
460 Manuscript note now in Boston Public Library.
461 History of Massachusetts, i. 331.
462 Winthrop’s Journal, ii. 268.
463 Ibid. ii. 316.
464 Itt being the time & turne of ye Deputs for to choose & appointe ye minister to preach the sermon at ye next Courte of Elecc̄on, they chose & desired Mr Nathaniell Rogers, of Ipswich, to preach ye next elecc̄on sermon. (Massachusetts Colony Records, iii. 80.)
465 Johnson’s Wonder-working Providence, p. 178.
466 Magnalia, Book ii. p. 131.
467 Massachusetts Colony Records, iii. 148.
468 Ibid. iv. Part i. 254.
469 In a copy of Oakes’s sermon for 1673, which belonged to Samuel Sewall, is a manuscript memorandum, which, Sewall says, was “taken out of Grandfather Hull’s Character Book of several that did preach the Artillery and Election sermons,” in which Mr. Flint is set down as preacher in 1657, and Mr. Ward as preacher in 1660. Neither of these names seems to be correct, yet this memorandum as a whole, no doubt, has been important in determining some of the preachers. It is in the Prince collection, now in the Boston Public Library.
470 Magnalia, Book iv. 184.
471 Ibid. Book iv. 182.
472 I have been unable to identify this “F. Drake,” and only offer the bracketed name as a suggestion.
473 Magnalia, Book iv. 185.
474 Mitchel’s “Nehemiah on the Wall,” p. 23.
475 Norton’s “Sion the Out-cast,” p. 1.
476 Ibid. p. 2.
477 Ibid. p. 6.
478 Higginson’s “The Cause of God …”, p. 11.
479 New-England Historical and Genealogical Register, vii. 239.
480 Edes says from Psalm cxxii. 6.
481 Sibley’s “Graduates,” i. 117.
482 The title is curious enough to give entire: “Nehetmiah on the Wall in Troublesom Times; or, a Serious and Seasonable Improvement of that great Example of Magistratical Piety and Prudence, Self-denial and Tenderness, Fearlessness and Fidelity, unto Instruction and Encouragement of present and succeeding Rulers in our Israel.”
483 Massachusetts Colony Records, iv. Part ii. 376.
484 Stoughton’s “New-England’s True Interest,” p. 3.
485 Ibid. p. 20.
486 Magnalia, Book iv. p.56
487 Magnalia, Book iv. p. 154, § 5.
488 Danforth’s Election Sermon for 1670, p. 15.
489 Magnalia, Book iv. p. 191, § 5.
490 Shepard’s “Eye-Salve,” p. 14.
491 Ibid. p. 12.
492 Ibid. p. 13.
493 Ibid. p. 13.
494 Shepard’s “Eye-Salve,” p. 13.
495 Ibid. p. 44.
496 Oakes’s “New-England Pleaded with,” p. 19.
497 Ibid. p. 36.
498 “New-England Pleaded with, And pressed to consider the things which concern her Peace, at least in this her Day: Or, A Seasonable and Serious Word of faithful Advice to the Churches and People of God (primarily those) in the Massachusets Colony; musingly to Ponder, and bethink themselves, what is the Tendency, and will certainly be the sad Issue, of sundry unchristian and crooked wayes, which too too many have been turning aside unto, if persisted and gone on in.”
499 Sibley’s “Graduates,” i. p. 328.
500 Torrey’s Election Sermon for 1674, p. 8.
501 Massachusetts Colony Records, v. 34.
502 Sibley’s “Graduates,” i. 379.
503 Mather’s “A Call from Heaven,” 1677, p. 59; second impression, 1685, p. 81.
504 Sewall’s Diary, i. 360.
505 1 Massachusetts Historical Collections, x. 65.
