A Stated Meeting of the Society was held, at the invitation of the Reverend Edward C. Moore, at No. 21 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, on Thursday, April 20, 1933, at eight o’clock in the evening, the President, Samuel Eliot Morison, in the chair.
The Records of the last Stated Meeting were read and approved.
The Corresponding Secretary announced the death of Charles Sedgwick Rackemann, a Resident Member and the last of the founders of the Society, on March 29, 1933; of Waldo Lincoln, a Resident Member, on April 7, 1933; and of Heman Merrick Burr, a Resident Member, on April 14, 1933.
The President appointed the following committees, in anticipation of the Annual Meeting:
To nominate candidates for the several offices, — Messrs. George Pomeroy Anderson, James Phinney Baxter, 3rd, and Robert Ephraim Peabody.
To examine the Treasurer’s accounts, — Messrs. Matt Bushnell Jones, Richard Ammi Cutter, and Henry Lee Shattuck.
Mr. George Frederick Robinson, of Watertown, Mr. Ludlow Griscom, of Cambridge, and Mr. Howard Corning, of Salem, were elected Resident Members of the Society; and Mr. Howard Miller Chapin, of Providence, and Mr. Robert Francis Seybolt, of Urbana, Illinois, were elected Corresponding Members.
The scantiness of our knowledge concerning the text-books and other books used — or at least owned — by Harvard students of the seventeenth century led me in 1909 to begin a search for further light on this neglected but fundamentally important aspect of the history of Harvard College.
At that time practically all that was known on the subject was contained in the then unpublished Corporation Records for the years 1636 to 1750,791 and in three other documents, all of which had been printed. Those three are (1) the detailed account of the college which appeared in New Englands First Fruits (1643);792 (2) Jonathan Mitchell’s (H. C. 1687) copy of the College Laws of 1655;793 and (3) a single page of MS. in the Harvard College Papers (I, No. 31), headed “A particular Account of the present Stated Exercises Enjoyned the Students.”794 This last was neither dated nor signed by its writer; but someone — probably Mr. T. W. Harris, who arranged the papers for President Quincy in the 1830’s—has pencilled the tentative date “1690?” at the top of the page. For want of evidence to the contrary, I long accepted this date. It was not impossible, since every book mentioned by title in the document was published before 1690. However, on re-study of the records in 1929, I was able to prove that the actual date is not 1690, but 1723, and I shall refer to this paper hereafter as the list of 1723.
This new date brings into the picture a fourth document, which is now, for the first time, proved to be the final and official form of the list of 1723. It was incorporated by President Wadsworth in his diary under the date March 15, 1725/6. I shall call this “particular Account,” as Wadsworth styled it, the list of 1726.795
The information given by these four documents may be disposed of briefly. The College Records for this period mention only one text — “the Originall of the old & new Testament.”796 President Dunster’s Bible, now in the Harvard College Library, is doubtless an example. The Old Testament, in his copy, is mainly in Hebrew, but the books of Ezra and Daniel are in “Chaldee,” now identified as Aramaic. The New Testament is in Greek, but the Syriac version of the Gospels is bound in the same volume. These, the original languages of the Word of God, must be mastered by all who sought to understand “the true sense and meaning” of that Word. The requirements for graduation from college throughout the seventeenth century, be it noted, included an examination of the student’s ability to “read [i.e., translate] the originall of the old & new Testament into the Lattin Tongue.”797 The four languages, Hebrew, “Chaldee,” Greek, and Syriac, appear in the earliest existing programme of studies (1642), and there can be no doubt that they were included mainly, if not wholly, to enable the student to read the Word of God in those languages.
The programme of 1642 mentions, in addition to the Bible, only three books. These are rather vaguely indicated as “Nonnus798 and Duport,”799 in connection with the study of Greek poetry, and “TrestiusNew Testament,”800 so placed as to indicate a connection with Syriac.
The College Laws of 1655 name no text-books whatever. The four just named, then, are the only ones indicated by the sources prior to the list of 1723.
The list of 1723, dated eighty-five years after the opening of the college, is the earliest document which gives detailed information as to text-books. It not only records the studies and exercises for each of the four years of the college course, but also names more or less explicitly eighteen text-books, and indicates the use of five others in connection with these studies. It is here reproduced:
A particular Account of the present
Stated Exercises Enjoyned the Students
The first year The Freshmen recite the Classick Authours Learn’t at School viz Tully Virgil Isocrates Homer with the greek Testam[en]t & greek Catechism & Dugards or Farnabys Rhetorick801 & the latter part of the year the Hebrew Grammar & Psalter Ramus’s & Burgesdicius’s Logicks
The Second year The Sophimores recite Bu[r]gesdicius’s Logick and a Manuscript called the New Logick Extracted from Legrand and ars Cogitandi802 Wollebius on Saturdays and in the Latter part of the year Herebords Meletemata continuing stil most part of the year recitations in the formentioned greek & Hebrew books and dispute on Logical Questions twice a week
The third year The Junior Sophisters recite Herebords Melletemata Mr Mortons Physicks Dr Mores Ethicks a system of Geography & a System of Metaphysicks Wollebius’s Divinity on Saturdays & dispute twice a week on Physical & Metaphisical & Ethical Questions
The fourth year The Senior Sophisters recite Alsteds Geometry Gassendus’s astronomy goe over the arts viz Grammar Logick & Natural Phylosophy Ames Medulla & dispute once a week on phylosophical & astronomical questions803
As noted above, I long accepted the incorrect date 1690 for this list, and assumed that the text-books therein named were actually in use in the college at that time.804 I therefore began an attack on the unknown period between 1642 and 1690, for which the only documents were the Order of Studies of 1642 and the College Laws of 1655.
Although they name only four text-books, these two combine to furnish a clear account of the studies and exercises in vogue during the early years of the college. The programme of 1642 is remarkable for its detailed schedule of studies by hours, days of the week, and years. The Laws of 1655 are vague in this particular, but they give a more definite statement concerning the religious exercises. From the two the outline given below is obtained.
In arranging the material, I have followed the traditional (and I believe correct) view that Harvard, like Emmanuel College in Cambridge, was founded primarily for the education of the clergy; its founders “dreading to leave an illiterate Ministery to the Churches, when our present Ministers shall lie in the Dust.”805 If we accept this view, the significance of each part of the programme at once becomes apparent. The religious exercises and the study of the Bible formed the center of the scheme; the other subjects were such as aided the student, first, to interpret the Bible correctly for himself; and second, to expound to others, and to defend (in public debate if need be) his interpretation.806 From this point of view the studies and exercises fall naturally into six groups: 1. The practice of piety. 2. The study and analysis of the Bible. 3. “The principles of Divinity and Christianity.” 4. The mastery of the languages necessary to read the Bible in its original tongues — Greek, Hebrew, “Chaldee” (Aramaic), and Syriac. 5. Auxiliary studies — the arts and philosophies, history, and politics—necessary to correct interpretation of the Bible by the student. 6. Studies and exercises necessary to effective exposition and defense of one’s interpretation — rhetoric, declamations, disputations, repetition of sermons, commonplaces. The information given by the documents of 1642 and 1655 is most compactly shown in the following summary. The source is indicated by the dates in parentheses as (1642) or (1655).
“Lawes About Holy Dutyes Scholasticall Exercises and Helps of Learning” (1655)807
- I. The Practice of Piety.
- (1) Private prayer: “Let every Student be plainly instructed, and earnestly pressed to consider well, the maine end of his life and studies is, to know God and Jesus Christ which is eternall life, Joh. 17. 3. and therefore to lay Christ in the bottome, as the only foundation of all sound knowledge and Learning.
“And seeing the Lord only giveth wisedome, Let every one seriously set himselfe by prayer in secret to seeke it of him Prov. 2, 3.” (1642)
- (2) Attendance at Chapel twice daily: “Seing God is the giver of all wisedome, all & every Scholler (besides private prayers wherein every one is bound to aske wisedome) shall bee present Morning and evening at publique prayers at the accustomed houres viz ordinarily at six of the clocke in the Morning from the tenth of March at Sun rising and at five of the Clocke at Night all the yeare long.” (1655)
- (3) Public repetition of sermons in the Hall by the students in turn, “that so with reverence & Love they may retaine God & his truths in their minds.” On Saturday evenings “an account of their profitting by the Sermons preached the weeke past.” (1655)
- (4) Attendance on Sundays at services of the local church, where “gallery room” was reserved for the students.
- (1) Private prayer: “Let every Student be plainly instructed, and earnestly pressed to consider well, the maine end of his life and studies is, to know God and Jesus Christ which is eternall life, Joh. 17. 3. and therefore to lay Christ in the bottome, as the only foundation of all sound knowledge and Learning.
- II. Study and Analysis of the Bible.808
- (1) “Every one shall so exercise himselfe in reading the Scriptures twice a day, that he shall be ready to give such an account of his proficiency therein, both in Theoretticall observations of the Language, and Logick, and in Practicall and spirituall truths, as his Tutor shall require, according to his ability; seeing the entrance of the word giveth light, it giveth understanding to the simple, Psalm, 119.130.” (1642; repeated with omission of the last clause in 1655.)
- (2) “It is appointed that some part of the holy Scripture be read at morning & evening prayer viz some part of the Old Testament at Morning, & some part of the New at Evening prayer on this manner.
“That all students shall read the Old Testament in some portion of it out of Hebrew into Greeke, and all shall turne the New Testament out of English into Greeke, after which one of the Bachelors or Sophisters shall in his Course Logically analyse that which is read, by which meanes both theire Scill in Logicke, and the Scriptures and the Scriptures originall Language may be increased.” (1655)
- III. Divinity (1642).
- (1) “Divinity Catecheticall”809 at eight o’clock Saturday mornings.
- (2) Commonplaces at nine o’clock Saturday mornings (see “Rhetoric,” group VI, no. 2, below).
- (3) Analysis of the Bible (see group II, no. 2, above).
- (4) Study of systematic theology: manuals of Ames and Wollebius (specified first in the list of 1723, but probably used before 1701).
- IV. “The Tongues” (1642).
- (1) Greek.
- (a) Grammar.
- (1) Etymology and syntax with “practice . . . in such Authors as have variety of words.”
- (2) Prosody and dialects, with “practice in Poësy, Nonnus, Duport, or the like.”
- (b) Composition.
- (1) “Perfect their Theory” (i.e., principles of “style”).
- (2) “Exercise Style, Composition, Imitation, Epitome, both in Prose and Verse.”
- (2) Hebrew: grammar, with “practice in the Bible,” i.e., the Old Testament.
- (3) Chaldee: grammar, with practice in the books of Ezra and Daniel.
- (4) Syriac: grammar, with practice in the Syriac version of the Gospels, or the New Testament as a whole, edited by Martin Trost.
- (a) Grammar.
- (1) Greek.
- V. Auxiliary Studies: the Arts and Philosophies, History, and Politics.
- (1) Logic
- (2) Physics
- (3) “The Nature of Plants”
- (4) Metaphysics
- (5) Ethics
- (6) Politics
- (7) History
- (8) Arithmetic
- (9) Geometry
- (10) Astronomy
- VI. Exposition and Defence of Interpretations of the Bible.
- (1) Rhetoric: lecture to all students at eight o’clock on Fridays (1642).
- (2) Declamations: a declamation by each student once a month (1642), at nine o’clock on Fridays (once in two months, 1655). The rest of that day “vacat Rhetoricis studiis” (probably for, rather than from, rhetorical studies). The time might be given, e.g., to the composition or practice of the declamation which the student must deliver once a month before the members of the college. The technique of oratory, as given in the lectures on rhetoric and in such books as Clarke’s Formulae Oratorium or Morellus’s Enchiridion Oratorium could have been applied in these exercises.
- (3) Disputations: disputations (i.e., debates) were stated exercises, one hour in length, for each class on Monday and Tuesday afternoons, in the programme of 1642 (twice a week in 1655). The questions or theses for debates were presumably chosen from the subject — logic, physics, ethics, etc. — which the class was studying in the morning of the same day.
The rather intricate technique of disputation must have been studied, somewhat as principles of argumentation are studied today. Farley’s Disputationum Academiarum Formulae, and especially Keckermann’s Opera Omnia, I, chapter vii, display the technique in detail.
- (4) Repetition of sermons (see group I, no. 3, above).
- (5) Commonplaces: systematic discussions of some point in divinity in the form of a (supposedly) short sermon, which might, however, run to an hour in length.810 See Maccovius, Loci Communes, and Musculus, Commonplaces of the Christian Religion, pp. 416 and 421, below.
“There shall be a Common place handled in Divinity . . . once a Fort-Night, the President beginning, and the Masters of Art & Senior Bachelours following according to their Seniority; Wherein the President & Fellows shall take Care that heterodox opinions & Doctrines bee avoided & refuted & such as are according to the Analogy of Faith be held forth & Confirmed.” (1655)
Inspection of this list revealed some twenty-five subjects in which the use of text-books might be expected. I assumed that these subjects were actually taught at one time or another, and that text-books were used in connection with each. The problem was to identify those books.
The prospect of a solution was not hopeful. For some time I was held back by the thought that all the books of the Harvard library were destroyed by the fire of 1764, and that therefore none of those existing in the seventeenth century would be there. It simply did not occur to me that the gifts made by alumni to replace the lost volumes might include such books; still less did I imagine the way in which, if found, any evidence could establish their use as Harvard text-books.
Another difficulty lay in the condition of the college library in 1909. It had expanded far beyond the capacity of Gore Hall, and many thousands of volumes were stored temporarily in the basements of other buildings; some tens of thousands more, unclassified on the shelves, were in stacks called by Professor Emerton “the Dump.”811 The card catalogue also presented obstacles; it was mainly an author catalogue, and although there was also a classification by subjects, it was hopelessly inadequate for my purpose. I could only cruise along the several miles of shelves, looking at old books in the hope of finding a clue. In this state of affairs my attention was called to a pile of such books in the basement, and among these the clue was found. The book was a copy of Aldo Manuzzio’s Phrases Linguae Latinae (London, 1636).812 On its fly-leaves were the dated signatures of John Whiting and Joseph Whiting, the undated autograph of one of the two Joseph Cookes — all Harvard undergraduates in the 1650’s — and a bookplate (dated 1693) of Elisha Cooke, A.B. 1697.
Phrase-books of this type were constantly used in European schools and universities of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in the composition of Latin orations, declamations, and disputations; hence it seemed possible, if not probable, that the book in hand was actually used at Harvard in the 1650’s.813 And naturally this discovery suggested further search for books autographed and dated by Harvard students of the seventeenth century. The assumption was that books on the various subjects of the curriculum, owned by these men during their student years, were used in their study of the subjects concerned. The use of auxiliary books, such as the phrase-book first discovered, was naturally suggested; and further exploration revealed an unexpected number and variety of such works.
The condition of the Harvard College Library, and various other circumstances, including the World War, combined to postpone further investigation until 1920. Meanwhile the Widener Library had been built, and the arrangement of books therein made further search easily possible. The original plan was simply to take from the shelves all books (earlier than 1701) in logic, ethics, metaphysics, and the other subjects listed above, and examine them for dated signatures, inscriptions, or other evidences of ownership by Harvard men during their years as undergraduates or as candidates for the degree of A.M. Exploration soon spread beyond these subjects to other possible fields. However, neither the finding of the books nor the interpretation of the inscriptions proved to be as simple a matter as the preceding sentences imply.
The work has gone on at varying intervals in the few hours which could be spared from many other duties, and it is not yet complete. The search has been extended to the libraries of the Andover-Harvard Theological Seminary, the American Antiquarian Society, the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Boston Athenaeum, Yale University, and Brown University, and to the Boston Public Library (especially the Prince collection) and the New York Public Library.814 More than four thousand volumes have now been examined. Various graduate students have assisted me in this work. Particular mention must be made of Mr. Kenneth Viall, who in 1920 examined about a thousand volumes and first identified many of the books listed in this article.
The main results of this long-continued search are given in the two detailed lists below. These are (1) an alphabetic arrangement of the books by authors; (2) an arrangement of the authors according to the subject-matter of the books cited in the first list, following the order given above. A list of student owners, with the titles of books owned by each, may be compiled from the index to this volume. The results may be stated more briefly. In contrast to the four titles suggested by the seventeenth-century sources available in 1909, some 228 items have now been identified by dated signatures as actually the property of seventeenth-century Harvard students during their college years. Thirty others, each containing at least two undated student signatures and each supported by additional evidence, have been included as “probables”; twenty-five or more, each with one undated signature and other evidence, have been listed as “possibles.”815
As to content, these books may be divided into three groups. First are the text-books. The list includes text-books on all the subjects mentioned in the Order of Studies of 1642, except politics, “Divinity Catecheticall,” and the “Nature of Plants.” Those best represented are the Bible — nineteen examples of the whole, or parts, in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, or “Chaldee”; divinity — twenty titles, besides two systematic treatises in seven and eight volumes respectively; logic — twenty-one titles, three of which have three examples each; physics — eleven titles, of which one (Magirus) appears in six examples; metaphysics — nine titles, one in duplicate; ethics, five titles; astronomy, five titles; and Hebrew grammar, six titles, one of which (Schickard) appears in five examples.
Reference books of various types make up the second group. Among these are phrase-books, collections of proverbs, and specimens of composition, all useful in the writing of themes, orations, and declamations; lexicons for Hebrew, “Chaldee,” Syriac, Greek, and Latin; dictionaries of classical and oriental antiquities; works on chronology; systematic treatises on theology; and encyclopaedias.
The third group includes a few works not directly related to the programme of studies, but such as might more or less casually drift into a student’s library.
The acceptance of these volumes as text-books and reference books used at Harvard in the seventeenth century is based mainly upon two lines of evidence:816 first, they deal with, or are related to, the subjects of the programme of studies as given in the sources cited at the beginning of this paper. Second, they contain the signatures of men recorded in the Quinquennial Catalogue as students of this period. These signatures, of course, furnish the decisive evidence. Without them we should still be in almost complete ignorance; with them, we can speak with confidence.
This evidence is certainly impressive, both in the number of men who have written their names in these volumes, and in the number of college classes represented by them. It is presented in detail in the description of each volume in the alphabetic list of authors below.
If the evidence derived from the signatures were to be viewed statistically, it would be seen that 177 (nearly 38 per cent) of the 465 men who took the A.B. degree between 1642 and 1701 wrote their names in these volumes.817 Of these men, 115 (about 25 per cent of the total number of seventeenth-century A.B.’s) dated their signatures during their college years. The signatures of the other sixty-two, undated, have been accepted, for reasons varying from case to case, as probably also written during their student days.818
The distribution of these men by classes is no less surprising than the number whose signatures have been found. In the sixty-year period 1642–1701, fifty-five classes were graduated.819 No less than forty-four of these, beginning with the first class (1642), are represented by dated (and thirty-one of the forty-four also by undated) signatures of one or more of their members. Four other classes (1649, 1659, 1668, 1675) are represented only by undated signatures, but these were probably written during the college years of the men concerned.820
Dated and undated inscriptions taken together, the decade of the 1640’s is represented by signatures of five (or possibly six) of the thirty-six men who took their degrees in that period. Similarly, twenty-four of the seventy-seven A.B.’s in the 1650’s; thirty-two of the seventy-three in the 1660’s; twenty-one of the forty-eight in the lean 1670’s; thirty-three of the seventy-two in the 1680’s; and forty-five of the 145 in the prosperous 1690’s signed their names in the books now identified — a surprisingly even distribution. Some classes are represented by half, or even more than half, of their members: e.g., five out of ten in 1651 and in 1669; one of the two members of the Class of 1655; five out of seven graduates in 1657; three out of four in 1666; and all three members of the Class of 1683.