506 Hubbard’s “Happiness of a People,” 1676, p. 39.
507 Ibid. p. 26.
508 Allen’s Election Sermon for 1679, p. 8.
509 Willard’s Election Sermon for 1694, p. 20.
510 Sewall’s Diary, iii. 7.
511 Massachusetts Colony Records, v. 441.
512 Sibley’s “Graduates,” i. 519.
513 Sprague’s Annals, i. 170.
514 Adams’s Election Sermon for 1685, p. 11.
515 Ibid. p. 17.
516 Sewall’s Diary, i. 92.
517 Massachusetts Colony Records, v. 514.
518 Sewall’s Diary, i. 136.
519 Memoir of Wigglesworth, p. 93.
520 Sibley’s “Graduates,” i. 285.
521 American Quarterly Register, xi. 193.
522 Sewall’s Diary, i. 136.
523 History of Massachusetts-Bay, i. 354, note.
524 “Not till after the deposition of Gov. Andros, I presume, was another Election Sermon preached at Boston.” (Dean’s Memoir of Wigglesworth, p. 92.)
525 Mather’s “Way to Prosperity,” p. 23.
526 The imprint of some copies of this sermon, “The Way to Prosperity,” is: Boston, Printed by Richard Pierce, for Benjamin Harris. Anno Domini, 1690; of other copies it is: Printed by R. Pierce, for Joseph Brunning, Obadiah Gill, and James Woode. (See Sibley’s “Graduates,” iii. 50.) This sermon may also be found in Cotton Mather’s “Wonderful Works of God commemorated.”
527 Mather’s Election Sermon for 1690, p. 34.
528 Ibid. p. 58.
529 The title is: “Things fora Distress’d People to think upon.” There was an imperfect copy in George Brinley’s library, which lacked three pages of the Postscript. The Worcester copy includes only pp. 5–74. The only known perfect copy is in the Boston Public Library. These three are the only copies of which I have heard.
530 Sewall’s Diary, i. 426.
531 Mather’s Election Sermon for 1700, p. 11.
532 Ibid. p. 31.
533 Sibley’s “Graduates,” ii. 514.
534 Sewall’s Diary, i. 453. This was the Star Tavern. It stood on the north-easterly corner of Hanover and Union streets, running back to and abutting upon Link Alley (later known as North Federal Court), which was discontinued, closed, and built upon in 1857–1860. It was here that the Court of Admiralty sat, in 1704, for the trial of Capt. John Quelch and his company for piracy, when Stephen North was the inn-keeper. Cf. Sewall’s Diary, ii. 108; Province Laws, viii. 395, note; Shurtleff’s Topographical and Historical Description of Boston, pp. 405, 607, 630, 656; Nomenclature of Streets (Boston City Document No. 119 of 1879), pp. 21, 26, 35, 89, 95; John Bonner’s Plan of 1722; John Groves Hales’s Maps of the Street Lines of Boston in 1819 and 1820, p. 185; and Annual Report of the Boston Street Laying Out Department for 1894 (City Document No. 35 of 1895), pp. 196, 228.
I am indebted to Mr. Henry H. Edes for this valuable note, which identifies not only the “Stone House,” but a lost alley.