The persistent use of some of the books in the list is shown in two ways: by a succession of dated signatures in individual volumes, and by duplicate copies dated at different periods. An example of the first is the 1521 edition of the Hebrew Pentateuch, owned by John Remington in 1657, then by his son John in 1688; by Moses Hale in 1696; by Samuel Moodey, 1697; by John Hale about 1715; by Oliver Peabody, 1716; by John Hancock before 1766, and given by him to John Winthrop in 1766. Similar records exist in a copy of Burgersdicius’s Idea Moralis (1650); Cicero’s Orations, Vol. II (1606); and Homer’s Iliad (1672), in which the eight signatures run from 1680 to 1792. Among duplicate copies dated at different times are the Meditationes of Descartes, of which Zechariah Brigden owned a copy in 1658 and Daniel Henchman another in 1696. Keckermann’s Systema Logicae was owned by Increase Mather in 1654; three other copies have been identified, with ten seventeenth-century Harvard owners of later date, ending with Timothy Cutler of the Class of 1701. Maccovius’s Metaphysica, owned by Increase Mather in 1655, appears in two other copies, owned respectively by John Hancock (the Lexington minister) in 1691, and Tutor Henry Flynt in 1692. Magirus’s Physiologia is represented by six copies, in which the earliest signature appears to be that of John Wilson, possibly of the Class of 1642; the latest that of Daniel Russell, A.B. 1699. A dozen other Harvard owners had these books in the intervening years. Russell’s copy was transferred to Yale where it was owned by John Wick, Isaac Wolcott Chauncy, and finally, in 1723, by Joseph Buckingham. Almost as impressive are the five copies of Schickard’s Horologium Hebraeum (Hebrew in Twenty-four Hours!). Nehemiah Ambrose, of the Class of 1653, signed the earliest of these. A dozen later Harvard signatures in the five copies, ending with that of Mather Byles, of the Class of 1725, mark successive years of the use of this book. Byles’s class would have used Schickard in their freshman year, 1721–22, and it must have been the last to do so, since the grammar of Judah Monis was introduced in 1722.
As interesting as the persistency of certain texts is the interval between the date of publication of some books and their first appearance at Harvard. In a few instances (e.g. Ames, Lectiones in Omnes Psalmos) the book was sent over shortly after publication, but in most cases the interval was anywhere from twenty to one hundred years. Where were these books during those years? The question suggests an interesting subject for research.
In view of the facts which have been cited, the lists which follow, and much evidence which I have not space to exhibit, it seems reasonable to infer that, among the books identified, approximately two hundred volumes which are definitely text-books form a collection fairly representative of those in use by Harvard undergraduates of the seventeenth century. One naturally inquires whether the recovery of the six thousand or more volumes now lost, which must have been owned by these men, would radically change the picture given us by this little group of survivors. There are reasons for believing that it would not. It appears that the books now identified, taken in connection with the few surviving notebooks kept by students, the Commencement Theses, and other documents of the period, give us a fairly accurate idea of the field of learning cultivated by our predecessors of nearly three centuries ago.
As for the little group of reference books, there is less assurance that these are representative; but the list is easily supplemented from the Boston booksellers’ lists of the 1680’s, from the various catalogues of colonial libraries now available, and from the libraries mentioned in this article.
About thirty places of publication are represented in this list, but eleven of them account for most of the titles: London (65), Amsterdam (27), Geneva (17), Frankfort (14), Cambridge (11), Leyden (9), Oxford (8), Hanover (7), Antwerp (5), Basle (5), Herborn (5).
Some light on the ways in which these books reached Harvard is furnished by Thomas Goddard Wright, Literary Culture in Early New England, 1620–1730 (1920). The biographies of their writers (about one hundred in number) furnish most illuminating material for this study; but for these the reader must be referred to the English, German, and French biographical dictionaries. Similarly illuminating, the biographies of the owners of these long-forgotten volumes must be sought in the invaluable pages of John Langdon Sibley’s Harvard Graduates.
With these materials in hand it is now possible to write a more authentic and more detailed history than has hitherto been written of the studies and exercises in Harvard College in the seventeenth century. And surely that history must leave us with profound respect for the learning of those Puritan Englishmen who maintained through the troublous years of that century standards which brought recognition of the Harvard degree from Cambridge and Oxford.
List by Authors
In the following list all copies of the Old and New Testaments, or parts of them, are placed under the heading “Bibles.” The other books are arranged alphabetically by authors or (in a few cases) by titles. The author’s name is usually given in its native form, followed in some instances by the Latinized version. In cases in which the latter is the better known, the reverse procedure is followed; thus, Burgersdicius rather than Burgersdyk; Chytraeus rather than Kochhoff; Clenardus rather than Cleynaerts; Comenius rather than Komenski. The titles of the books are usually given in abbreviated form, but enough has been included to indicate the nature of the work. No attempt has been made, however, to follow the original capitalization and punctuation. Needless to say, the title-page of those days usually amounted to an appetizing table of contents, coupled with some skillful advertising. Too much space would be required for complete reproduction of this interesting material, but a study of the phrases used to attract the buyer is well worth while.
The place of publication has been given in English rather than in the Latin form commonly used by the publishers (“Copenhagen” instead of “Hafnia,” “Utrecht” rather than “Ultrajectum,” etc.); and the date in Arabic rather than Roman numerals. The superior “a” which follows certain titles indicates that these books are listed as “probables”; similarly, superior “b” indicates those listed as “possibles” (see p. 375, above). Present locations of the books listed are indicated according to the key given below.821
The dated signature or signatures which indicate ownership of the book by one or more Harvard students of the seventeenth century come next, in smaller type. The dates in those books ranked as “certains” must fall, as noted above, within the seven-year period between the student’s entrance as a freshman and his attainment of the A.M. degree. Examples of other signatures, dated or undated, and other inscriptions of interest are included. Each item is transcribed exactly and placed in quotation marks. The date of the student’s A.B. degree is given in brackets in each case, including even those later than 1701. Names not followed by the A.B. date are those of men who did not attend the college, or who did not take a degree.
No attempt has been made to print all the signatures in these books. Not infrequently later owners crossed out the names of earlier ones; many of these have been deciphered and are here printed, but others, effectually blotted out, remain to tantalize the investigator. A serious effort has been made to record at least one example of each decipherable signature, but it has not been possible to indicate the position of this signature in the volume. In general, the names are to be found on both front and back fly-leaves, on the insides of covers, on title-pages, on the margins of prefaces, and occasionally well within the numbered pages of the book. They may be hard to find, written as they often are at all angles or upside down, in faded ink, in obscure corners, or in a microscopic hand, or hidden by a mass of later scrawls and scribbles. Anyone who wishes to follow the trail of the present writer is hereby warned of the difficulties in the way.
Cursus Philosophici Encyclopaedia libris XXVII complectens universae philosophiae methodum, serie praeceptorum, regularum & commentariorum perpetuâ. Herborn: 1620.
“Samuell Niless Book July 25th 1697 pr 9s” [A.B. 1699]
Johannis-Henrici Alstedii Encyclopaedia. I. Praecognita disciplinarum. II. Philologia. III. Philosophia theoretica. IV. Philosophia practica. V. Tres superiores facultates. VI. Artes mechanicae. VII. Farragines disciplinarum. 7 vols, in 4. Engraved t.p. Herborn: 1630.
“Petro Ruck [A.B. 1683] hanc Encyclopædiā Alstedianā dono dedit Reverendissimus Crescentius Matherus vigesimo octavo die Maij Anno Domini 1683 Preciū 4. vol. 218s”
“Johannes Ballantine hunc librum jure tenet Novembris 23o 1691” [A.B. 1694]
“Johannes Barnard me jure tenet 1799 [sic; A.B. 1700]
The same signatures are repeated in volumes II–IV, and in the back of volume III is “Joseph Pynchon me tenet 1663” [A.B. 1664]
Methodus SS. Theologiae in VI. libros tributa: in quorum I. Theologia naturalis. II. Theologia catechetica. III. Theologia didactica seu loci communes. IV. Sotyrologia seu scholae tentationum, & casus conscientiae. V. Prophetica, ubi rhetorica & biographia ecclesiastica. VI. Theologia acroamatica. Autore Iohan. Henrico Alstedio. Cum indice rerum & verborum. Hanover: 1619.
“Cottoni Matheri Liber 1681” [A.B. 1678]
Pastor Conformatus ab Henrico Bullingero: officium boni pastoris, totius Christianae religionis elementa. Productus in lucem a Johan-Henrico Alstedio. Frankfort: 1613.
“Crescentius Mather, 1655” [A.B. 1656]
Bound with Talasius, Epitome Logici, q.v.
Ioan. Henrici Alstedii Scientiarum Omnium Encyclopaediae Tomus III, IV. Lyons: 1649. (Plate I.)
“E libris Josephi Browne octob: 2: 1668” [A.B. 1666]
“Lege, Intellige, Vive, J.B: Pret: Bos: 2 folo 03, 12, 0. 1668”
Some of them inscribed: “Cottoni Matheri Liber, 1681” [A.B. 1678]
Johannis Henrici Alstedii Thesaurus Chronologiae in quo universa temporum & historiarum series in omni vitae genere ita ponitur oboculos, ut fundamenta chronologiae ex S. Uteris & calculo astronomico eruantur, & deinceps tituli homogenei in certas classes memoriae causadigerantur. 2nd edition, Herborn: 1628.
“Daniel Russell His Book 1670” [A.B. 1669]
A copy of the fourth edition (Herborn, 1650) in bpl (Prince) bears the undated signatures “Crescentii Matheri Liber,” and “Byles.”
De Conscientia et eius iure vel casibus. Engraved t.p. Amsterdam: 1630. (Plate II.)
“Richardus Wensley me Suis addidit 1 Januarii, 1681” [A.B. 1684]
Another edition. T.p. missing. Amsterdam: 1680.
“pretium Is 6d”
“Joseph Dassett me jure inter suos numerat Anno Domini 1685” [A.B. 1687]
“Nathaniel A. Haven Junr e Libris avi ejus honorati Revdi Samuelis Haven [A.B. 1749] S.T.D. anno S.N. 1806”
Lectiones in omnes Psalmos Davidis: in quibus per analysim, &, ubi opus est, per quaestiones sensus dilucide ac succincte enodatur. London: 1647.
“Samuell Willys His Booke sent from England, Anno Dom: 1650” [A.B. 1653]
“S. Phillips pretium 0–3–6”
Bookplate (mut.) of Samuel Phillips, 1707 [A.B. 1708]
“Obadiah Ayer [A.B. 1710] 1717 Donum Rev. Samll. Philips ult. 10er 1717”
This book fully illustrates the meaning of the hitherto unexplained requirement in the college statutes of the seventeenth century that candidates for the A.B. degree must be able to “resolve [the Scriptures] logically.” Compare the works of Piscator on various books of the Old and New Testaments. Each of these contains an “analysis logica” of the book under consideration.
Medulla S.S. Theologiae. Amsterdam: 1628. (Plate III.)
“preciū 2s 4d”
“Thomas Cheever me suis addidit Junii 25 1674” [A.B. 1677]
“Johannes Burt [A.B. 1736] ejus Liber Ex dono Avi sui Reverendi D. Thomæ Cheever A.M. 1736.”
Another edition. London: 1629.
Bookplate:822 “Joseph Eliot his Book Anno Domini 1678” [A.B. 1681]
“Joseph Eliot’s book”
“William Whitaker his Book”
“W. Williams 1714”
“Joshua Gee” [A.B. 1717]
Technometria. Guilielmi Amesii magni theologi ac philosophi acutissimi philosophemata. Technometria duplici methodo adornata, cui jure cognationis nunc adjunguntur, ejusdem adversus metaphysicam atque ethicam disputatio theologica. Item, logicae verae demonstratio & adumbratio, ac logicae theses, res ejusdem artis ordine enucleantes. Amicus Plato, amicus Aristoteles, sed magis arnica Veritas. Cambridge: 1646.
“Cottoni Matheri Liber 1681” [A.B. 1678]
Quaestiones Alexandri Aphrodisei Naturales, De Anima, Morales: sive difficilium dubitationum & solutionum libri IV nunc primum in lucem editi. Gentiano Herueto Aureliano interprete. Basle: 1548.
“Nath Saltonstall 30 (6) 56” [A.B. 1659]
Aphthonii Progymnasmata, partim à Rodolpho Agricola, partim à Johanne Maria Catanaeo, latinitate donata. Cum scholiis R. Lorichii. London: 1611.a
“John Eliot his Booke” [A.B. 1685]
“John Oliver” [A.B. 1685]
“Jonathan Ting his booke” “Recompense Tinge” “Peter Tinge” “Walter Carter is the true honer of”
Originally bound at the end of this volume was the advertisement of “a publike School to youth at the signe of the Red Lion over against the west end of Paul’s.” The advertisement is not dated, but its date appears to be about 1654, since “King” in “God save the King” at the end is crossed out, and “Protector” is written in. This advertisement has been removed and is now classified in the aas catalogue as a broadside.
Another edition. London: 1636.a
“Jonathan Burr his book” [A.B. 1651]
“John White his booke” [A.B. 1698]
“Edmund” [Goffe? A.B., 1690] “John Goffe”
“Swan” on p. 2 of index
“domæ manu 1694” on p. 328
Another edition. London: 1655.b
Given to the hcl by John Barnard [A.B. 1700]. Possibly owned by him in college.
Arias Montanus. See Bible, Hebrew O. T.
Commentarii Collegii Conimbricensis, Soc. Jesu, in quatuor libros de Coelo, Meteorologicos & Parva Naturalia, Aristotelis Stagiritae. Cologne: 1603.
“Cotton Mather 1676” [A.B. 1678]
“Johannis Barnard Liber 1697/8” [A.B. 1700]
This, and the corresponding Commentarii Collegii Conimbricensis in tres libros de Anima (of which both the hcl and the bpl have copies that belonged to Harvard graduates) consisted of the Greek text of Aristotle with Latin translation, an extensive gloss by the Jesuit Doctors of the University of Coimbra, and quaestiones on each chapter, argued syllogistically.
Epitome Doctrinae Moralis, ex decern libris Ethicorum Aristotelis ad Nicomachum collecta, pro Academia Argentinensi, per Theophilum Golium, adjectus est ad calcem aureus ejusdem Aristotelis libellus de Virtutibus & Vitiis, Symone Grynaeo interprete. Cambridge: 1634.
Johannes Avenarius (Johann Habermann)
Liber Radicum seu Lexicon Ebraicum. Wittenberg: 1589.
“Joseph Gerrish [A.B. 1669] his Booke Bought of Mr John Paine Anno Domini 1666 Aprill 13th”
“Joseph Gerrish his Booke 1667”
Robert Baillie (1599–1662)
Operis Historiciet Chronologici libri duo; in quibus historia sacra & profana compendiosè deducitur ex ipsis fontibus, à creatione mundiad Constantinum Magnum. Amsterdam: 1668.
“Compensatius Wadsworth Ejus Liber An. Sal. 79” [Class of 1679]
“Benjamin Wadsworth [A.B. 1690] me suum vocat anno dom. 1686 October 20 . . . given by his brother Recompence”
“N. Williams book bought of Mr. Wadsworth April 1 1695 pr 6/–” [A.B. 1693]
“Grindall Rawson’s Booke” [n.d.; A.B. 1678]
“Jacobus Pierpontus [A.B. 1681] me Bibliothecæ suce commendatum fecit: Ter; Calend; Maii, An, Dom, 1679”
John Barclay (1582–1621)
Jo: Barclaii Argenis. Editionovissima. Amsterdam: .b hcl.
“Michaell Wigglesworth me jure possidet” [A.B. 1651]
“Joseph Sewall” [A.B. 1707]
“Edward Wigglesworth 1726” [A.B. 1710]
Caspar Bartholin (1585–1630)
Casparis Bartholini Malmogii Dani Philosophi Enchiridion Physicum ex priscis & recentioribus philosophis. Strassburg: 1625.
“John Woodbridge” [there were graduates of that name in 1664, 1694, and 1710]
“Every man at his best estate is altogether vanity”
Enchiridion Metaphysicum. See Magirus, Physiologiae, etc.
Πραξεις τωυ Ἐπισκόπων, sive Apologeticus ad Praesules Anglicanos. Autore Johanne Bastwick, M.D. n.p.: 1636.
“Joseph Taylor ejs Liber An: Dom. 1671” [A.B. 1669]
“John Tailor His Booke 1696” [A.B. 1699]
“John Holman his book” [A.B. 1700]
Friedbich Beurhaus (Beurhusius)
In P. Rami Dialecticae libros duos Lutetiae anno LXXII postremo sine praelectionibus aeditos, explicationum quaestiones: quae paedagogiae logicae de docenda discendaque dialectica. Pars prima. London: 1581. [And] De P. Rami Dialecticae praecipuis capitibus disputationes scholasticae & cum iisdem variorum logicorum comparationes: quae paedagogiae logicae pars secunda, qua artis Veritas exquiritur. London: 1582.
“Elisha Cooke” [A.B. 1657 or 1697]
“Lord” “John D [ ]”
“Joseph Cooke [A.B. 1660 or 1661] me suis addidit: July 1659”
Marginal and interlinear ms. notes in the text, in more than one hand.
Beza. See last item under Bibles.
“John Remington His Booke 1657”
“Jo Remington’s Book Anno Christi 1688” [A.B. 1696]
“Samuel Moodey Anno 1697” [A.B. 1697]
“John Hall” [A.B. 1719]
“Oliver Peabody [A.B. 1721] Ejus Liber. Bought of Mr Hale jun 1716/17 pret. 16s”
“John Winthrop [A.B. 1765 or 1770] Feby 20, 1766, the gift of John Hancock Esqr”
Plate IV, showing a fly-leaf of this book, furnishes an illustration of students’ inscriptions and scrawls.
[Pentateuch] חמשה חומשי תורה. Antwerp: Plantin, 1566.825
“John Hancock [A.B. 1689] Thomas Swan [A.B. 1687] Ejus Liber Anno Dom.”
“Hie liber meus est si quisquis fortè requirit
Nomen subscriptū perlege quæso meū.
Johannes Poole” [Class of 1696]
[Pentateuch] חמשה חומשי תורה.a Geneva: Rovière, 1618.826
“John Tyng His book September 31 [sic] 1688” [A.B. 1691]
“Andrew Gardner 169[ ]” [A.B. 1696]
“John Taylor 1696” [A.B. 1699]
“Dudley Bradstreet” [A.B. 1698]
“William Partrigg His Book Anno; Dominj 1686” [A.B. 1689]
Bound in wrong order: the title-page is numbered p. 122 in ms.
“Isaaci Chauncei liber 1690 Julii” [A.B. 1693]
“Solomon Williams His Book Anno 1717” [A.B. 1719]
“John Hubbard Ejus Liber 1750” [A.B. Yale 1747]
“The Revd Mr John Hubbard’s Book. Minr of Cts Ch at Northfield”
Biblia Hebraica. Eorundem Latina interpretatio Xantis Pagnini Lucensis Benedicti Ariae Montani. Geneva: 1619.827 [Bound with:] Novum Testamentum Graecum. n.p. 1619.
Hebrew, with interlinear Latin translation by Sante Pagnino from the Antwerp Polyglot edited by Arias Montanus. Pasted into this copy are the inscriptions from another, which the hcl sold as a duplicate, c 1825. That duplicate belonged to George Phillips, the first minister of Watertown (d 1644), who gave it to his son Samuel Phillips (A.B. 1650), the grandfather of Samuel Phillips (A.B. 1734), who also used it in college.
Biblia Hebraica, eleganti charactere impressa. Editio nova. Amsterdam: 1635.828
“Samuel Sewall Novembr’ 26, 1687”
“Hunc Librum Dudleius Bradstreet [A.B. 1698] Tenet A. Domini 1695.”
“John Legge’s Hebrew Book Anno Dom: 1687/8” [A.B. 1701]
“Benjamin Wadsworth’s Book, given by Mr. John Legg Jan 4 1706/7”
Second and most important of the editions prepared by Menasseh ben Israel, the famous Jewish Rabbi of Amsterdam.
Another copy. Interleaved and bound in 2 vols. Andover-Harvard.
“Samuel Vassall me jure tenet Jan. 1692” [A.B. 1695]
“Sed potuit Tho: Phips 1693” [A.B. 1695]
Later marks of ownership of Joseph Buckminster (Yale 1770), William Mather (Yale 1773), Samuel Harris (died as an undergraduate at Harvard, 1812), John Gorham Palfrey the historian, and Andrew Preston Peabody, who gave these volumes to the Divinity School Library in 1888.
[The Twenty-four (books of the Old Testament)] עשרים וארבעה. Amsterdam: 1638–39.829
“Huius Libri Donatori Benevolentissimo, Reverendissimo ac Doctissimo Domino Crescentio Mathero, Gratias Multas et maximas agit, Aget Agatque Donatus Indignissimus Nathaniel Clap. Januarii 21, 1687/8” [A.B. 1690]
The third edition prepared by Menasseh ben Israel.
“Me omnes inspicientes Wilhelmi Brinsmeadi [Class of 1655] librum appellate Emptum Augusti 2do 1651”
“Liber Abijæ Thurston 1746” [A.B. 1749]
“Edmund Noyes his Book 1746” [A.B. 1747]
The Hebrew Text of the Psalmes and Lamentations, revised and corrected according to the best of Plantin and Stephan’s Impressions. By William Robertson. London: 1656.b
“Thomæ Berry liber” [A.B. 1685]
“he is a rouge and a great”
“Benjamin Marston 1711” [A.B. 1715]
Της Θειας γραφης, Παλαιας Δηλαδη και Νεας Διαθηκης, απαντα. Divinae Scripturae omnia. Frankfort: 1597.830
“Simon Willard his booke 1692” [A.B. 1695]
Bookplate: “Simon Willard Hunc Librum Jure Tenet Julij 1. 1695.”
“Joseph Sewall 1730” [A.B. 1707]; who gave it to the hcl in 1764. Edited by Francois du Jon or Friedrich Sylburg.
“Anthony Stoddard’s Booke Anno: Dom: Nati: Ies. Christ: 94” [A.B. 1697]
“Bought of Mr. I. K. November 25: Finis cum furcum Babilonium Geog.”
Ἡ Παλαια Διαθηκη κατὰ τοὺς Ἑβδομήκοντα. Vetus Testamentum Graecum ex versione Septuaginta.b London: 1653.831
“Collegii Harvardi Liber 1676”
“John Leverett Ejus Liber 1696” [A.B. 1680]
“Thornæ Frink [A.B. 1722] Liber e Bibliotheca Harvardina 1734”
This book apparently belonged to the College Library, was used and claimed as his by John Leverett as a tutor, purchased from the Library by Thomas Frink, and again presented to the Library by Walter S. Hertzog (A.B. 1905) in 1905.
“Peter Thacher” [A.B. 1696?]
“Oxenbridge Thacher” [A.B. 1698]
“Peter Thacher [A.B. 1769] his Book by the Gift of his honoured Grandfather Oxenbridge Thacher Esqr September 19 1766”
“Zabdiel Adams [A.B. 1759] his Book Bought of Peter Thacher in the yeare 1769 Pretium £4.10.0”
There is an earlier erased signature (Edmund Davie? A.B. 1674) with the date 1666.
Της Καινης Διαθηκης απαντα. Novi Testamenti libri omnes, editi cum notis Roberti Stephani, Josephi Scaligeri, & Isaaci Casauboni. London: 1622.a
“John Cotton His Booke Anno Domini 1649” [A.B. 1657]
“Witness all that in this writinge looke on the 8th day of . . . Aprill 1650 written by Elisha Cooke” [A.B. 1657]
“Samuel Aspinwall is a knave”
Bibliorum pars Graeca quae Hebraice non invenitur; cum interlineari interpretatione Latina. Antwerp: 1612.
“Samuell Myles [A.B. 1684] est huius liberi verus possessor, ex dono Avi reverendi — March 8: 1683”
Testamenti Veteris Biblia Sacra, sive, libri canonici priscae Judaeorum ecclesiae Latini recens ex Hebraeo facti, ab Immanuele Tremellio & Francisco Junio. Hanover: 1603.832hcl.
“Caleb Cushing’s Book An: dom 1695” [A.B. 1692]
Novum Testamentum Interprete Theodora Beza.b London: 1659.833
“Benjamin Colman” repeated on several pages [A.B. 1692]
“M. Byles” [A.B. 1725]
S. S. Biblia Polyglotta complectentia textus originales Hebraicos cum Pentat. Samarit: Chaldaicos Graecos versionumque antiquarum quicquid comparari poterat. Ex mss. antiquis undique conquisitis optimisque exemplaribus summa fide collatis. Edidit Brianus Waltonus S.T.D. 6 vols. London: 1657.
[In vol. I:] “In the year 1724 I bought this with all the following volumes & Castelli [Polyglott] Lexicon of Mr. Samuel Gerrish Bookseller of Boston, for Thirty Pounds, who had bought them of Dr. Cotton Mather, who had a duplicate of them: & I paid sd. Gerrish Thirty Pounds for them:
as witness my hand
“Nathanaelis Matheri Liber Martii 23rd 1683[/4]” [A.B. 1685]
[In vol. II:]
Hoc Libro Donavit
Pater Suus Carissimus
Mensis Martii Die 23
Bookplate in vols. III–VI: “Nathanielis Matheri Liber. Dedit Pater Suus Honorarissimus A.D. 1683”
The Hebrew and Latin are interlinear, and the “Versio Vulg. Lat.” is also given.
The “Castelli Lexicon” mentioned by Prince is also in the Prince collection, but contains no seventeenth-century Harvard signatures.
William Brattle (1662–1717)
Compendium Logicae secundum principia D. Renati Descartes catechistice propositum. P Gul. Brattle. In usū pupillorū. Bound ms. book, 72 pp.
“Thomas Phips 1693” [A.B. 1695] who probably made the copy p. 3, printed label: “Joseph McKean, 1791” [A.B. 1794]
A Compendium of Logick, according to the modern philosophy extracted from Legrand & others, their systems. Per Dom: Brattle, in usum pupil. 1687. ms. 4o book of 18 leaves, bound up with ms. Morton’s Logic (see Morton).
An English translation of the Compendium Logicae, which serves to identify both with the “manuscript called the New Logick Extracted from Legrand and ars Cogitandi,” mentioned in Tutor Flynt’s list of studies. Another ms. copy (56 leaves 8o), transcribed by Thomas Prince in 1710, is in the mhs.
Caspar Erasmus Brochmand (Jesper Rasmussen Brochman)
Universae Theologiae Systema. Authore Casparo Erasmo Brochmand SS. Theologiae in Academia Regia Hafniensi Doctore. Ulm: 1658.
“John Barnard Ejus Liber 1703” [A.B. 1700]
“Lege, Lege, deliberate Lege; premium munificum ea persolvet”
George Buchanan. See Büchler
William Buchan (Bucanus)
Institutiones Theologicae, seu locorum communium Christianae Religionis analysis Guilielmi Bucani SS. Theologiae in Academia Lausanensi professoris opera & studio. Geneva: 1625. (Plate V.)
“Cottonus Matherus 1676” [A.B. 1678]
Another edition. Geneva: 1630.
“Elna Athaenaeus Chauncaius me suo addidit vaticano Ano Dom: 72:24. pret. 4s” [A.B. 1661]
“Sam. Phipps me suis addidit 29: 4: 74” [A.B. 1671]
“Simonis Bradstreet Liber, 1725” [A.B. 1728?]
Sacrarum Profanarumque Phrasium Poeticarum Thesaurus, opera Mro Ioannis Buchleri in Wicradt praefecti. Adjacent praeterea [Georgii] Buchanani Phrases. Editio decima tertia. London: 1642.a
“Elisha Cooke his book” [A.B. 1657]
“Middlecott Cooke eius liber” [A.B. 1723]
Burgersdicius (franco burgersdijck)
Collegium Physicum, disputationibus XXXII absolutum; totam naturalem philosophiam compendiose proponens. Autore M. Francone Burgersdicio. Leyden: 1642.
“CM.” “Johanno Barnard Hunc Librum dedit Cottonus Matherus 1700”
“Johannis Barnardi Liber: 1697/8” [A.B. 1700]
“John Ballantine” [A.B. 1694?]
“Lydia Ballantine” “Samuell Wade”
Idea Philosophiae Moralis sive compendiosa institutio. Amsterdam: 1650.
Brown University Library.
“Josiah Flint His Book 16 [62? or 91?]” [A.B. 1664]
“Henry Flint Ejus Liber Anno Domini 1699 Octob. [ ]” [A.B. 1693]
“Post Patrem possidet Josiah. Patre mortuo Succedit Filius 1691 Henry. Henry mortuo  Succedit alienus 1762 Nathaniel Fisher. [A.B. 1763] Nathaniel Pecuniae causa vendidit Richardo Cary. [A.B. 1763] Richardus amico ven[didit] Johanni Scolly [A.B. 1764] a quo Nathaniel re[demit] & nunc possidet & semp[er] Possidebit Deo Juvant[e]”
The last entry is apparently in the hand of Nathaniel Fisher. A very remarkable record of ownership. Cf. similar records in the Venice edition of the Hebrew Pentateuch (1521), above, and in Cicero’s Orations (1606), below.
Fr. Burgersdicii Institutionum Logicarum libri duo. Ad juventutem Cantabrigiensem. London: 1651.
H. A. Larrabee, Esq.
“Geo. Curwin His book 1699” [A.B. 1701]
“R. Dana’s 1718” [A.B. 1718]
“Sam. Jenison” [A.B. 1720]
“Thomas Weld 1719” [A.B. 1723]
At the back, mostly in the same hand, are the names Angier, Bayley, Cotton, Cutler, Fessenden, and Loring — all classmates of Curwin.
“Joseph Dasset’s Book” [A.B. 1687] “Is 6d”
Johann Buxtorf (1564–1629)
Joann. Buxtorfii Epitome Grammaticae Hebraeae. London: 1653.
“Ephraim Savage His Booke 1661” [A.B. 1662]
“medio tutissimus ibis”
Johannis Buxtorfii Epitome Radicum Hebraicarum et Chaldaicarum. T.p. missing; preface dated 1607.a
“Jn Dauis” [A.B. 1661?] “Mr Dauis me suis addidit”
“Jeremiah Peck me jure tenet Anno 61” [Class of 1657]
“Phineas Fiske nunc me jure possidet Anno D.”
Johannis Buxtorfi Lexicon Hebraicum et Chaldaicum. London: 1646.
“Thomas dudly oweth this Booke to his cousin 1652” [A.B. 1651]
“Tho: Shepard [A.B. 1653] me tenet donum Dni Danforthi [A.B. 1643] 1651”
“Josiah Marshall his book 1716” [A.B. 1720]
Lyra Prophetica Davidis Regis sive analysis critico-practica Psalmorum in qua omnes & singulae voces Hebraeae in Psalterio contentae tam propriae quam appellativae ad regulas artis revocantur. Insuper harmonia Hebraei textus cum paraphrasi Chaldaea, & versione Graeca LXXII interpretum, in locis, sententiis discrepantibus, fideliter confertur. Cui ad calcem addita est brevis institutio linguae Hebraeae & Chaldaeae. London: 1664.
“Ametius Angier [A.B. 1701] Hunc Librum vendicat. Si quis in hunc librum teneres convertit ocellos nomen subscriptum perlegat illemeum, 1698”
“Remington, Jno.” [A.B. 1696]
“Sam Mighill [A.B. 1704] Ejus Liber bought of Thomas Graves” [A.B. 1703]
“Nathaniell Fisher” [A.B. 1706]
“Sam: Mighill non est verus possessor hujus libri Benjamin Ruggles [A.B. 1724] est verus possessor hujus libri emtus a Samuelo Mighilo anno domini 1719”
“Sam Sewall January 22 1684/5” [A.B. 1671]
“Joseph Sewall 1723” [A.B. 1707]
“Saml Hirst me jure tenet” [A.B. 1723]
John Ellerys hand did it in ye year 1731 /2” [A.B. 1732]
The Institution of Christian Religion translated into English by Thomas Norton. London: 1599.a
“Empt: e [a?] Mag: [John?] Clark [A.B. 1670?] 19 Apr. 1682”
“William Brattle His Book Cost ” [A.B. 1680]
“Empt. a mag: Brattle. Anno 1683. Guilielmis Williams Liber Cost 6s” [minister at Hatfield; A.B. 1683]
A succession of Williamses follows.
William Camden (1551–1623)
Institutio Graecae Grammatices Compendiaria, in usum regiae scholae Westmonasteriensis. In usum studiosae juventutis adduntur etiam quidam literarum nexus & scripturae compendia quae partim elegantiae, partim brevitatis causa usurpari solent. [Bound with:] Scientiarum Janitrix Grammaticae. London: 1656.
“John Cotton his Gramer 1676” [A.B. 1678]
“Septemb. 25 1677 John Leverett his Booke” [A.B. 1680]
“T. Prince Liber 1701 P 6d” [A.B. 1707]
“William Wharton not ejus Liber”
[Institutio] Graecae Grammatices Rudimenta in usum Scholae Westmonasteriensis. London: 1671.
“Cottonus Matherus 1676” [A.B. 1678]
“Nathaniel Matherus 1682” [A.B. 1685]
An abridgment of Camden’s Institutio G. G. Compendaria, also written for Westminster School; of which there is in the hcl a copy of the London, 1695, edition inscribed by William Dudley (A.B. 1704) in 1699, and by William Little (A.B. 1710).
Carminum Proverbialium totius humanae vitae statum breviter deliniantium, loci communes in gratiam iuventutis selecti. London: 1603.
“Joseph Belcher His Book 1689” [A.B. 1690]
“Andrew Gardner” [A.B. 1696]
“Nicholas Sever” [A.B. 1701] “Belcher 1701”
“Benjn Gerrish” [A.B. 1733] “Samll Penhallows”
“William Sever of Kingston A.D. 1742” [A.B. 1745]
“Young men think old men fools but old men know you” Latin verses on a variety of subjects, arranged alphabetically, and to which the second owner has added in ms. Attributed to one S.A.I. by the British Museum Catalogue.
Nathaniel Carpenter (1589–1628?)
Philosophia Libera, in qua adversus huius temporis philosophos, dogmata quaedam nova discutiuntur. Authore Nathanaele Carpentario Exoniensis Collegij. Ed. secunda. Oxford: 1622.
“Thos Brattle His Booke 15 8ber 1673” [A.B. 1676]
“Oliver Noyes” [A.B. 1695]
“Jonathan Remington’s Booke ex dono O.N.” [A.B. 1696]
An attack on Aristotelian philosophy.
Isaac Casaubon. See Bible, Greek N.T.
Marc Casaubon. See Terence
[Locutionum Graecarum in Communes Locos per alphabeti ordinem digestarum, volumen.] Paris(?): c 1600.a
“Edward Rawson” [A.B. 1653]
“Grindall Rawson his book” [A.B. 1678]
The title-page of this volume is missing. What is given above is the subtitle on p. 1. The preface is signed “Johannes Chatardus.” Cf. Catalogue of the Bibliotheque Nationale.
Nathan Chytraeus (Kochhoff)
Carmen Protrepticon, summam doctrinae Christianae complectens. Herborn: 1661. [A Latin hexameter poem, bound with the following:] Viaticum Itineris Extremi, doctrinae et consolationis plenissimum. Additae sunt necessariae quaedam notae per Johan. Piscatorem. Herborn: 1661.
“Joseph Webb” [A.B. 1684]
“Nehemiah Walter scripsit Anno Dom: 1682” [A.B. 1684]
“Joseph Eliot His Booke 16[ ]” [A.B. 1656, 1658, or 1681] “John Wompowess His Booke 1665”
“Joseph Browne” [A.B. 1666]
“fungor fruor hetaris affectu letare Joseph Browne [followed by, in another hand] is a fool for writing fungor fruor hetaris affectu letare”
“Jacob Elliots Book 1688 [followed by, in his hand]
This book is mine,
and you may fine
I will drink some wine.
He is very fine
And I will one
I will put you in the pou[nd]”
“Thomas Williams bot at Auction Oct. 1768”
John Wompowess may be a hitherto unrecorded Indian undergraduate. On one of the fly-leaves is a crude sketch of a meetinghouse with the legend “John Savage his meeting house the king of it I say,” probably an allusion to John’s intended vocation.
M. Tulii Ciceronis Orationum pars prima, post Pauli Manutij & aliorum doctiss. correctiones, diligenter emendata. Antwerp: 1567.a
“Samuel Eatonus me jure tenet” [A.B. 1649]
“Urianus Oakes hunc librum jure tenet” [A.B. 1649]
“John Williams hunc librum jure emtionis possidet” [A.B. 1683]
“Solomon Williams 1742” [A.B. 1747]
Note by William F. Williams, who gave this book to the mhs, stating that John Williams was the captive minister of Deerfield, and his (W.F.W.’s) great-grandfather.
Orationum Marci Tullii Ciceronis volumen secundum. Editio ad Manutianam & Brutinam conformata. Hanover: 1606.
“John Cotton his book suae optimo”
“Seaborne Cotton His booke Apr: 9. anno 1646” [A.B. 1651]
“Johannis Cotton [A.B. 1678] est verus possessor hujus libri E D[ono] P[atris] Anno Domini 1673”
ms. note by J. Wingate Thornton stating that this is one of a set of six volumes of Cicero’s works that descended from John Cotton through his son Seaborn and grandson John to the Reverend Nathaniel Gookin (A.B. 1703), to his son Nathaniel (A.B. 1731), and to the Reverend Jonathan French (A.B. 1771), who gave it to Mr. Thornton.
John Clarke (of Fiskerton, near Lincoln)
Formulae Oratoriae, in usum scholarum concinnatae, cum praxi & usu earundem in epistolis, thematibus, declamationibus contexendis. Editio octava limatior et emendatior. Engraved t.p. London: 1659.
“John Barnard Eius Liber” [A.B. 1700]
“John Higginson Tertius 1712/13” [A.B. 1717]
“Pyam Blowers’s Book” [A.B. 1721] “cost 3s 6d”
Another edition. Engraved and colored t.p. London: 1664.
“Cotton Mather dedit pater: 1681” [A.B. 1678] on p. 385
“Nathanael Mather” [A.B. 1685]
“Warham” [Mather, A.B. 1685]
“Samuel Mather [A.B. 1723] ex dono ingenii”
Another edition. Engraved t.p. London: 1672.