535 Sewall’s Diary, ii. 178.
536 Noyes’s Election Sermon for 1698, p. 58.
537 Ibid. pp. 69 et seq.
538 Samuel G. Drake’s “The Witchcraft Delusion in New England,” iii. 40.
539 This was Joseph Belcher; Samuel Belcher preached in 1707.
540 Sewall’s Diary, ii. 34.
541 Journal by Dankers and Sluyter (Memoirs, Long Island Historical Society, i.), p. 385.
542 Stoddard’s Election Sermon for 1703, p. 13.
543 Sibley’s “Graduates,” ii. 114.
544 Sewall’s Diary, ii. 301.
545 Russell’s Election Sermon for 1704, p. 14.
546 Estabrook’s Election Sermon for 1705, p. 16.
547 Sewall’s Diary, ii. 132.
548 Ibid. ii. 132.
549 Sibley’s “Graduates,” iii. 273.
550 Sewall’s Diary, ii. 224.
551 Ibid. ii. p. 256.
552 Sewall’s Diary, ii. 278.
553 Ibid. ii. 278.
554 Ibid. ii. 282.
555 Pemberton’s Election Sermon for 1710, p.4.
556 Sewall’s Dairy, ii. 333.
557 Ibid. ii. 278.
558 Sibley’s “Graduates,” ii. 308.
559 Ibid. ii. 309.
560 Sewall’s Diary, ii.385.
561 Shepard’s Election Sermon for 1715, p. 20.
562 Sibley’s “Graduates,” iii. 325.
563 Colman’s Election Sermon for 1718, p. 40.
564 Sewall’s Diary, iii.214.
565 Ibid. iii. 291.
566 Ibid. iii. 291.
567 Sewall’s Election Sermon for 1724, p. 65.
568 Ibid. p. 66.
569 Baxter’s Election Sermon for 1724, p. 32.
570 Sewall’s Diary, iii. 356.
571 Ibid. iii. 348.
572 Breck’s Election Sermon for 1728, p. 22.
573 Fiske’s Election Sermon for 1731, p. 10.
574 Swift’s Election Sermon for 1732, p. 23.
575 Ibid. p. 25.
576 Prince’s Election Sermon for 1731, p. 37.
577 Holyoke’s Election Sermon for 1736, p. 6.
578 Loring’s Election Sermon for 1737, p. 1.
579 Ibid. p. 12.
580 Ibid. p. 51.
581 Ibid. p. 60.
582 See the Memorial of the Chaunceys, by William Chauncey Fowler, on the attitude of the General Court in this matter.
583 Chauncy’s Election Sermon for 1747, p. 36.
584 Cooper’s Election Sermon for 1740, p. 6.
585 Ibid. p. 9.
586 Williams’s Election Sermon for 1741, p. 49.
587 Phillips’s Election Sermon for 1750, p. 42.
588 “There were but three sessions of the General Court this year . The first session was held in Concord, on account of the small-pox which then prevailed in Boston. On the fifth of June the Assembly was prorogued to September 27th (16th, Old Style), but was again prorogued, by proclamation, August 28th, to meet at Harvard College on the twenty-second of November following.”— Province Laws, iii. 662, note.
589 Cotton’s Election Sermon for 1753, p. 16.
590 Mayhew’s Election Sermon for 1754, p. 5.
591 Ibid. p. 20.
592 See Dr. Joseph H. Allen’s Remarks upon the relations of the Mayhew family to the Indians of Martha’s Vineyard, at the February, 1895, meeting, iii. 45, post. See also Foote’s Annals of King’s Chapel, ii. 252, 253.
593 Mayhew’s Election Sermon for 1754, p. 28.
594 Thomas Smith’s Journal (Willis’s edition, 1849), p. 159.
595 Steven’s Election Sermon for 1761, p. 6.
596 Ibid. p. 57.
597 Frink’s Election Sermon for 1758, p. 1.
598 Ibid. p. 85.
599 Williams’s Election Sermon for 1762, p. 19.
600 Eliot’s Election Sermon for 1765, p. 52.
601 Ibid. p. 53.
602 This is the Andrew Elliot whose Letters to Thomas Hollis (3 Massachusetts Historical Collections, iv. 398–461) are so well known for their value among pre-revolutionary documents. See other similar letters of his in Massachusetts Historical Society’s Proceeding, xvi. 281 et seq.
603 Haven’s Election Sermon for 1769, p. 48.
604 Thornton’s Pulpit of the American Revolution, p. 175.
No one has probed more cautiously or more accurately to discover the attitude of the hierarchy previous to the Revolution, than has the Hon. Mellen Chamberlain in several of his publications, but particularly in his Address on “John Adams.”
605 History of the Revolution, i. 418, 419.
606 Pulpit of the American Revolution, p. xxxviii.
607 At the “Meeting-House.… After Divine Service the Procession returned to Harvard-Hall, where an Entertainment was provided.”— Massachusetts Gazette 4 June, 1770.
608 Cooke’s Election Sermon for 1770, p. 16.
609 Ibid. p. 20.
610 Ibid. p. 33.
611 Pulpit of the American Revolution, p. 177.
612 Cooke’s Election Sermon for 1770, p. 45.
613 Trust in God, the Duty of a People in a Day of Trouble. A sermon preached, May 30th, 1770. At the request of a great number of Gentlemen, friends to the Liberties of North America, who were desirous, notwithstanding the removal of the Massachusetts General-Court (unconstitutionally as they judged) to Cambridge, that God might be acknowledged in that house of worship at BOSTON, in which our tribes, from the days of our fathers, have annually sought to him for direction, previous to the choice of his Majesty’s Council. By Charles Chauncy, D.D. Boston: printed by Daniel Kneeland, for Thomas Leverett, in Corn-Hill. 1770.