“Paulus Dudleius eius liber anno 1688” [A.B. 1690]
Bookplate: “Nicholaus Lynde 1690” [A.B. 1690]
Nicholaus Clenardus (Cleynaerts)
Nicolai Clenardi Graecae Linguae Institutiones; cum scholiis et praxi Petri Antesignani [Davenant]. A Frid. Sylburgio denuò recognitae. Hanover: 1617.
“L. H[oar]” “Leonard hoar his booke 1651” [A.B. 1650] “Pre. 2s 6d”
“Lege, Intellige, Vive. J. B[rowne, A.B. 1666]” “Pre: 1–6”
Opus Prosodicum Graecum Novum. Frankfort: 1651. (Plate VII.)
“Joseph Browne anno dom. 1666” [A.B. 1666]
Greek and Latin on opposite pages.
Johannes Amos Comenius (Komenski)
I. A. Comenii Ianua Aurea Linguarum, et auctior et emendatior quam unquain antehac. Autore Teodoro Simonio Holsato. Amsterdam: 1649.b
“Joel Jacoomis is my owner” [Indian of Class of 1665]
Described, with facsimiles of Jacoomis’s autograph, in our Publications, xxi. 186, which see for note of eighteenth-century students.
A. Commenii Physicae ad lumen divinum reformatae synopsis. [Quotation from Ludovico Vives.] Amsterdam: 1645.
“John Barnard Ejus Liber 1693 . . . His Book Anno D. 1696” [A.B. 1700]
“John Swift” [A.B. 1697]
Described, with facsimiles of the signatures, in our Publications, xxi. 185–186.
Conciones et Orationes ex historicis Latinis excerptae. Argumenta singulis praefixa sunt, quae causam cujusque & summam ex rei gestae occasione explicant. Opus recognitum recensitumque in usum scholarum Hollandiae & Westrisiae ex decreto illustriss. D.D. Ordinum ejusdem Provinciae. Amsterdam: 1648.
“Increase Mather, 1653” [A.B. 1656]
“S. Matheri, 1741”
Τα Σωζομενα των παλαιοτατων, Ποιητων, Γεοργικα, Βουκολικα και Γνωμικα. Vetustissimorum authorum Georgica, Bucolica, & Gnomica poemata quae supersunt. Edidit J. Crispinus. 3 vols, in 1. Geneva: 1639.
“Hope Atherton his book 1661” [A.B. 1665]
“Nicholaus Lynde” [A.B. 1690]
Latin and Greek on opposite pages. Includes Hesiod’s Works and Days, Theogony, and Shield of Heracles, with annotations by Melanehthon; Theognis of Megara, Phocylides, Pythagoras, Theocritus, Bion, Moschus, selections from the poets of the Middle and New Comedy, and numerous minor poets. The first edition came out in 1570.
Renati Des Cartes Meditationes de Prima Philosophia, in quibus Dei existentia, & animae humanae a corpore distinctio, demonstrantur. His adjunctae sunt variae objectiones doctorum virorum in istas de Deo & anima demonstrationes; cum responsionibus authoris. Tertia editio. Amsterdam: 1650.
“Samuel Lee tenet Julij 22. die o 1651” “Londini 0:1:0 mr Sam Tomson”
“Daniel Henchman tenet Cantabrigise Aprielis 9, die 1696” [A.B. 1696]
Probably purchased at the sale, in 1693, of the library of Samuel Lee, who arrived in New England in 1686. Cf. our Publications, xxi. 180, and xiv. 143.
Another edition. Amsterdam: 1654.
“Zech. Brigden me tenet jun 27. 58” [A.B. 1657]
“Samuel Brackenbury. Nec habeo, nec Careo, nec Curo, 1664” [A.B. 1664]
“Dono Dedit D. Generosissimus Mr. Franciscus Willoughby, Lege, Intellige, Vive. J.B.” [Joseph Browne, A.B. 1666] “Pret Lond.[ ]”
Opera Philosophica, editio ultima ab autore recognita. Amsterdam: 1656. hcl.
“Benjamin Lynde me inter suos numerat 10: 1: 1685/6” [A.B. 1686]
“Timothy Lindall His booke 1694” [A.B. 1695]
“Benjamin Wadsworth’s Book 1687 pre. 7s 6d” [A.B. 1690]
A tear on the title-page has defaced an earlier signature than Lynde’s: “Johann . . . Regine” is left.
Includes, with separate title-pages, the Principia Philosophiae, Specimena Philosophiae seu Dissertatio de Methodo; Dioptrice et Meteora ex Galileo translata; Passiones Animae; Meditationes: objectiones et responses.
Ioan: Despauterii Ninivitae Grammaticae Institutionis lib. VII. Doctè & concinnè in compendium redacti à Sebastiano Duisburgensi. Bound with his Syntaxis and his Artis Versificatoriae Compendium.] Edinburgh: 1660.
“E libris Joannis Urie” [A Scottish student]
On page near end: “Isaac Bayly Ejus Liber: 1698” [A.B. 1701]
“Nicholaus Severus Ejus Liber Ex dono I. Bayley August 7 1698” [A.B. 1701]
Therapeutica Sacra, seu, de curandis casibus conscientiae libri tres. London: 1656.
“Cottoni Matheri Liber 1681” [A.B. 1678]
A Dictionarie English and Latine: wherein the knots and difficulties of the Latine tongue are untied and resolved, and the elegancies and proprieties thereof fully declared and confirmed by examples. London: 1623.
“John Bellingham Eius Liber Anno Dom: 1655” [A.B. 1661]
“Cottonus Matherus 1674” [A.B. 1678]
“Nathanaelis Matheri Liber 1682” [A.B. 1685]
“Samuel Mather’s Book: 1717” [A.B. 1723]
George Downame. See Ramus
Bibliotheca Scholastica Instructissima, or, a treasurie of ancient adagies and sententious proverbes, selected out of the English, Greeke, Latine, French, Italian, and Spanish. Published by Thomas Draxe Batch, in Divinitie. London: 1633.
“Elisha Cooke me tenet” [A.B. 1657] “Whiting”
“Joseph Cooke me tenet Anno 1660” [A.B. 1660]
“Mr. Louse had his gutts broake out & fell into Mr. Walkers mouth.” “Old Mr. Louse fell from a book & pitcht into a pecke & broake his neck &c”
Calliepeia, or a rich store-house of proper, choyce, and elegant Latine words and phrases collected (for the most part) out of Tullie’s works, and for the use and benefit of scholars by Thomas Drax. London: 1612.
“Thomas Oakes not [in Joseph Taylor’s hand] his booke Anno 1658”
“Joseph Taylor His booke 1665” [A.B. 1669]
“Samuel Sewall his Booke Anno Dom: 1669” [A.B. 1671]
“Joseph Sewall His Book”
Another edition. London: 1643.
“Elisha Cooke” [A.B. 1657]
Another edition (London, 1662) is in the Mather Collection at the aas. It was owned by Increase, Cotton, Nathaniel, Samuel (A.B. 1690), and Samuel (A.B. 1723); also by William Charnock (A.B. 1743). Dates, when given, indicate the use of the book in preparation for college, rather than use in college.
Rationale Divinorum Officiorum a R.D. Gulielmo Durando Mimatensi Episcopo. Adjectum fuit praeterea aliud Divinorum Officiorum rationale ab Ioanne Beletho theologo Parisiensi. Tomus primus. Antwerp: 1614.
“Nathanaelis Matheri Liber 1683. D. dedit Pater” [A.B. 1685]
Epitome Adagiorum Erasmi, Iunii, Cognati, et aliorum παροιμιογράφων. n.p.: apud Guillelmum Laemarium, 1593.
“Nathanaelis Mather Liber 1682 [A.B. 1685] D. Dedit Frater suus charissimus, CM.”
A phrase-book. 562 pp. of Erasmus’s, then the “viii centuries” of adages of Hadrian Junius, “in epitomen contractae”; then the proverbs of Johann Alexander Brassicanus, others of Pythagoras, etc.
Institutio Principis Christiani. See Patrizzi
The Elements of Geometrie of the most auncient philosopher Euclide of Megara. Faithfully (now first) translated into the Englishe toung, by H. Billingsley. With a very fruitfull praeface made by M. I. Dee. Engraved t.p. London: 1570. (Plate VIII.)
See below, Ramus’s Arithmetic and Geometry (1649), also owned by Dunster, and editorial comment thereon. Evidently his translation of this latter work, begun in 1649, was rendered unnecessary by his purchase of the version listed above. Mark Pierce (1597–1656), referred to by Dunster, came to Cambridge from England in 1642, and soon removed to New Haven, where he was schoolmaster and surveyor. He returned to England in 1652 or 1653, and died there.
Eustache de Saint-Paul
Fr. Eustachii a S. Paulo ex congregatione Fuliensi Ordinis Cisterciensis Ethica, sive summa moralis disciplinae. In gratiam studiosae juventutis edita. Cambridge: 1654.
“Joseph Browne His Booke 1665” [A.B. 1666]
“Lege, Intellige, Vive. J. B.”
Not in the British Museum Catalogue. Fr. Eustache was a French Cistercian who flourished 1610–1635.
Disputationum Academicarum Formulae per R.F. London: 1638.
“Thomas Shepard me tenet. 1651 decemb. 30” [A.B. 1653]
“Samuell Willard his Book” [A.B. 1659] on p. 13
L. Julii Flori Rerum à Romanis Gestarum libri IV a Johanne Stadio emendati. Editio nova singulis neotericis purgatior & emendatior. Cui accesserunt Chronologicae doctiss: CI. Salmasii excerptiones una cum variis lectionibus. Oxford: 1669.a
“Charles Chauncy” [A.B. 1686?]
“steal this Booke if you dare”
Phrases Poeticae seu sylvae poeticarum locutionum. Prima vestigia a M. Fundano posita, deinde ab A.S.I.T. auctiores factae. Rotterdam: 1621.b
“Elisha Cooke me tenet” [A.B. 1657]
Galileo Galilei. See Gassendi
P. Petri Galtruchii Aurelianensis Societ. Jesu, Philosophiae ac Mathematicae Institutio ad usum studiosae iuventutis. Physica Particularis. Caen: 1665.
“Cottonus Matherus 1676” [A.B. 1678]
Μουοτέσσαρον. The Evangelicall Harmonie, reducing the foure Evangelists into one continued context. Cambridge: 1634.
“Elizabeth Dunster Her book 1676”
“Benjamin Colmans [A.B. 1692] Book Donum formosse admodum Dominse Elizabethan Wade 1693/4”
Exercitationes Paradoxicae adversus Aristoteleos. In quibus praecipua totius Peripateticae doctrinae fundamenta excutiuntur. Amsterdam: 1649.
“Cottonus Matherus 1675” [A.B. 1678]
“S. Matheri 1740”
Petri Gassendi Institutio Astronomica juxta hypotheses tarn veterum, quam recentiorum. Cui accesserunt Galilei Galilei Nuntius Sidereus, et Johannis Kepleri Dioptrice. Secunda editio. Illustrated. London:1653.
“Thomas Shepardus me jure tenet 9. 12o. 1675/6 pr 7s 6d” [A.B. 1676]
“Wm Brattle 1705” [A.B. 1680]
“Brenton’s Book 1706” [A.B. 1707]
“N. Lendall his book Anno D. 1726” [A.B. 1727]
“Old skipper Lendall”
“Was ’ere a man like worthy skipper seen
How foolish is His look, how quere his mein:
How bald and ugly”
“There is a purpose of marriage between Job: Squander-beg & Margaret Hawk-Spun both of Toplifelis alley”
Rudolph Goclenius (1547–1628)
Partitionum Dialecticarum M. Rodolphi Goclenij professoris Academici [Marburgensis]. [Title-page wanting; this is the subtitle, preceded by “Generalia Prolegomena in omnes artes.” Bound with:] Rodolphi Goclenii Praxis Logica ex privatis eius lectionibus, ante aliquot annos excerpta. Frankfort: 1595.
“Nathaniel Mather his book 1684” [A.B. 1685]
Thomas Godwyn (1587–1643)
Romanae Historiae Anthologia recognita et aucta. An English exposition of the Roman antiquities, for the use of Abingdon Schoole. Oxford: 1623.a
“Sr Oakes” “Urianus” [A.B. 1649; AM. 1651]
“William Brattle’s book anno 75 cost 18d” [A.B. 1680]
“John Cotton” [A.B. 1678]
The hcl has a copy of the Oxford, 1628, edition (Plate IX) containing President Dunster’s bookplate, dated March 27, 1634. With it is bound Godwyn’s “Moses and Aaron, civil and ecclesiastical rites used by the ancient Hebrews” (London, 1628), also inscribed by Dunster.
Golius. See Aristotle
Ἑρμενεια Logica, seu Synopseos Logicae Burgersdicianae explicatio. Accedit ejusdem authoris Praxis Logica. Leyden: 1660.
“Thomas Mighell his Booke” [A.B. 1663]
“Thomas Weld his book anno domini 1668: 27 5th month” [A.B. 1671]
“Danforth is admitted into college” [A.B. 1671?]
Another edition. Editio quinta. Amsterdam: 1666.b
“Sum Timothei Cutler Cantabrigiensis” [A.B. 1701]
Another edition. Cambridge: 1670.b
“Addington Davenport’s Book” [A.B. 1689]
“Thomas Prince Liber pce 2s 6d” [A.B. 1707]
“Thomas Prince his Book when he was att Colledge harvard.”
Another edition. Cambridge: 1680.
H. A. Larrabee, Esq.
Bound with the London, 1651, edition of Burgersdicius’s Institutionum Logicarum Libri Duo, which see for owners.
Meletemata Philosophica; in quibus pleraeque res metaphysicae ventilantur, tota ethica κατασκολαστικῶς καὶ ἀνασκολαστικῶσ explicatur, universa physica per theoremata & commentaries exponitur, summa rerum logicarum per disputationes traditur. Editio ultima. Accedunt Philosophia Naturalis cum novis commentariis & Pneumatica. Frontispiece portrait of author. Nymwegen: 1665. (Plate X.) aas.
“Simon Bradstreet” [A.B. 1693 or 1700]
“John Legg Boston 1699” [A.B. 1701]
“Libris ex Roberto Gibbs A.D. 1749” [A.B. 1750]
Another edition. Editio nova. Amsterdam: 1680.
“Benjamin Colman [A.B. 1692] me suum vocat prid. Cal. Sept. 1690” with variations, on eight or ten different pages.
“Thomas Goodwin his book 1722/3” [A.B. 1725]
“Gulielmus Phipps [A.B. 1728] ejus Liber Ex Dono Honoratisi’ vice Gubernatoris provincise Massachusettensis Domini Spencer Phipps” [A.B. 1703]
“memorandum per me Josiah Quincy ye Day ye 4th of” [A.B. 1728]
“Samuel Danforth” [A.B. 1715 or 1758] “John Swan”
“Artemas Ward Ejus Liber Anno Domini 1746” [A.B. 1748]
“Thomas Berry hunc librum jure vendicat Anno gratia 1683” [A.B. 1685]. On the back are some lines indicating that it also belonged to his son Thomas Berry (A.B. 1712).
“Adam Cushing His Booke Bought of Monsieure Berry p 12s Anno Dom. 1713” [A.B. 1714]
“Job Cushing His Booke Bought Anno: Domini 1712” [A.B. 1714]
Philosophia Naturalis. T.p. wanting. [Leyden: 1663?].
“Nicholas Noyce Ejs Liber 1665” [A.B. 1667]
“Samuel Sewall Samuell Mather” [in Sewall’s hand; both A.B. 1671]
“Thomas Brattle [A.B. 1676] Ejus Liber 15.6.73 statit 2s [changed to] 18d”
“Edvardus Paysonus me suis addidit pret 2s 6d” [A.B. 1677]
“Samuel Moody” [A.B. 1697]
“Mrs. Prudence Chester her Booke”
Isagoge ad Lectionem Librorum Novi Testamenti per analysin cum versibus μνημονευτικοῖς triplicibus a Johanne-Huldrico Herlino, Collegij Bernensis Inspectore. Bern: 1605.a
“Josiah Flynt” [A.B. 1664]
“Henry Flint” [A.B. 1693]
“D. Bradstreet donum Da Nath Clarke”
Ἡσιοδου Ἀσκραίου τὰ εὑρισκόμενα. Hesiodi Ascraei quae extant. Cumnotis ex probatissimis quibusdam authoribus. Opera & studio Cornelii Schrevelii. Leyden: 1653.
“Peter Thacher’s Book May 9th Anno Domini 1692” [A.B. 1696]
Another edition. London: 1659.
“Joseph Gerrish his booke 68” [A.B. 1669]
“Attendamus quaeso cum reverencia ad quid dicturi sumus” [in Flynt’s hand]
For an additional Hesiod item, see under Crespin.
Cosmographie in four books. Containing the Chorographie and Historie of the whole World. London: 1657.
“John Eliot” [the “Apostle”]
“Si quaerit lector librum quis possidet istum
Nomen subscriptum perlegat ille meum
John Eliot” [A.B. 1685]
“John Eliot sold this booke to Bn Wadsworth [A.B. 1690] July 1692 to Nathaniel Williams 1695” [A.B. 1693]
“Mr. Wadsworth’s Booke 1694”
Excellentissimi Philosophi M. Fabiani Hippii physici in Academia Lipsensi professori ordinarii problemata physica et logica Peripatetica, in quibus illustriores quaestiones physica & logica inter philosophos veteres & recentiores agitatae. Wittenberg: 1604. John Albree, Esq.
“Nehemiah Walter hunc Librum possidet 1683” [A.B. 1684]
“Daniel Rogers his Book Anno Dom. 1686” [A.B. 1686]
Clavis Homerica. T.p. missing. Rotterdam: 1673.a
“Peter Olivers juner Clavis E Libris petri Oliver” [A.B. 1675]
“John Veazie” [A.B. 1700]
Ὁμήρου Ιλιας. Homeri Ilias, id est, de rebus Trojani gestis. Editio postrema. Cambridge: 1672.
“Richard Wensley me jure tenet An: Dom: 1680” [A.B. 1684]
“Josh. Winslow’s Book 1716” [A.B. 1721]
“Ebenezer Parkman ex Dono Josiæ Winslow 1718” [both A.B. 1721]
“Ebenezer Miller [A.B. 1722]
Ejus liber 1718 bought of E. Parkman”
“Nathan. Davies Eius Liber” [A.B. 1724]
“Samuel Miller” [A.B. 1756]
“Jonathan Allen His Book October 18 1754” [A.B. 1757]
“John S. Popkin 1792” [A.B. 1792]
Greek and Latin on opposite pages.
Epistolae Ho-Elianae. Familiar letters upon emergent occasions. 4th ed. London: 1673.a
“John Lake Octob. 1677” [Not H.C.]
In the hand of John Leverett (A.B. 1680): “Borrowed of Jno Lake Octob’ 15 1680”
“Jno Leverett 14o 11i 1694/5 Ex dono Johannes Lake 1688”
“Edmund Goffe His Book” [A.B. 1690]
Ισοκρατους Λόγοι και Επιστολαι. Isocratis Orationes et Epistolae. Cum Latina interpretatione Hieronymi Wolfii. Editio postrema, mendis quibuspriores scatebant, repurgata. Geneva: 1642.b bpl (Prince).
“Joseph Webb me jure ten” [A.B. 1684]
Greek and Latin in parallel columns.
Another edition. Geneva: 1651.a
“Jeremiah Sheppard me jure tenet 1664” [A.B. 1669]
“Samuel Mitchell me jure possidet” [A.B. 1681]
Bookplate: “Samuel Phillips 1707” [A.B. 1708]
“Samuel Mitchell is a long legged Catt”
“Samuel Danforth per me Peter Thacher” [both A.B. 1671]
Another edition. Geneva: 1660.
“Manasseh Armitage 23d 2d mo 1661” [A.B. 1660]
On p. 800: “Joh(?) Reyner His Book” [A.B. 1663]
“John Foster His Book An. Dom. 1663” [A.B. 1667]
“Cottonus Ma[therus] e dono patris charissi[mi]” [A.B. 1678]
“Nathaniel Mather” [A.B. 1685]
Ισοκρατους απαντα. Isocratis Scripta quae quidem nunc extant, omnia, Graecolatina, postremò recognita: Hieronymo Wolfio Oetingeni interprete. Basle: 1571.b
“Elisha Cooks Bo[ok]” [A.B. 1657]
Menasseh ben israel. See Bible, Hebrew O.T.
Gilbert Jack (Iacchaeus, 1578?–1628)
Primae Philosophiae sive Institutionum Metaphysicarum libri sex. Auctore Gilberto Jacchaeo. Cambridge: 1649.
“Joseph Cooke me suis addidit, Jan: 19: 1660.” [A.B. 1660]
Thomas Jack (d1596)
Onomasticon Poeticum, sive, propriorum quibus in suis monumentis usi sunt veteres poetae, brevis descriptio poetica, Thoma Iacchaeo Caledonio authore. Edinburgh: 1592.
“Elijah Corlet” [the Cambridge schoolmaster]
“Ammi Ruhamah Corlet [A.B. 1670] te sine teste time” [in another hand:] “Nodie te ipsum 14–8–72”
“Sam Sewall May 19 1685” [A.B. 1671?]
A classical dictionary in Latin hexameters.
A Mixture of Scholasticall Divinity, with Practicall, in severall tractates: wherein some of the most difficult knots in Divinity are untied, many darke places of Scripture cleared, sundry heresies, and errours, refuted, by Henry Ieanes, minister of God’s Word at Chedzoy in Sommerset-shire. Oxford: 1656.
“Lege, Intellige, vive: J B: Pret Lond: 2. vol. 10sh.1667” [Joseph Browne, A.B. 1666]
“Matheri” [n.d.; hand of Increase Mather]
A Second Part of the Mixture of Scholasticall Divinity, with Practical, in several tractates. Whereunto are annexed, several letters of the same author, and Dr. Jeremy Taylor, concerning Original Sin. Together with a reply unto Dr. Hammonds Vindication of his Grounds of Uniformity from 1 Cor. 14.40. Oxford: 1660.
“Lege, Intellige, vive. J[oseph] B[rowne] Pret. Lond: 2 vol. 10sh sterl. 1667” [A.B. 1666]
“Cottoni Matheri Liber 1683”
François du Jon (Junius of Bourges, 1545–1602)
Fr. Junii Biturgis Animadversiones ad controversiam primam (secundam, quartam, sextam) Christianae fidei de Verbo Dei (de Christo capite totius Ecclesiae, de Conciliis, de Purgatorio). 4 vols. Leyden: 1602–1603. a
“Johannes Angier hunc suis addidit” [A.B. 1653, August 9]
“Joshua Moodey” [A.B. 1653, August 10.]
“Donum Dom. Quincy” “Edw. Wigglesworth”
The above are four of the five volumes containing Du Jon’s controversies against Bellarmine.
Fr. Junii Grammatica Hebraeae Linguae, editio tertia. Geneva: 1596.b
“Elisha Cooke” [A.B. 1657]
See also Bible, Latin O. T.
Adrian de Jonge (Junius, 1515–1575). See Erasmus and Textor
D. Bartholomaei Keckermanni Dantiscani Operum Omnium quae extant. Tomus primus. Complectens praecognita philosophiae, gymnasia, variaque systemata logica, systema physicum, astronomicum, geographicum, metaphysicae compendium. Tomus secundus in quo speciatim methodicè & uberrimè de ethica, oeconomica, politica disciplina: necnon de arte rhetorica agitur. 2 vols. Geneva: 1614.
“Samuel Andrew” [A.B. 1675; and in his hand:]
Quod lego, quod scribo, didici puer utile quicquid
Hocce, benigno Deus, serviat omne tibi.”
“Thomas Brattle’s Book” [A.B. 1676]
“Joseph Eliot His Booke 1681” [A.B. 1681]
“Nehemiah Walter’s Book” [A.B. 1684] “Tomorum duorum Pretium 2l0s0d”
“J. Emerson [A.B. 1689] to his Kinsman Samll Philips, 1707”
Bookplate: “Samuel Phillips His Book. 1707” [A.B. 1708]
Systema compendiosum totius Mathematices, hoc est geometriae, opticae, astronomiae et geographiae publicis praelectionibus anno 1605, in celeberrimo Gymnasio Dantiscano propositum. A Bartholomaeo Keckermanno. In fine accessit brevis Commentatio Nautica, ab eodem autore. Oxford: 1661.b
“Peter Thacher” [A.B. 1671 or 1696]
Systema Logicae, tribus libris adornatum a Bartholomaeo Keckermanno Dantiscano. T.p. mut. Editio secunda. 1603.
“Crescentius Matherus ex dono fratris S.M. 1654” [A.B. 1656]
“Noachus Burt Hunc Lib[rum] Jure Possidet Ex Dono . . .
Solomonis Stoddard” [Stoddard was A.B. 1662]
Two other signatures of Increase Mather, dated 1654 and 1656, respectively, are in this volume.
Another edition. Editio postrema, ab authore recognita & emendata. Cologne: 1611.
“[Edm]und Angier d”
“Thomas Graves” [A.B. 1656]
“ Cooke 1664” “Sustine & Abstine 67”
“Edrd Paison” [A.B. 1677]
Another edition. Editio ultima, prioribus correction Frankfort: 1628. (Plate XI.)
“Ephraim Savage His Booke 1660. Medio tutissimus ibis.” [A.B. 1662]
“Samuel Danforth bought 22.2.1683 . . . 2.6d” [A.B. 1683] “Joseph Webb me jure tenet” [A.B. 1684]
Danforth writes his name in Greek, and Webb, after several ineffectual attempts at the same, writes “Ιωσηφ Γυμχω ειυς λιβερ.”
“David Deming Ejus Liber 1697” [A.B. 1700]
“Timothy Cutler” [A.B. 1701]
“George Minot Ejus Liber 1749” [A.B. 1752]
Systema Logicae minus succincto praeceptorum compendio tribus libris. Nunc extrema cura recognitum, et exemplis e vetustate Latina & Cicerone praesertim, magna parte sententiosis illustratum, & commentariis auctum eiusmodi, quibus ars explicatur, & eius fontes ex Aristotele & aliis praestantibus logicis monstrantur, praecepta denique cum doctrina Melanchthoniana perpetuo comparantur; ut servire possit Gymnasio Dantiscano et aliis scholis, in quibus Aristotelicae doctrinae formula, cum Melanchthoniana perspicuitate, atque aliorum logicorum utilibus inventis coniungitur. Hanover: 1606.
“Josephus Cook me Suis Addidit 1660” [A.B. 1660]
“Call for a Tankard
My Cloths at pollards
Get some Pisado: Clarett
buy a grater. Some Lime-juice”
“Phillip _____ festina lente. Mine for whom I will Ex dono
Mr. S. Willsoni”
Another edition. Hanover: 1612.a
“Samuel Bellingham” [A.B. 1642]
“John Bellingham” [A.B. 1661]
“Dan Epes” [A.B. 1669]
“S. Parris. . . 19. Jan: 1674”
Systema Physicum, septem libris adornatum. Hanover: 1623.
“Samuel Man His Booke Anno Dom 1662” [A.B. 1665]
“Nathanielis Mather Liber 1681” [A.B. 1685]
“Joseph John Foster His Book 1671” [A.B. 1667]
“Samuelis Dunbar Liber 1724” [A.B. 1723]
Kepler. See Gassendi
Wilhelmus langius (lange)
Wilhelmi Langi de Annis Christi libri duo. Leyden: 1649. bpl (Adams).
Christian Severin Longberg (Christianus S. Longmontanus)
Astronomica Danica Vigiliis & opera Christiani S. Longmontani elaborata, & in duas partes tributa; quarum prior doctrinam de diurna apparente siderum revolutione super sphera armillarii instaurata, duobus libris explicat: posterior theorias de motibus planetarum ad observationes D. Tychonis Brahae, & proprias, in triplici forma redintegrates itidem duobus libris complectitur. Amsterdam: 1640.
Bookplate: “Simon Willard Hunc Librum Jure Tenet Julii 1 1695” [A.B. 1695]
“For Mr. John Sherman, minister in Wattertown” “Pr 18s 6d”
Nearly a page of rules, probably in Sherman’s hand, on fly-leaf, for finding positions, spheric triangles, etc. ms. astronomical tables and index of tables on back fly-leaves. Also a note from one Richard Thurston, dated July 24, 1651, to “Mate Streett or in his absance Charles Thurston” about clearing “ye Shippe away from gravce end.” “Our men” are to be “ridie to goe.” His plan is to “sett sayle for the Douns.”
This volume is a library copy, not a text-book. The pages measure 7¾ × 11¾.
Lycosthenes (Conrad Wolffhart)
Apophthegmata ex probatis Graecae Latinaeque linguae scriptoribus. A Conrado Lycosthene collecta. Accesserunt parabolae sive similitudines, ab Erasmo ex Plutarcho & aliis olim excerptae. London: 1635.
“Joseph Cooke his book anno 1657” [A.B. 1660]
“Elisha Cooke his book” [A.B. 1697]
“Middlecott Cooke’s book 1719” [A.B. 1723]
Another edition. Geneva: 1668.a
“Cottonus Matherus 1673” [A.B. 1678]
Possibly used in college, though dated earlier than Cotton’s freshman year. The dates in the 1635 edition, above, indicate use in college.
Johannis Maccovii Distinctiones et regulae theologicae ac philosophicae. Editae operâ ac studiô Nicolai Arnoldi. Franeker: 1653.a
“Sam. Willard [A.B. 1659?] ex dono Mri Alex. Nowell” [A.B. 1664]
“Simon Willard” [A.B. 1695]
“Peter Thacher’s Book [A.B. 1696] given by mr Simon Willard”
Another edition. Oxford: 1656. (Plate XII.)
“E libris Gulielmi Adams 12.7.1669” [A.B. 1671]
“Ebenezer Kirtland His Booke 1673” [Class of 1674]
“Tho: Brattle Ejus Liber 15.12.1673” [A.B. 1676]
“Samllum Parris ex viro [torn] Breerwoodi Logicâ one [torn] January. 29. 1675”
“N. Sever’s Book” [A.B. 1701]
“Vino forma perit, vino corrūpitur ætas”
Joannis Maccovii Loci Communes Theologici ex omnibus ejus, quae extant, collegiis, thesibus, manuscriptis, collecti, digesti; indice capitum rerumque locupletati; operâ & studio Nicolai Arnoldi. Editio postrema. Amsterdam: 1658.
“John Hancock his Book 29: October: 1691” [A.B. 1689]
Another edition. Amsterdam: 1658.
“Jno. Richardson ejus liber 1665” [A.B. 1666]
“Benjamin Smith Ejus Liber”
Johannis Maccovii Metaphysica ad usum quaestionum in philosophia ac theologia adornata & applicata. Leyden: 1645. John Albree, Esq.
“John Hancock’s Book 26 July 1691. Cost. 2.6” [A.B. 1689]
“Sum ex libris Johannis Hancock.” In another hand: “Emptus ex Dno. J. Elioto.”
Johannis Maccovi Metaphysica. Accedit ejusdem tractatus de Anima separata. Leyden: 1650.
“Crescentius Matherus Maji 2. 1655” [A.B. 1656]
“Incepi Sept. 25 Fin. Oct. 31. 1656.”
“Vade vale cave ne titubes Mandataque frangas”
“Eleazar Mather” [A.B. 1656]
“Ebenezer Kyrtland ejus Liber 167” [Class of 1674]
“Henry Flynt His Booke 1692” [A.B. 1693] “Thomas Adams”
“Joseph Baxter His Booke” [A.B. 1693 or 1724]
Michael Maestlin (1550–1631)
Epitome Astronomiae, qua brevi explicatione omnia ex ipsius scientiae fontibus deducta, perspicue per quaestiones traduntur; conscripta per M. Michaelem Maestlinum Goeppingensem, matheseos in Academia Tubingensi professorem. Tubingen: 1624.
“Alexander Nowell Eius Liber 1664” [A.B. 1664]
Magirtus (Johann Koch)
Dn. Joannis Magiri Corona Virtutum Moralium, universam Aristotelis summi philosophi Ethicen exacte enucleans. Frankfort: 1628.
“my selfe Siluanus Walderne” [Class of 1661?]
Bookplate: “Elisha Cooke His Book 1693” [A.B. 1697]
Aristotle’s Ethics; Greek and Latin texts, annotated.
Ioannis Magiri Physiologiae Peripateticae libri sex, cum commentariis, in quibus praecepta illius perspicue, eruditeque explicantur, & ex optimis quibusvis interpretibus, Platone, Aristotele, Zabarella, [etc., etc.] disceptantur. Accessit Caspari Bartholini Enchiridion Metaphysicum. Editio sexta Wittebergensi melior & notis auctior. Frankfort: 1610. (Plate XI.)
“Sum Johannis Wilsoni” [A.B. 1642?]
“Thomas Scottow his book 74 borrowed Oct. 17, 74” [A.B. 1677]
“Habijah Savage His Book 1693” [A.B. 1695]
Quotations, selected largely from the physical books of Aristotle, so as to make a continuous narrative, with comments by the author at the end of each chapter. Practically no trace of modern science.
Another edition. Editio quinta Lipsiensi melior & notis auctior. n.p.: 1611.a
“Sr Reyner”(?) on p. 4 [John Rayner, A.B. 1663?]
“Samuell S[ewall?] lib pretiū 1s6d”
“Edward Mills 7d 9th 168[ ]” [A.B. 1685]
“John Hancock’s book” [A.B. 1689]
“Joseph Belcher His booke 1687” [A.B. 1690]
“Ex libris Io[torn]” “Tho: Dudley” [A.B. 1651?]
“Johannes Cottonus E D[ono] P[atris]”
“Mr. John Cotton tutor Haruardi Collegii” [A.B. 1678; Tutor 1681–1685]
Fragment of printed booklabel: “[ ]nus”
Presented to the hcl by the Princeton University Library.
“Joshua Moodey” “John Angier” [both A.B. 1653]
“For how canst thou lack any thing whereof I stand in need. God is in the assembly of the righteous — Jehovah.”
Another edition. Editio ultima, infinitis mendis quae in prioribus irrepserant diligentius expurgata. Geneva: 1621.
“Daniel Russell His Booke 1669” [A.B. 1669],
“Isaac Foster me jure tenet An. Dom. 1669 pret. 3s satis superque” [A.B. 1671]
“John Wick His Book Ann. Domini” [A.B. Yale 1722]
“Amend thy hand by diligence” “Know all men by these præsence”
“Ichabod Wolcott Chauncy’s Book 1721” [A.B. Yale 1723]
“Joseph Buckingham’s Book Anno Domini 1723” [A.B. Yale 1723]
Another edition. Accessit J. Magiri de Memoria Artificiosa. Cambridge: 1642.b
“Natha. Rogers” [A.B. 1687? But possibly the founder of Ipswich]
Aldo Manuzzio (Aldus)
Phrases Linguae Latinae, ab Aldo Manutio P. F. conscriptae: nunc primum in ordinem Abecedarium adductae, & in Anglicum sermonem conversae. London: 1636. (Plate XIII.)
“John Whitting his book 1651” [A.B. 1657]
“Joseph Whiting [A.B. 1661] his book 1657 Amend yr hand by diligence & prayse shalbe yr recompense”
“Richard Cooke his booke Anno Dom”
“Joseph Cooke owneth the booke” [A.B. 1660]
Bookplate: “Elisha Cooke 1693” [A.B. 1697]
Marcelli Stellati Poetae Zodiaci Vitae, liber primus. T.p. missing. [Amsterdam: 1628?].
Bookplate: “John Leverett 1677” [A.B. 1680]
On p. 9: “G. Pyncheon” [A.B. 1743?]
A satirical attack on the abuses of the author’s day, in Latin hexameters. It first appeared in 1534 and was banned by the Inquisition.
Matthias Martini (1572–1630)
Graecae Linguae Fundamenta quae sunt tanquam epitome lexici & etymologici Graeci. Limatiora & pleniora ex quarta editione curâ, Matthiae Martinii. London: 1629.
“John Winthrope” [A.B. 1700]
“Israel Loring His Booke 98” [A.B. 1701]
A brief dictionary, by the Rector of the gymnasium at Bremen.
Petrtjs Martlnius (1530–1594). See Udall
Joannis Miltoni Angli, Artis Logicae, plenior institutio, ad Petri Rami methodum concinnata, adjecta est Praxis Analytica & Petri Rami vita, libris duobus. London: 1672.a
On p. 143: “William Veazie” [A.B. 1693]
“Ephraim Little [A.B. 1695] His Book bought of Mr. Brattle”
“Thomas littel larn you well”
“Nathll Clarke’s Book” [A.B. 1705]
“D. Rindge 1709” [A.B. 1709]
Facing the title-page is what appears to be the tally of some sort of game between Ephraim Little, Joseph Smith, and John Hubbard, Class of 1695.
Petrtjs Molinaeus. See Pierre du Moulin
Enchiridion Ethicum, praecipua moralis philosophiae rudimenta complectens, per Henricum Morum Cantabrigiensem. Editio nova: cui accessit auctoris Epistola ad V.C. Amsterdam: 1679. bpl (Prince).
“Jns Leveretti 6o 4i 1689 pt. 3s” [Leverett was then a Tutor]
“Winthrop &c. March. 8o 1693/4” [handwriting of Adam Winthrop, A.B. 1694]
“Thomas Prince Liber, Cantab. 1706 2s silver” [A.B. 1707]
“Thomas Symmesius hunc Librum vendicat Novemb: 28. 169[ ]” [A.B. 1698]
“James Cushing 1726” [A.B. 1725]
A ms. condensation of More’s Ethics by Tutor Leverett.
Compendium Moralis Phylosophiae ex Enchiridio Ethico Domini ad modum doctissimi Henrici More, S.T.D. petitū per Dom: Gul: Brattle A: M: & Collegii Harvardini Socium in usum pupillorum 1687. ms., 86 pp. [At end:] “Finis Transcrip: per Geo: Corwin 27o Janii1699”
[Also] A System of Naturall Phylosophy in Generall by the learned and Reverend Mr Charles Morton in usum Pupillorum. ms., 52 pp. [At end:] “Transcrip: per me G: C: 2do Martii 1700”
Enchiridion Metaphysicum per Dom H: More, S.T.D. Extract: per D: G: Brattle in Usum Pupillorum. ms., 9 pp. [At end:] “Incepi & Finivi 8vo Die Junii Annoque christi 1700”
Pathologia. ms., 7 pp. [At end:] “Incepi & Finivi 17o: Junii 1700 Geo: Curwin, Quis vit Calamus,” &c.