614 Tucker’s Election Sermon for 1771, p. 19.
615 Ibid. p. 45.
616 Ibid. p. 26.
617 Parsons’s Election Sermon for 1772, p. 23.
618 Parsons’s Election Sermon for 1772, p. 17.
619 Turner’s Election Sermon for 1773, p. 41.
620 Hitchcock’s Election Sermon for 1774, p. 45.
621 Ibid. p. 20.
622 Ibid. p. 13.
623 Ibid. p. 42.
624 There haven been two reprints of Langdon’s sermon,— one in Thornton’s Pulpit of the American Revolution, and the other in “The Patriot Preachers of the American Revolution,” 1860.
625 Quoted by Thornton, p. 255, note.
626 Patriot Preachers, p.50.
627 Langdon’s Election Sermon for 1775, p. 8.
628 Ibid. pp. 28, 29.
629 This sermon bears the imprint, “Watertown: printed and sold by Benjamin Edes. 1775.”
630 Gordon’s Sermon of 19 July, 1775, p. 27.
631 West’s Election Sermon for 1776, p. 27.
632 This site is now (1894) occupied by the Rogers Building.
633 Webster’s Election Sermon for 1777, p. 30.
634 Payson’s Election Sermon for 1778, p. 14.
635 Ibid. p. 37, note.
636 Stillman’s Election Sermon for 1779, p. 8.
637 Howard’s Election Sermon for 1780, p. 47.
638 Adams’s Election Sermon for 1782, p. 49.
639 Ibid. p. 58.
640 Resolve requesting the Governor and Council to appoint a gentleman to preach the election sermon, in case that Mr. Hemmenway declines. 25 March, 1784.
Whereas the great distance of the Rev. Moses Hemmenway, chosen by the House to preach upon the next annual election, has prevented his giving his answer,… Resolved: etc. (Resolves of the General Court, March, 1784, No. ccii., p. 151.)
641 Mellen’s Election Sermon for 1797, p. 32.
642 Morse’s “John Adams,” p. 248.
643 Allen’s Election Sermon for 1808, p. 13.
644 Parish’s Election Sermon for 1810, p. 21.
645 Flint’s Election Sermon for 1815, p. 18.
646 Withington’s Election Sermon for 1831, p. 21.
647 Memorial of Samuel C. Jackson, by Edwards A. Park, Andover, 1871, p. 18.
648 Braman’s Election Sermon for 1845, p. 34.
649 Ibid. p. 40.
650 Reprinted in Dr. Park’s “Discourses on some Theological Doctrines as related to the Religious Character.” (1885.)
651 Neale’s Election Sermon for 1852, p. 27, note.
652 Samuel Kirkland Lothrop’s Election Sermon for 1855, p. 14.
653 Seeley’s Election Sermon for 1856, p. 23.
654 Pike’s Election Sermon for 1857, p. 31.
655 Hale’s Election Sermon for 1859, p. 23.
656 Phelps’s Election Sermon for 1861, p. 56.
657 Ibid. p. 48.
658 Alger’s Election Sermon for 1862, p. 40.
659 Stearns’s Election Sermon for 1864, p. 38.
660 Stone’s Election Sermon for 1865, p. 16.
661 Ibid. p. 30.
662 Grinnell’s Election Sermon for 1871, p. 26.
663 Peabody’s Election Sermon for 1872, p. 19.
664 Resolves of 1875, chap. 62.
665 Waldron’s Election Sermon for 1880, p. 20.
666 Miner’s Election Sermon for 1884, p. 46.
667 See Article 91, “Body of Liberties,” in 3 Massachusetts Historical Collections, vii. 231. I do not forget that Dr. Moore, speaking of a case of slave-trading on a Boston vessel in 1645, says: “In all the proceedings of the General Court on this occasion, there is not a trace of anti-slavery opinion or sentiment.”— Notes on the History of Slavery in Massachusetts, p. 30.