“George Corwin His Book Anno Dom 1699”
“Thomas Wm Kinston”
“These to you are our Commands send no help to ye Netherlands and of ye Treasures took by Drake, — Restitution you must make”
The preceding four ms. transcripts, all in the hand of George Curwin (A.B. 1701), are bound together. The one by Morton is an abbreviation of his Compendium Physicae (see below).
Theodoricus Morels lo Campano (Morellus)
Enchiridion Oratorium, variis Latinarum vocum ceu flosculis [sic] interspersum, Theodorico Morels lo Campano auctore. Antwerp: 1564.
“Joseph Cooke posseseth this booke” [A.B. 1660]
A Latin phrase-book.
Charles Morton (1627–1698)
Charles Morton, M.A. (Cambridge) 1652, was the head of a successful Dissenters’ academy at Stoke Newington. He emigrated in 1686, and became minister of Charlestown, Fellow (1692) and Vice-President (1697) of Harvard College. The original ms. of this System was probably one of the “several manuscripts he writ for the use of his private academy” which he showed to John Dunton (2 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc, n. 116). Morton also wrote a Compendium of Physics, of which William Partridge (A.B. 1689) made an extract (58 pp.) in 1687–1688. This is in one of three notebooks by Partridge now in the Yale University Library. There is there also another ms. copy of the Compendium (173 pp.), made by Nathaniel Eells (H.C. 1699), and dated by him, October 28, 1697. The ms. later belonged to his son Nathaniel (H.C. 1728). There are several eighteenth-century copies in the aas, hcl, and mhs, some of them entitled “Mr Morton’s Physics” or “Naturall Philosophy” (see under More, above), and considerably abbreviated. Apparently each student made his own ms. copy of Morton’s Physics from its first introduction at Harvard (1687) until its discontinuance. It was in use certainly as late as 1723, when it was named as one of the college text-books in the report to the Overseers of Tutors Flynt, Welsteed, and Prince. See above, pp. 365–366.
Pierre du Moulin (Molinaeus, 1568–1658)
Petri Molinei Elementa Logica. Tertia editio ab authore recognita. Paris: 1609.a
“Richard Saltonstallus Biblios autore”
“Nath. Saltonstall” [both A.B. 1695]
Another edition. Quarta editio. Paris: 1611.b
“Matheri” [n.d., but apparently in the hand of Cotton Mather] This copy shows evidence of careful study in numerous under-linings on pp. 1–104.
Another edition. Bremen: 1622.
“Joseph Cooke me suis addidit November 7 1659” [A.B. 1660]
Common Places of Christian Religion, gathered by Wolfgangus Musculus, for the use of suche as desire the knowledge of godly truthe, translated out of Latine into Englishe. Hereunto are added two other treatises, made by the same author, one of Othes, and another of Usurye. With a moste perfect and plentifull table. London: 1563.
“John Barnard His Book 1703” [A.B. 1700]
“Johannes Barnard Ejus Liber 1703”
“After my decease I give this book to my son Theophilinu[s?] Thornton.” [n.d.; seventeenth-century hand, certainly earlier than Barnard’s signature.]
In Evangelistam Matthaeum Commentarii tribus tomis digesti: quibus non solum singula quae que exponuntur, sed & quid singulis Marci & Lucae differentibus Iocis notandum sit, diligenter expenditur. Basle: 1567.
“John Denison’s Book [A.B. 1684] Nov. 8. 86 bought of Mr. [Samuel] Cobbett” [A.B. 1663]
Epitome Thesauri Linguae Sanctae. Leyden: 1599.
“Joshua Moodey” [A.B. 1653]
Thesaurus Linguae Sanctae. Cologne: 1614.
“Mccarty Thō” [A.B. 1691]
“I Stevens, 1720”
See also under Bible, Hebrew O.T.
A Scholasticall Discourse against symbolizing with Antichrist in ceremonies, especially in the signe of the crosse. T.p. mut. Amsterdam: 1607.
“Nathaniell Cutler his Booke 1661” [A.B. 1663]
“Samuel Brackenbury His Booke 1663” [A.B. 1664]
“Alexander Nowel his Booke 1664 [1?]” [A.B. 1664]
“Sam11 Mathers Book 1724” [A.B. 1723]
Francesco Patrizzi (Patritius, d1494)
Compendiosa Epitome Commentariorum Francisci Patritii Senensis Episcopi in duas partes secta: quarum prior, novem librorum de Reipublicae Institutione atque administratione summam complectitur. Accedit his, de Institutione Principis Christiani exlib. Des. Erasmi brevis collectio. Paris: 1568.
“Edmund Davie His Booke 1674” [A.B. 1674]
Simon Pelgrom (Pelegrom)
Synonymorum Sylva, olim a Simone Pelegromo collecta, & alphabeto Flandrico ab eodem authore illustrata: nunc autem e Belgorum sermone in Anglicanum transfusa, & in alphabeticam ordinem redacta, per H.F. ab eodem denuo multis locis emendata, & aucta. Accesserunt huic editioni synonyma quaedam poetica, in poesi versantibus perquam necessaria. London: 1650.
“Thomas Shepard me suis addidit 1655” [A.B. 1653]
“John Holyoke his booke 1659” [A.B. 1662]
“Joseph Buckingham His Book”
“D. C. Percival” “Stephen Steel”
An English-Latin phrase-book. Each English phrase is followed by a great variety of Latin phrases expressing the same idea (Plate xiv).
“Crescentius Mather His book: 1681”
“Cottonus Matherus filius ejus hunc librum possidet”
“Nathanaelis Matheri Liber 1683” [A.B. 1685]
Amandus Polanus, à Polansdorf
Syntagma Logicum Aristotelico-Ramaeum cum synopsi totius logicae. Basle: 1611.
“Abraham Pierson me jure tenet 1670” [A.B. 1668]
“Dan. Brewer me Jure Tenet Cantab: Novang: Sept. 30, 1722” [A.B. 1727]
Petrus Ramus (Pierre de la ramée)
Petri Rami Arithmetica et Geometria a Lazaro Schonero emendata. T.p. mut. Frankfort: 1627.b
Copious notes, mainly free translations of the Latin text, in the hand of Cotton Mather.
Petri Rami Arithmeticae libri duo: Geometriae septem et viginti. A Lazaro Schonero recogniti & aucti. Frankfort: 1619.
“Henry Dunster Long Sq.” [n.d., on back fly-leaf]
“Pret 6s as this book is now worth. I: Walter.” [n.d.]
“Increase [Walter? — name cut out] Anno Domini 1709” [probably Increase Walter, A.B. 1711]
The demonstrations are in part translated in the margins, in Dunster’s hand. On p. 241 (Sig. Aa) he writes:
“This work is written out & ye reasons of ye words given in my 2d assay 1649. Myne assay to teach Euclid & Ramus to speak English was at the first sight and reading thus written with purpose to ripen it on fuller thoughts. [Er]go many words I purpose to change wn I find out as dayly experience teacheth better.”
The Mr. Moody mentioned in the first inscription was Henry Moody, a Cambridge bookseller at the time of Dunster’s residence at the university.
Other mathematical treatises by Ramus are bound in this volume.
Cf. the Euclid listed above, purchased by Dunster in 1652.
P. Rami regii professoris Dialecticae libri duo. Paris: 1574.b
Bound in the same volume with Ramus’s Rudimenta Graeca Grammaticis, and Talon’s Rhetoric, which belonged to Dudley Bradstreet (A.B. 1698).
Another edition. Cum Commentariis Georgii Dounami annexis. London:1669.
“Nicholas Sever His book 1698” [A.B. 1701]
Commentarii in P. Rami regii professoris Dialecticam, quibus ex classicis quibusque auctoribus praeceptorum Rameorum perfectio demonstratur, sensus explicatur, usus exponitur; Auctore Georgio Dounamo, logicae quondam apud Cantabrigienses praelectore, & Collegii Christi socio. Frankfort: 1610. (Plate XV.)
“Jonathan Danforth his book anno Domini 1676” [A.B. 1679]
“Grindall Rawson secretary & yt is as good as a magistrate” [A.B. 1678]
Another copy. T.p. wanting.
“Jacobus Pierpont me suis addidit 1678” [A.B. 1681]
Another copy. T.p. wanting.
“Nicholas Sever 1698” [A.B. 1701]
PLATE I (page 383)
PLATE II (page 384)
PLATE III (page 385)
PLATE IV (page 389)
PLATE V (page 394)
PLATE VI (page 399)
PLATE VII (page 401)
PLATE VIII (page 404)
PLATE IX (page 407)
PLATE X (page 408)
PLATE XI (page 417)
PLATE XII (page 416)
PLATE XIII (page 418)
PLATE XIV (page 423)
PLATE XV (page 424, 427)
PLATE XVI (page 426)
“[Dudley] Bradstreet anno Sæculi Messiæ mdcxciv” [A.B. 1698]
Via Regia ad Geometriam. The Way to Geometry. Being necessary and usefull, for Astronomers. Geographers. Land-meaters. Sea-men. Engineers. Architecks. Carpenters. Paynters. Carvers, &c. Written in Latine by Peter Ramus, and now translated and much enlarged by the learned Mr. William Bedwell. Diagrams. London: 1636.
“Wm Brimsmead his book” [Class of 1655]
“Elisha Cooke me jure tenet. Præstat tacere quam Ioqui.” [A.B. 1657]
“Joseph Cooke me suis addidit November 3 1659” [A.B. 1660]
“John Wadloe his booke”
Christian Ravis (Raue)
A Generall Grammar for the ready attaining of the Ebrew, Samaritan, Calde, Syriac, Arabic, and the Ethopic languages. By Christian Ravis of Berlin. Tables, and frontispiece portrait of author. London: 1650. Library of Colonial Society of Massachusetts.
“Johannis Leveretti e Libris s[uis] Ex Dono Domini Samm Haugh 1 June” “Jno Leverett’s Booke 1679” [A.B. 1680]
“A[biel] Holmes” [A.B. Yale 1783; A.M. Harvard and Yale 1792] This book was evidently given to John Leverett when a Junior Sophister by Samuel Hough, who died June 25, 1679. It also bears the bookplate of Edward Everett, and the signatures of William W. Greenough, 1836, and of our late associate Henry H. Edes, who left it to this Society.
hcl also has a copy, as has the bpl (Prince); while the latter has in addition a copy of the 1649 edition.
The Logicians School-Master: or, a comment upon Ramus Logick, by Mr. Alexander Richardson, sometime of Queenes Colledge in Cambridge. Whereunto are added, his prelections on Ramus his Grammer; Taleus his Rhetorick; also his notes on Physics, Ethicks, Astronomy, Medicine, and Opticks. Never before published. London: 1657.
“Addington Davenport his booke 1691” [A.B. 1689] “Byles”
Another copy (at aas), containing no signatures of the seventeenth century, is thus qualified by a scornful student in 1753:
“The Author’s knowledge sure was great,
But it is grown now out of date”
Phraseologia Generalis; a full, large, and general phrase book. Cambridge: 1681.
Chester N. Greenough, Esq.
“Jonathan Belcher His Book Anno Domini 1698/9” [A.B. 1699]
“Jonathan Belcher [ ] Pretiū 12”
“Benjamin Wadsworth’s Book. February 11. 1767”
“This Book Belongs To the Revd Mr John Wadsworth of Canterbury In the Custody of James Sproull Anno Domini 1769/4o”
C. Sallustii Crispi Coniuratio Catilinae, Bellum Iugurthinum, Historiarum libri à Ludovico Carrione collecti & restituti. Portii Latronis declamatio in Catilinam. Adversariae Sallustii & Ciceronis, incerto auctore. Cum scholiis Aldi Manutii. Geneva: 1626.
“Joseph Gerrish his booke 1668” [A.B. 1669]
“Joh. Olliver” “James Cary who gave me to [ ]”
Logicae Artis Compendium. 3rd edition. Oxford: 1631.
“Bn Wadsworth 92/3” [A.B. 1690]
Joseph Scaliger. See Bible, Greek N. T.
Julius Caesar Scaliger
Iulii Caesaris Scaligeri exotericarum exercitationum liber XV de Subtilitate, ad Hieronymum Cardanum. Hanover: 1620. (Plate XVI.)
“Samuel Bellingham 1643” [A.B. 1642]
“Joshua Hobart [A.B. 1650] ex dono: S:B.”
Bellingham’s signature is the earliest dated one of a Harvard student in the present list.
There is a copy of the Lyons, 1615, edition in the Mather library at the
Lexicon Graeco-Latinum Novum. London: 1637.
“Joshua Moodey 1650” [A.B. 1653]
Scapula’s Lexicon was much used, if we may judge by the number of surviving copies, hcl alone possesses eight.
Wilhelmi Schickardi Horologium Hebraeum, sive consilium, quomodo sancta lingua spacio XXIV horarum a totidem collegis sufficienter apprehendi queat. London: 1639.
“Cottonus Matherus E D[ono] P[atris] 1674” [A.B. 1678]
Another copy. (Plate XV.)
“Nehemiah Ambrose his booke Cost 2s” [A.B. 1653]
“Johannis Cottoni Liber 1686” [A.B. 1681]
Another edition. Ab aliquot collegiis sufficienter apprehendi queat. Iam saepius comprobatum & ad exemplar quintae editionis Lipsiensis de anno 1633 diligenter non sine mendarum sublatione recusum. Franeker: 1646.
“Daniell Mason: his book” [A.B. 1666]
“John Harriman me jure tenet Anno Dom: 1663 feb: 15th” [A.B. 1667]
“D. Bradstreet’s Book” [A.B. 1698]
Another edition. Editio ultima, prioribus omnibus accuratior, plenior & ad usum tyronum accommodatior. Utrecht: 1661.a
“Leonard Hoare” [A.B. 1650; book bought, of course, after 1661]
“Crescentius Matherus” “Cotton Mather” “Byles”
“Bot at the sale of Dr Byles’ Lybrary”
Another edition. Editio ultima. London: n.d.
“peleg wisewalle his Book anno domini 1699” [A.B. 1702]
“Thomæ Prince Cantab. 1703” [A.B. 1707]
“Nathaniel Fisher” [A.B. 1706] “Nathan Prince” [A.B. 1718]
“Samuel Payson” [A.B. 1716]
On pp. 183, 198: “Nicholas Drew” “Wainwright.”
“T Prince Corderius Americanus Cheever Scholæ” [Cf. Cotton Mather’s funeral sermon on Cheever, Corderius Americanus, 1708.]
Terentius Christianus, sive comoediae duae Terentiano stylo conscripta ad usum scholarum. Tobaeus. Juditha. Pseudostratiotes. Autore Corn. Schonaeo. Cambridge: 1632.
“Cottonus Matherus E D[ono] P[atris] 1675” [A.B. 1678]
“Nathanaelis Matheri Liber 1680” [A.B. 1685]
Antonius van Schore
De Phrasibus Linguae Latinae. Basle: 1550.
“Cottoni Matheri Liber” [A.B. 1678]
“Nathanaelis Matheri Liber 1682” [A.B. 1685]
“Samuelis Matheri Liber”
Title-page mutilated. Title from Van de Aaa’s Woordenboek.
Kornelis schrevel (schrevelius)
Lexicon Manuale Graeco-Latinum, & Latino-Graecum. London: 1663.
“Samuel Sewall Huius Libri possessor 1674” [A.B. 1671]
“Samuel Sewall Martii 8. 1681/2”
“Joseph Sewall His Book May 25 1703” [A.B. 1707]
This very widely used lexicon first appeared in 1661, and was reprinted as late as 1822.
For another Schrevel item, see under Hesiod, above.
Cursus Theologicus, in quo controversiae inter nos et pontificos pertractantur. Authore D. M. Johanne Scharpio Scotobritanno, Andreapolitano, professore in Academia apud Dienses. Geneva: 1628.
“Cotton Matheri Liber, 1681” [A.B. 1678]
Hieroglyphica Animalium terrestrium, volatilium, natatilium, reptilium, insectorum, vegetivorum, metallorum, lapidum &c quae in Scripturis Sacris inveniuntur. Opus contextum per Archibaldum Simsonum Dalkethensis ecclesiae pastorem. Edinburgh: 1622.
“Cottonus Matherus 1674” [A.B. 1678]
“Nathaniel Mather 1681” [A.B. 1685]
A sort of Presbyterian bestiary.
Sophoclis Tragoediae VII. [Ajax Flagellifer, Electra, Œdipus Tyrannus, Antigone, Œdipus Colonnus, Trachiniae, Philoctetes.] Heidelberg: 1597.
“John Leuerett Ejus Liber 22 Septebri 1676” [A.B. 1680]
Bookplate: “John Leverett 1677”
Greek text, with Latin translation by Vitus Winsemius and notes by Gul. Cantezus.
Robert Stephen. See Bible, Greek N.T.
Metaphysicarum Disputationum, in quibus et universa naturalis theologia ordinate traditur, et quaestiones ad omnes duodecim Aristotelis libros pertinentes, accurate disputantur tomi duo. 2 vols, in one. Venice: 1605.
“Joseph Cooke me suis addidit July 29 1660” [A.B. 1660]
A Briefe Treatise of Testaments and Last Wils, very profitable to be understood of all the subjects of this realme of England, desirous to know whether, whereof, and how, they may make their testaments. By Henry Swinburne, sometime Judge of the Prerogative Court of Yorke. London: 1640.
“Thomas Brattle’s Book 11th May 1676” [A.B. 1676]
“William Brattle” [A.B. 1680]
Synopsis Purioris Theologiae disputationibus LII comprehensa, ac conscripta per J. Polyandrum, A. Ravetum, A. Walaeum, A. Thysium. Leyden: 1652.
“Thomæ Shepardi Liber 21, 3o. 1677” [A.B. 1676]
“Eduardi Paisoni Liber ex dono superscripti quondā possessoris 1677” [A.B. 1677] “Pret 3s6d”
“Samll Paison 1714” [A.B. 1716]
The title-page of this copy is mutilated. The title as given above is from the British Museum Catalogue. A series of student disputations at Leyden, presided over by the theologians mentioned.
Epitome Gymnasii Logici: i.e., de usu & exercitatione logicae artis, disputatiophilosophica; proposita ad publicam & placidam συζήτησιν, in praelustri Nassariorum Herbornaea, sub praesidio Johannis-Henrici Alstedii, a Johanne Talasio Reichardivilleno Bipontino. Herborn: 1610.
Bound with a copy of Alsted’s Pastor Conformatus, inscribed by Increase Mather in 1655.
Omer Talon (Talaeus)
Audomari Talaei Rhetorica e P. Rami praelectionibus observata. Frankfort: 1579.
Bound with Ramus’s Dialectics and Greek Grammar in a volume which is inscribed by Dudley Bradstreet (A.B. 1698).
Pub. Terentii Comoediae sex, ex recensione Heinsiana: cum annotationibus T. Farnabii et M. C[asauboni]. London: 1651.
“Crescentius Matherus” [not his youthful hand]
“Cottonus Matherus 1677” [A.B. 1678]
This copy, the title-page of which is mutilated, contains the Andria, Eunuchus, Heautontimorumenos, Adelphi, Phormio, and Hecyra.
Johannes Ravisius Textor (Jean Tixier de Ravisy, c 1480–1524)
Epithetorum Io. Ravisii Textoris Epitome, ex Hadr. Junii Medici recognitione. Accesserunt ejusdem Ravisii Synonyma Poëtica. London: 1642.
“Cottoni Matheri Liber 1674” [A.B. 1678]
“Samuel [Mather]” “John Quirk” “I.Q.”
“I.Q.” stamped on outside of each cover
Officinae Ioannis Ravisii Textoris epitome. [Also] Cornucopiae J. Rav Textoris epitome. Geneva: 1626.
“Cottonus Matherus his book”
“Nathanielis Matheri liber 1682” [A.B. 1685]
The Epitome comprises two volumes, a classical dictionary and an encyclopaedia; the Cornucopia is a brief encyclopaedia of natural history.
Ioh: Thaddaej Conciljatorium Biblicum. Engraved t.p., and portrait of author. Amsterdam: n.d.
“Jno Norton ejus liber 1668” [A.B. 1671]
Handwriting exercises in back.
Logici Systematis [libri V]. T.p. wanting. This is the running title. Preface signed at Steinfurth, 1612, by Clemens Timplerus, “Philosophiae in illustri Arnoldino Steinfurtensi Professor.” 898 pp.
“John Wibornus (?) est huius Liber verus possessor” [probably John Wyborne, temporary student, class of 1661. Cf. Sibley, I. 578; our Publications, xvii. 275.]
“Jno Richardson’s book 1664” [A.B. 1666]
“Jonathan Pierpont verus est hujus libri possessor” [A.B. 1685]
Tremellius. See Bible, Latin O.T.
Of the Morality of the Fourth Commandment, as still in force to binde Christians delivered by way of answer to the translator of Doctor Prideaux his lecture, concerning the doctrine of the Sabbath. London: 1641.
“John Cotton his Book 10. 3. 73” [A.B. 1657 or 1678]
“Theoph. Cottons Booke Decemb. 12, 1701” [A.B. 1701]
Vindiciae Gratiae Potestatis, ac Providentiae Dei. Hoc est, examen libelli Perkinsiani de praedestinationis modo et ordine. Autore Gulielmo Twisso. Amsterdam: 1632.b
“This book I borrowed of my Aunt Flint, and all these. Alting’s com̄on places, Jeane’s Scholastick Divinity. Another Fol: of Doctore Twise’s Works. Voetius his Divinity. Another of Alting’s Works in 4to Borrowed ye 15: 9th: 1687”
The only student of that date with an “Aunt Flint” who was a clergyman’s widow, was Henry Newman (A.B. 1687), who was then beginning his study for a second degree, and for the ministry. “Aunt Flint” was Mary (Willet), widow of Josiah Flynt (A.B. 1664), and mother of Tutor Flynt. The book was presented to the hcl by Lieutenant-Governor William Dummer.
Key of the Holy Tongue, wherein is conteined, first the Hebrew grammar out of P. M. Martinius. Englished by I. Udall. Leyden:1593.
“William Stoughton” [A.B. 1650]
“Increase Mather” [A.B. 1656]
Also in John Harvard’s Library, see our Publications, xxi. 225. The Grammar is that of Petrus Martinius of Navarre.
Peter Martyr Vermigli (1500–1562)
[Works:] Defensio de Eucharistiae Sacramento. Commentaries on Genesis, Kings, Judges, Samuel, Romans, and Corinthians. 7 vols. Basle and Zurich: 1565–1579.
“Cottoni Matheri Liber 1681” in each volume [A.B. 1678]
Phraseologia Anglo-Latina or, phrases of the English and Latin tongue: together with Paroemiologia Anglo-Latina or, a collection of English and Latin proverbs. Engraved t.p. London: 1672.
“Cottonus Matherus E D[ono] P[atris] 1675” [A.B. 1678]
“Nathanielis Matheri Liber 1682” [A.B. 1685]
Marcus Friedrich Wendelin (1584–1652)
Contemplationum Physicarum Sect. I. Physiologia Generalis, de principijs & affectionibus corporis naturalis. Autore Marco Friderico Wendelino. Hanover: 1625.
“Sr Danforth [Samuel, A.B. 1683] Henry Gibbs” [A.B. 1685; both in same hand]
“Henry Gibbs Booke dono Georgii C ”
“Ebena Sweetser Ejus Liber Sepbr 3 1718”
“Jesse Thomas His Book 1760”
Another edition. Cambridge: 1648.
“Thomas Swan Ejus Liber 1687” [A.B. 1689]
“Peter Ruck Book Anno Christi 1688/9” [A.B. 1685]
“Henricus Swan me inter suos numerat Anno Dominij 1696” [A.B. 1698]
“George Lamb His Booke ex dono Thomas Swan 1698”
“Joseph Cooke me suis addidit July 1659” [A.B. 1660]
Bookplate: “Elisha Cooke. His Book 1693” [A.B. 1697]
“Desire gorham is my name
and with my pen i rit the same
and if i colde a ritten better
i wolde a mended eueri leter”
Westminster Greek Grammar. See William Camden
Vincent Wing (1619–1668)
Astronomia Britannica: in qua per novam, concinnioremque methodum, hi quinque tractatus traduntur. 1. Logistica astronomica. II. Trigonometria. III. Doctrina sphaerica. IV. Theoria planetarum super hypothesi Copernicana. V. Tabulae novae astronomicae, congruentes cum observationibus Tychonis Brahaei. Authore Vincentio Wing, Mathem. Illustrated. London: 1669.
“Grindall Rawson me suis addidit novembris 23d 1677” [A.B. 1678]
“Johanni Leveretto vendidit July 28, 1681” [A.B. 1680]
“Samuel Danforthus [A.B. 1683] a [Nehemiah] Waltero [A.B. 1684], emit Decemb 1 26, 1683 Quid libri sine Lecture”
Astronomia Instaurata: a new compendious restauration of astronomie in four parts. London: 1656.a
Harmonicon Coeleste: an absolute and entire piece of astronomie. Grounded upon the most rationall hypothesis yet constituted, and compared with the best observations that are extant, especially those of Tycho Brahe. By Vincent Wing, Philomathemat. London: 1651.
“Brackenbury Astra petit” [A.B. 1664]
“Lege, Intellige, Vive J. B. 1670” [Joseph Browne, A.B. 1666]
“John Gore 1704 pre: 6s” [A.B. 1702]
“Edwardus Holyoke me jure tenet” [A.B. 1705]
These two books are bound in the same volume. Both are works on practical astronomy, with tables for navigation, compiling almanacs, etc. The volume contains many signatures later than that of Holyoke.
The Abridgment of Christian Divinitie, exactly and methodically compiled. By John Wollebius, Doctor of Divinity in the University of Basil. Faithfully translated into English by Alexander Ross. London: 1650.
“John Taylor His book 1700” [A.B. 1699]
“E. Parkman 1722” [A.B. 1721]
Sir Henry Wotton (1568–1639)
Reliquiae Wottonianae. Or a collection of lives, letters, poems, with characters of sundry personages by the curious pensil of Sr Henry Wotton Kt. London: 1651.
“John Richardson” [A.B. 1666]
“John Winthrop His Book 1698” [A.B. 1700]
This is the first edition of this work.
Girolamo Zanchi (1516–1590)
Hieronymi Zanchii de Operibus Dei intra spacium sex dierum creatis opus. Neustadt: 1602.
“Thomas MacCarty pret 1690” [A.B. 1691]
“John Barnard 1703” [A.B. 1700]
Also in John Harvard’s Library. See our Publications, xxi. 227.
Operum Theologicorum D. Hieronymi Zanchi, tomus primus. De tribus elohim aeterno Patre, Filio, et Spiritu Sancto, uno eodemque Jehova. Libri tredecim, pars prior, in qua, tota orthodoxa de hoc magno mysterio doctrina, ex Sacrarum Literarum fontibus, explicatur, & confirmatur. Additi sunt indices quinque. n.p.: 1613. bpl (Prince).
“John Sparhawk His Book 1692” [A.B. 1689]
“T. Prince 1713/4” [A.B. 1707]
List of Authors by Subjects
The arrangement of groups I–V in this list follows in general the order of studies and exercises given above: I. The study and analysis of the Bible. II. The principles of divinity and Christianity. III. The tongues. IV. Auxiliary studies: the arts and philosophies, history and politics. V. Exposition and defence. Following these groups are the encyclopaedias, dictionaries, and lexicons. Only the name of the author is given for each title. Detailed information as to the books themselves is to be found in the list of titles by authors, above, pp. 383–34.
- I. The Bible: Study and Analysis.
- (1) Texts. Besides the well-known Bible of President Dunster, now in the Harvard College Library, nineteen examples of the whole or of parts of the Bible owned by students of the seventeenth century have been found. Of these, thirteen are dated; three are “probables”; and three are “possibles.” These include the Old Testament in Hebrew (except the books of Ezra and Daniel, which are in “Chaldee”); the Pentateuch and the Psalms, also in Hebrew; and versions of the Old and New Testaments in Greek and Latin. Aside from the Polyglott Bible owned by Nathaniel Mather in 1693, no student-owned example thus far discovered contains the Syriac version of the New Testament.
- (2) Commentaries: logical analysis. See under Ames, Bythner, Garthwait, Herlin, Musculus, Thaddaeus, Twisse, and Vermigli.
- II. Principles of Divinity.
- (1) Divinity catechetical: no texts have been identified.834
- (2) Theology: doctrinal and polemic. See under Alsted, Ames, Brochmand, Buchan, Calvin, Chytraeus, Durand, Jeans, du Jon, Maccovius, Sharpe, Twisse, Vermigli, Wolleb, and Zanchi.
- (3) Theology: practical. See under Alsted, Ames, and Dickson.
- (4) Commonplaces. See under Maccovius and Musculus.
- III. The Tongues.
- (1) Latin.835
- (2) Greek.
- (3) Hebrew.
- (4) Chaldee (Aramaic).
- (a) Grammar. See under Buxtorf, Bythner, and Ravis.
- (b) Literature. See Biblia Hebraica (Books of Ezra and Daniel).
- (5) Syriac.
- (a) Grammar. See under Ravis.
- (b) Literature. Trostius, Syriac Version of the New Testament.843
- IV. The Arts and Philosophies.
- (1) Logic. See under Ames, Beurhaus, Brattle, Burgersdicius, Downame, Goclenius, Heereboord, Hippius, Keckermann, Milton, Morton, du Moulin, Polanus, Ramus, Richardson, Sanderson, Talasius, and Timpler.
- (2) Physics. See under Aristotle, Bartholin, Burgersdicius, Comenius, Galtrucius, Heereboord, Hippius, Magirus, Morton, and Wendelin.
- (3) Nature of plants. No separate work on this subject has been identified, but chapters iv–vi of the fourth Book of Magirus’s Physiologia probably indicate the character of the study. These chapters are entitled: “De stirpium natura in genere”; “De quibusdam stirpium affectionibus”; “De plantarum partibus.” Aristotle’s De Plantis is quoted throughout.
- (4) Metaphysics. See under Bartholin, Burgersdicius, Carpenter, Descartes, Gassendi, Heereboord, G. Jack, and Maccovius.
- (5) Ethics. See under Aristotle, Eustache de St. Paul, Heereboord, Magirus, and More.
- (6) Politics. No seventeenth-century text-book on politics has been found. Several copies of Aristotle’s Politics, evidently imported into Massachusetts before 1700, have been examined, but none can be identified with Harvard. The subject is treated in the second volume of Keckermann’s Works (1614), and in Patrizzi’s Compendiosa Epitome. It appears, however, that politics, as such, received little, if any, attention in the programme of the seventeenth century.
- (7) History. See under Godwyn.
- (8) Chronology. See under Alsted, Baillie, and Langius.
- (9) Geography.844 See under Heylyn.
- (10) Mathematics. See under Keckermann, whose Cursus Philosophici Encyclopaedia also contains sections on arithmetic, geometry, optics, and geography.
- (11) Arithmetic.845 See under Ramus.
- (12) Geometry. See under Euclid and Ramus.
- (13) Astronomy. See under Gassendi, Longberg, Maestlin, and Wing.
- V. Exposition and Defense of the Bible: Theory and Practice.
- (1) Rhetoric: principles. See under Talon.
- (2) Composition: examples and helps.846 See under “Carmina Proverbialia,” Aphthonius, Buchler, Despautère, Draxe, Erasmus, Fundanus, T. Jack, Lycosthenes, Manuzzio, Pelegrom, van Schore, Textor, and Walker.
- (3) Declamation: specimens and technique. See under “Conciones et Orationes,” Clarke, and Morels lo Campano.
- (4) Disputation: specimens and technique.847 See under Farley, Heereboord,848 and Suarez.
- (5) Commonplaces. See under Principles of Divinity, above.
- VI. Encyclopaedias, Dictionaries, Lexicons. See under Alsted, Avenarius, “Clavis Homerica,” “Dictionarie,” Buxtorf, Godwyn, Keckermann, Martini, Scapula, Schrevel, and Textor.
Mr. Lawrence Shaw Mayo presented a paper entitled:
About a year ago I heaved the sigh of relief and satisfaction that is apt to accompany the completion of a long piece of work. In the dim past I had promised to edit Thomas Hutchinson’s History of Massachusetts-Bay for the Harvard University Press, and now apparently the copy was ready for the printer. The texts of the three editions that came out in the eighteenth century had been collated and the variations carefully noted. The hundreds of individuals, great and small, whose names appear in the three volumes of Hutchinson’s work had been identified or elaborated upon in footnotes which, it was hoped, the prospective reader might find useful and perhaps interesting. An editor’s introduction had been put on paper, and a memoir of Hutchinson was being prepared. In the future lurked the unpleasant prospect of making an index to the work, but that chore of chores must wait, of course, until the page proof began to come in. Apparently the thing was practically ready to go to the press. Then a disturbing but rather stimulating rumor reached my ears.
A gentleman in New Jersey, who had bought what he supposed to be an original manuscript of a chapter of Volume III, wrote Mr. Harold Murdock that Williams College claimed to have the whole manuscript of that volume. This was interesting, for up to that time I had not supposed that the manuscript of any part of Hutchinson’s work was in existence, except that mud-stained draft of Volume II which survived the destruction of Hutchinson’s Boston mansion in August, 1765, and is now preserved in the archives at the State House. As the third volume was published in 1828, almost a half-century after the death of the author, it seemed not unlikely that the original manuscript might contain material that Hutchinson’s grandson had chosen to omit in the printed version. The Governor had been rather frank in his character sketches of James Bowdoin, Samuel Adams, Joseph Hawley, John Adams, and John Hancock. Who could say that other Revolutionary worthies had not been treated with even more frankness in the manuscript? I wrote to Williamstown and asked if the rumor were true. The reply was prompt and exciting: the Chapin Library possessed not only the original manuscript of Volume III but also Hutchinson’s own copies of the first two volumes with the author’s corrections noted in the margins; furthermore, the pages of the latter were interleaved here and there with additional text and notes in Hutchinson’s own hand. It was not long before I was on my way to Williamstown.
When the first two volumes were laid before me in the Chapin Library, my first feeling was one of dismay. Governor Hutchinson, when revising his work, had used the London edition (1765 and 1768) as his base. I had used the Boston edition (1764 and 1767) as my base. Fortunately the paging of the two editions is practically identical; but the texts show variations, and after much thought I had decided that the Boston edition was the more accurate. ’Tis true, the author had corrected a few errors before the London edition was printed; but the English printer had added a number of errors of his own, and I had reasoned that it was best to go back to the original edition for a firm foundation. I am still inclined to believe that Hutchinson would have done just that if copies of the Boston edition were to be had. Perhaps they were obtainable, but as he made his revision while in exile in England, it is more likely that he was obliged to use the London edition, as that was the only one to be procured on that side of the Atlantic. However that may have been, the only thing for me to do was to transfer all my notes to the second edition, delete some, and change others until they fitted into the Hutchinsonian scheme. I shall pass over the details of this process, but I am happy to say that it proved to be a much less arduous piece of work than I had anticipated.
In the decade or more that had elapsed since the publication of Volumes I and II, what had Hutchinson unearthed that he wished to include in his final revision? That was the really important question. The first striking addition was a footnote relating to the Plymouth Company. As his authority the author cites not Bradford’s History but the Book of Records of the Council of Plymouth, a source which presumably he had discovered after coming to England. As the note is not long, and as the incident he mentions was new to me, I venture to quote it here:
This Company was not fully satisfied with a Charter from the King and in the year 1622 had determined to apply to Parliament for a confirmation or for a new Grant. In case of a judicial proceeding it might be made a question whether the King had not exceeded his prerogative and complaint was actually made in Parliament against this Charter as a Monopoly which the King had not authority to grant; but the authority of Parliament, the supreme legislative power, is not to be called in question in a judicial process, and that power only which made the grant can annull or reassume it. A doubt arose whether a new Charter from the Parliament would not occasion the proceedings of the Company during the two years they had acted under a Charter from the King to be called in question, and this stopped the application.
Most of the manuscript additions to the first hundred pages of Volume I consist of sidelights on various individuals mentioned in the text: who Roger Conant was; where Samuel Fuller, of the Plymouth Colony, was before he came to New England; a line or two on Lady Moody; more on Sir Richard Saltonstall, whose family, according to Hutchinson, “was of Killingley, Yorkshire, in England, and flourished there several ages”; a glimpse of the early life of Increase Nowell, one of the Assistants of the Bay Company; an apparently irrelevant note that “Vincent Potter came to Boston but returned to England and was one of the King’s Judges.” Much if not all of this information has become available for us through other channels; but to Hutchinson it appears to have been new and precious, and he took pains to incorporate it in his final revision.
Of these personal notes not the least interesting concerns John Davenport, one of the founders of New Haven. Where Hutchinson discovered the document which he quotes I have been unable to ascertain. Very likely it is in print somewhere today, but I have not found it referred to in any life or sketch of Davenport. That it was a delight to Hutchinson is clear. His note begins thus:
Dr. Mather in the life of this Mr. Davenport takes notice of his fleeing to Holland about the year 1633 and that he did not succeed there, because he declined baptizing children whose parents or sureties were ignorant or scandalous. But there is a passage in a letter from Archbishop Laud to Vossius Feb. 24 (O.S.), 1633, which if the Doctor had seen he would not have omitted mentioning.
Then follows a quotation from Laud’s letter to Vossius, professor of history at Amsterdam. It is in Latin; and, what is more, it is in that unusual variety of Latin which Laud took pleasure in using when writing to his associates. It was sure to make them reach for their glossaries. I shall not quote it in the original, but shall substitute a translation which Professors Birdsall and Wild, of Williams College, were so kind as to construct for me. It runs thus:
I have very recently seen your letters to Goffe, etc. It is sheer imagination to assume that the Bishops of England wish to extend their jurisdiction over your churches. That does not occur to them even in their sleep. Davenport, who at least possesses a poetic imagination, is romancing if he says this. For our most serene highness the King desires that neither his merchants nor others of his subjects grant preferment to Forbes or to any other like him in the English Church. Therefore when Forbes was dismissed, Goffe — to whom you have written — a learned man and discreet spokesman of our faith — was substituted for him by the votes of every one. What has this to do with your churches? But since that workshop reeks of Davenport, you shall have evidence of the man in his relations with us. Three years ago, more or less, he was tried in my presence when I was Bishop of London, etc. If as a traitor to his church and to the Reformed Church he is the more acceptable to your Amsterdam congregation, then may he enjoy his good fortune, and may you enjoy him!