668 See Mr. Goodell’s communication on John Saffin and his slave Adam at the March, 1893, meeting of this Society, ante, p. 85 et seq.
669 Cooke’s Election Sermon for 1770, p. 41.
670 George H. Moore’s Notes on the History of Slavery in Massachusetts, p. 194.
671 Stillman’s Election Sermon for 1779, p. 35.
672 Hemmenway’s Election Sermon for 1784, p. 37.
673 Allyn’s Election Sermon for 1805, p. 25.
674 Pierce’s Election Sermon for 1849, p. 48.
675 Anderson’s Election Sermon for 1860, p. 26.
676 History of Massachusetts, i. 443. I think that Hutchinson is here trying to quote Giles Firmin, whose very words are given later.
677 Hutchinson’s History of Massachusetts, i. 445.
678 Mather’s Election Sermon for 1689, p. 26.
679 Mather’s Election Sermon for 1690, p. 31.
680 Norton’s Election Sermon for 1708, p. 15.
681 Pemberton’s Election Sermon for 1710, p. 99.
682 Ibid. p. 101.
683 Rawson’s Election Sermon for 1709, p. 35.
684 Ibid. p. 35.
685 Thacher’s Election Sermon for 1711, p. 29.
686 Williams’s Election Sermon for 1719, p. 25.
687 Baxter’s Election Sermon for 1727, p. 32.
688 Prince’s Election Sermon for 1730, p. 35.
689 Ibid. p. 29.
690 John Ward Dean, in his Brief Memoir of Firmin (p. 11) quotes this a little differently, and seems inclined to doubt if the utterance was that of Firmin.
691 Loring’s Election Sermon for 1737, p. 27.
692 Ibid. p. 51.
693 Lewis’s Election Sermon for 1748, p. 17.
694 Prince’s Election Sermon for 1730, p. 34.
695 Huntington’s Election Sermon for 1858, p. 8.
696 Richard Gleason Greene’s Election Sermon for 1874, p. 24.
697 By the charter of 1691 the last Wednesday of May was established “Election-day,” and a little later the Artillery election-day was established.— Memorial History of Boston, ii. 247.
698 Memorial History of Boston, i. 119, note.
699 Lechford’s “Plain Dealing” (Trumbull’s edition), p. 64.
700 “And that desolating fire in our Metropolis, laying so much of our Glory in Ashes, destroying so many goodly Edifices, turning us out of doors, where these Solemnities have been so many years formerly Celebrated.”— Cheever’s Election Sermon, 1712, p. 41.
701 Oakes’s Election Sermon for 1673, p. 24.
702 Stillman’s Election Sermon for 1779, p. 20, note.
703 See Nathaniel L. Frothingham’s “The Shade of the Past,” Boston, 1833.
704 In connection with these extra sermons, Dr. George H. Moore has called attention to the fact that there were generally two or more sessions, but not more than eight instances during the whole Provincial period of a second Assembly in one political year.
705 Memorial History of Boston, ii. 223.
706 A complete list, compiled by Ralph D. Smyth, is in the New England Historical and Genealogical Register for April, 1892, xlvi. 123.
707 A complete list of the New-Hampshire Election Sermons is in the Congregational Quarterly for July, 1868, x. 240; and an earlier list is in William Allen’s Sermon for 1818.
708 An account of the Vermont discourses is in the Historical Magazine for March, 1868 (New Series, iii. 175). An earlier account, in the Congregational Quarterly for April, 1867 (ix. 187), was reprinted from the Vermont Record. Both articles are signed P. H. W., the initials, doubtless, of Pliny H. White.
709 Massachusetts Historical Society’s Proceedings, for May, 1809, i. 213.
710 Massachusetts Historical Society’s Proceedings, ii. 293, 294.
711 American Museum, June, 1791, ix. App. iii. p. 43.
712 This List appeared while Mr. Swift’s paper was passing through the press. See 2 Massachusetts Historical Society’s Proceedings for February, 1895, ix. 410 et seq.