When rereading what he had published concerning the history of the first fifteen years of the Bay Colony, Hutchinson inserted in the text a commentary upon the course of government and described a local incident to illustrate his point. The new material is this:
The magistrates and executive courts were vigilant in suppressing all offences against the authority of Government. Persons were tried and punished every term for disrespectful words of particular magistrates as well as of the legislative and executive courts. The Town of Hingham had chosen Bozoune Allen for their Captain and presented him to the General Court for confirmation, which it seems was not obtained during the session. Some of the inhabitants of Hingham were offended by the delay and used expressions concerning the liberty of an English free born subject which were judged derogatory to the authority of the General Court, for which they were convened before a magistrate and required to give bond to appear before a quarter court, which they refused to do and were committed to prison. They then petitioned the general court for a hearing before them as being a matter which concerned the liberty of the people, the peace of the churches and the glory of God, which would be made to appear; but the petition was dismissed and the petitioners fined 100s. When the Marshall came to Hingham to levy the fines, Mr. Peter Hubbard849 the minister of the town desired to see his warrant and pronounced it insufficient, not being in his Majesty’s name to whom he had been sworn, and added that they had sent to England for advice and expected an answer, that he looked upon the government as no more than a corporation in England without power to put men to death by virtue of the patent or to do some other things they did. For this he was tried and found guilty of uttering divers speeches tending to sedition and contempt of the government contrary to the law of God and peace and welfare of the country, and the Court fined him twenty pounds and required him to enter into bonds with sureties for keeping the peace, etc. This looks like severity, though it seems necessary and that they could not otherwise have supported their authority.
Another interesting commentary on our ancestors was added to the text where it treats of the condition of the churches about 1670:
Separations and divisions in churches and religious societies [wrote Hutchinson] are liable to subdivisions ad infinitum, and it argues the perverseness of human nature, that the fiercest disputes and the strongest alienations are often caused by a difference of sentiment upon a single, and perhaps an immaterial, tenet only; and if the separatist renounces the tenet, he oftener joins to a Society from which he has differed in many other and more material points than to that from which he separated. Thus, in New England, a Baptist who separated from the Congregational churches on the point of Infant Baptism only, if he renounces the tenet, generally goes over to the Episcopal church, rather than to the Congregational from which he had separated.
One or two new passages in the text undoubtedly reflect the comments of readers. For instance, in the History as printed Hutchinson had given this instance of the privation endured by an early settler in 1630 and of his gratitude for such sustenance as he was able to obtain: “A good man, who had asked his neighbour to a dish of clams, after dinner returned thanks to God who had given them to suck of the abundance of the seas and of treasure hid in the sands.” Why this passage called for a footnote is not clear, but I infer that some reader in England (presumably one who had never tasted steamed clams) was perplexed by the reference to “treasure hid in the sands.” However that may have been, in revising the text Hutchinson added the following explanatory footnote: “Alluding to the clams which ly buried in the sands. Clams are not common in England. I have seen them at Manning Wee. Upon enquiry I was informed at the Inn that poor people sometimes digged them up for food.” I gather, too, that the author’s list of certain early New England sinners, their delinquencies, and the ways in which the culprits were punished had been a bright spot to more than one valiant reader who got as far as page 436 of Volume I. Accordingly Hutchinson saw fit to reward others who might progress to that extent by adding for their edification and entertainment a few more examples. I shall quote but two: “George Palmer, having committed folly with Margery Ruggs through her allurement, because he confessed voluntarily, was only set in the stocks.” “Margery Ruggs for inticing and alluring George Palmer was censured to be severely whipped.”
The corrections and additions for Volume II, which covers the period from 1691 to 1750, are comparatively few. In my transcripts they occupy only nine pages of longhand against eighty-seven for Volume I. It is conceivable that the author wearied of his task of revision by the time he reached this point; but knowing the conscientious thoroughness with which Hutchinson carried out any undertaking to which he had set his hand, I am inclined to attribute the diminution to another cause. The first volume, as originally written, was an experiment. The author had never before attempted the writing of history. His chief purpose was to put on paper the events of the first sixty years of the life of the Bay Colony. I think it will be agreed that the result was very dry reading. After the volume was printed, he received friendly and helpful criticism of his style, notably from Ezra Stiles, a future president of Yale College. Stiles, and probably other readers, told him that his narrative lacked life and that the book would be more enjoyable if the author made comments of his own upon the characters and careers of the central figures.850 Hutchinson appears to have taken this advice; certainly the second volume shows improvement over the first. Consequently, when he began to revise Volume II, he found little that needed to be done. His only addition that calls for remark here concerns the composition of the Council under the new charter. That body consisted of twenty-eight members, elected by the House of Representatives, and it took the place of the Assistants under the old charter. Hutchinson’s comment takes the form of a footnote and runs as follows:
While the heads of the charter were under the consideration of the Board of Trade, a vote passed that Board, determining that the Deputy Governor and Secretary should be ex officio of the Council.
For the sake of clarity, Hutchinson should have said that the twenty-eight senators plus the two kings made the total number thirty. To his mind, therefore, it was entirely clear that those who drafted the charter of 1691 intended that the Council should consist of twenty-eight elected members plus the lieutenant-governor and the secretary ex officio, making a total of thirty as was the case in ancient Greece. In the third volume, as printed, there are elaborate footnotes to this effect;851 but the point about the deputy-governor being ex officio a member of the Council meant so much to Thomas Hutchinson that he mentioned it here as well. He was still suffering from a burning memory of his exclusion from the Council in 1767, when he claimed his seat as of right because he was the Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts-Bay — and was denied it.852
Finally we come to the manuscript of Volume III. How much does it contain that was not published by Hutchinson’s grandson in 1828? The answer is: almost nothing. A careful collation with the printed version brings to light many minor variations, but none of any importance. Though the copy that went to the printer was considerably touched up by the editor of 1828, who appears to have liked his own phraseology and spelling better than that of his distinguished ancestor, the sense and substance of the original were not essentially changed. There is, however, one interesting sentence in Hutchinson’s hand, which was not printed and was not intended to be printed. At the top of the page where the author began his enlivening sketches of James Bowdoin, Samuel Adams, Joseph Hawley, John Adams, and John Hancock, Hutchinson — with that caution that was characteristic of him throughout his career — penned the following words: “Here may be inserted in the body, if thought proper, as follows.”
So far I have been unable to estimate the importance or unimportance of Hutchinson’s additions to his work when looked at as contributions to our knowledge of the history of Massachusetts. But whatever the ultimate appraisal may be, it is at least pleasant to reflect that within the boundaries of our state there is preserved — and well preserved — Governor Hutchinson’s final revision of his History of Massachusetts-Bay.
Mr. Albert Matthews read a paper entitled:
At the end of his interesting sketch of Paul Dudley, written for the continuation of Sibley’s Harvard Graduates, Mr. Clifford K. Shipton said: “Much has been quoted against the character of Paul Dudley, largely from prejudiced sources.” No better illustration of the truth of this remark could be adduced than the story which follows.
The famous “Speech of Miss Polly Baker” first appeared, so far as is known, in the Gentleman’s Magazine for April, 1747.853 Though its authorship was apparently never publicly admitted by Franklin, its attribution to him may be accepted with confidence.854 In the same issue was printed —
THE vainly anxious Myra leaves *
To passive judges her complaints:
Her cause wou’d awe them, were they knaves;
Her eyes wou’d bribe them, were they saints.
* This may suit the beautiful Polly Baker.855
In the issue for May, 1747, appeared the following:
THE note to the Epigram on Mira, p. 194, was very aptly added, for when I was in New England, in the year 1745,1 had the pleasure of seeing the celebrated Polly Baker, who was then, though near 60 years of age, a comely woman, and the wife of Paul Dudley, Esq; of Roxbury, about two miles from Boston, who marry’d her and had 15 children by her. I send you this information, because it has been insinuated, that the speech publish’d in her name, was entirely fictitious; that it could not be the speech of any woman (in which many females for different reasons concur) but was entirely the invention of some Templer or Garretteer.
It must be noted that it is the custom in this country,856 for young persons between whom there is a courtship, or treaty of marriage, to lye together, the woman having her petticoats on, and the man his breeches, and afterwards, if they do not fall out, they confess the covenant at church, in the midst of the congregation, and to the minister, who declares the marriage legal; and if any thing criminal has been acted, orders a punishment accordingly, sometimes of forty stripes save one.
I am, Sir, Yours, &c.
June 1, 1747.
THE author of the letter in your Magazine for May, sign’d William Smith, is egregiously imposed upon; for ’tis well known, that Paul Dudley, Esq; never acted in any judicial capacity in Connecticut, but is chief justice of the province where he has always resided, and has been long married to a daughter of the late Gov. Winthrop,858 by whom he never had any children.
As they are of very good families, and he is one of the first rank in the country, ’tis pity their names should be ignorantly or wantonly used in support of a fictitious speech.
The scurrilous description of the customs of young persons, if in use at all, is among the very lowest sort of people only.
Yours, &c.L. Americanus859
Finally, in the same magazine for July, 1748, appeared this humble apology:
Whereas, thro’ the wicked contrivance of one William Smith, we unwarily publish’d in our Magazine for May 1747, a letter sign’d by him, which we are now fully sensible contains a most groundless, vile and injurious slander and imputation upon the Hon. Paul Dudley, Esq; his Majesty’s chief justice of the province of the Massachusetts Bay, the principal province in New England; and his lady, a person of the most unblemish’d reputation, and remarkable during her whole life for her great modesty, virtue, and other amiable qualities: And whereas the said William Smith hath since absconded, so that he cannot lawfully be punish’d for his malicious and gross abuse, we being desirous that all possible reparation should be made in this case, do hereby publickly confess our great concern that we should suffer ourselves to be imposed upon, and become the means of publishing so great a calamity, and ask pardon of Mr Dudley and his lady for the same.
And whereas the said letter also contains a base and scandalous aspersion upon the inhabitants of the aforesaid province, by representing their customs in points of marriage as extremely irregular and indecent, contrary to the truth and to the standing laws of that province, approved by the king in council, we ask pardon of the said province for having published the same.860
That, so far as I am aware, was the wind-up of the yarn. One would like to know the identity of “William Smith,” if only for the purpose of paying tribute to an imagination so vivid as to cause him to see, state the age, describe the appearance, and name the husband of a woman who had never existed in the flesh. And who was “L. Americanus”? He could not have been Dudley’s brother-in-law John Winthrop, then living in England (though he died August 1, 1747), for he would not have blundered about Dudley’s wife. The apology submitted in July, 1748, was so abject as to suggest that Paul Dudley himself took legal steps.
The Editor presented by title, on behalf of Mr. Robert F. Seybolt, a communication entitled:
Shortly after the fire of January 24, 1764, the residents of Harvard Hall, members of the classes 1765–1767, filed with the General Court inventories of their losses, with petitions for reimbursement. The records indicate that these appraisals were treated as just claims on the “publick treasury,” and that allowances were made to the “sufferers.” Naturally the students listed all their belongings, the usual miscellanea of books, wearing apparel, furniture, cooking utensils, and other objects.861 Of particular interest are the books, which reflect the programme of studies and the reading of leisure hours.
For the most part the entries in the lists are unsatisfactory: the names of authors are omitted, or the titles are incorrectly cited. Often, too, the abbreviated titles do not indicate the character of the books. For the purpose of repairing the records so that they may reveal more clearly the nature of student reading and study of the period, complete bibliographical citations are necessary.
In attempting to supply these, I have purposely omitted such books as Johnson’s Dictionary and Locke’s Essay on Human Understanding, since they are referred to by their undergraduate owners in such a way as to need no further identification. Of the remainder all but two titles have been identified. In arranging the bibliographical material for them I have pooled the titles that appear in fourteen of the fifteen inventories and have listed them alphabetically by authors in so far as the authors are known. It has not seemed necessary to give the dates of all the editions of these books, and I have given only that of the earliest that could be discovered. Furthermore, I have made no attempt to supply titles for such entries as “Virgil,” “Tully,” “greek and Latin grammars,” “Hebrew Psalter,” “Greek Testament,” “Two Psalm Books,” or “An Accidence,” except where the exact edition used is indicated.
By way of summarizing the titles which follow and the others which are not given here, it is interesting to point out that Virgil is mentioned 22 times; the Bible, 18; Cicero, 17; Greek grammars, 14; books on logic, 13; Latin grammars, 12; Greek and Latin Testaments, 11 each; Hebrew Psalters, rhetorics, Greek catechisms, and Greek lexicons, 9 each; Clarke’s Corderius, Wollebius’s Compendium, and geographies, 8 each; Homer and Latin lexicons, 7 each; the Psalms, 6; Caesar’s Commentaries, Euclid, and Locke’s Essay on Human Understanding, 5 each. With the exception of the lexicons these were texts, and they indicate the nature of the programme of studies which obtained throughout the eighteenth century. Of the list as a whole only a few titles could be classed as “light reading” — the voyages, “6 Plays,”862 and various periodicals; but it is not likely that students who owned novels or other books regarded as unsuitable for undergraduates would have placed such books in their inventories.
- Joseph Addison. The Free-Holder, or political essays. London, 1715–16.
- Whole Duty of Mann.
- Richard Allestree. The Whole Duty of Man, laid down in a plain and familiar way for the use of all, but especially the meanest reader. London, 1677.
- Confutation of the Arians.
- Arianisme Confuted without Dispute, by an historical scheme of the material object, of salvifick faith showing by what progresses its terms have become thro the various peroids [sic] of divine dispensation more explicit. London, 1720.
- Travels of 14 Eng. Men to Jerum.
- T. B. The Travels of Fourteen Englishmen, in 1669, from Scanderoon to Tripoly, Joppa, Ramah, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Jericho, the River Jordan, the Lake of Sodom and Gemorrah. London, 1683.
- Baileys Dictionary.
- Baileys Exercise.
- Nathan Bailey. An Universal Etymological English Dictionary. 2 vols. London, 1731.
- Nathan Bailey. English and Latin Exercises for Schoolboys, to translate into Latin systematically, comprising all the rules of grammar. London, 1706.
- Nathan Bailey. Polyanthea, a Famous Collection of Commonplaces in alphabetical order, made first by Domini Nani de Mirabella [Venice, 1507], of great service to orators, preachers, &c of the lower class. 2 vols. London, 1731.
- Italian Convert.
- Nicolas Balbani. The Italian Convert, newes from Italy, of a second Moses; or, the life of Galeacius Carracciolus the noble Marquess of Vico. Containing the story of his admirable conversion from popery, forsaking a rich marquesdome for the gospels sake. London, 1639.
- Barnard’s Sermons on ye Imperfection of ye Creature &c.
- John Barnard. The Imperfection of the Creature, and the excellency of the divine commandment. Boston, 1747.
- Berry Street Sermons.
- Berry-Street Sermons, being a collection of discourses on the principal heads of the Christian religion. 2 vols. London, 1758.
- The Cadet.
- Samuel Bever. The Cadet; a military treatise. London, 1756.
- Boyer’s French Grammar.
- Abel Boyer. The Compleat French Master. London, 1694.
- Boyle’s Voyages.
- Robert Boyle. The Voyages and Adventures of Captain R[obert] B[oyle]. 2nd edition. London, 1728.
- Brattles Logicks.
- See above, p. 393.
- Burgersdics Logic.
- See above, p. 172.
- Hebrew Bucstorf.
- Buxtorf Lexicon.
- Johann Buxtorf. Biblia Hebraea, cum utraque Masora et Targum. 3 vols. Basel, 1618–19.
- Johann Buxtorf. See above, p. 396.
- Hebrew Bethny.
- Victor Bythner. Lingua Eruditorum. Hoc est, nova et methodica institutio linguae sanctae usui eorum quibus fontes Israëlis plenè intelligere, & ex illis limpidissimas acquas haurire, curae cordique est, accommodata. Oxford, 1638.
- Castalio’s Dials.
- Sébastien Châteillon. Dialogorum Sacrorum ad linguam et mores puerorum formandos libri IV. Antwerp, 1552.
- Doct Chauncey’s Dudleian Lectures.
- Charles Chauncy. The Validity of Presbyterian Ordination Asserted and Maintained. A discourse delivered at the anniversary Dudleian-lecture at Harvard-College in Cambridge, in New-England, May 12, 1762. Boston, 1762.
- Cicero Delp.863
- M. Tullii Ciceronis Orationes. Interpretatione et notis illustravit C. [de Hallot] de Merouville; ad usum Delphini. 3 vols. Paris, 1684.
- M. Tullii Ciceronis Epistolae ad Familiares; interpretatione et notis illustravit P. Quartier; in usum Delphini. Paris, 1685.
- Select Fables of Æsop by Clerk.
- H. Clarke. Fabulae Aesopi Selectae. With an English translation. Boston, 1787. 10th edition. London, 1789.864
- 2 Clark’s Corderius’s.
- Clarks Erasmus.
- Clark’s Introduction.
- Justin’s History by Clerk.
- John Clarke. Corderii Colloquiorum Centuria Selecta; or, a select century of Cordery’s colloquies, with an English translation as literal as possible, designed for the use of beginners of the Latin tongue. London, 1718.
- John Clarke. Erasmi Colloquia Selecta. With an English translation. London, 1720.
- John Clarke. An Introduction to the Making of Latin, comprising the substance of Latin syntax. London, 1740.
- John Clarke. Justini Historiae Philippicae; cum versione Anglica. London, 1759.
- Coles Dictionary.
- Elisha Coles. A Dictionary, English-Latin and Latin-English. London, 1677.
- Cooper’s Do [Sermon] on Titus 2. 6.
- William Cooper. Serious Exhortations Address’d to Young Men. A sermon preached on the Lord’s Day, May 14, 1732. Boston, 1732.
- 2 Observations on the Classicks.
- Gisbert Cuper. Observationum Libri III; on different Greek and Latin authors. Utrecht, 1670.865
- Dares’ Trojan War.
- Dictys Cretensis and Dares Phrygius. De Bello Trojano. London, 1702.
- 2 Setts of Preceptr.
- Robert Dodsley. The Preceptor: containing a general course of education. 2 vols. London, 1748.
- Drake’s Voyages.
- The Voyages of Sir F[rancis] D[rake] into the West Indies, and round about the world. London, 1683.
- Dugards Rhetorick.
- Select Dialogues of Lucian by Dugard.
- William Dugard. See above, p. 365, note 2.
- William Dugard. Luciani; Dialogorum Selectorum Libri Duo. London, 1685.
- Edwards on the Affections.
- Jonathan Edwards. A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections. Boston, 1746.
- Erskins Gospel Sonnits.
- Ralph Erskine. Gospel Sonnets; or, Spiritual Songs. 2nd edition. Edinburgh, 1726.
- Farnaby & Dugard’s Rhetore.
- Thomas Farnaby. Index Rhetoricus scholis et institutioni tenerioris aetatis accommodatus. Cui adjiciuntur formulae oratoriae. London, 1633. (For Dugard, see above.)
- Fisher’s Arithmetick.
- George Fisher. Cocker’s Arithmetick Corrected. London, 1725. (43rd edition of Cocker’s Arithmetic.)
- Mr Flavils Method of Grace.
- John Flavel. The Method of Grace, in bringing home the eternal redemption, contrived by the Father, and accomplished by the Son through the effectual application of the Spirit unto God’s elect. London, 1680.
- The Sin & Folly of unlawful Pleasures, A Sermon.
- James Fordyce. The Folly, Infamy and Misery of Unlawful Pleasure. Edinburgh, 1760.
- Gordens Geographical Grammar.
- Patrick Gordon. Geography Anatomized; or, a compleat geographical grammar. London, 1693.
- Gravesand’s Mathl Elements.
- Willem Jacob’s Gravesande. Mathematical Elements of Natural Philosophy, confirmed by experiments, or an introduction to Sir Isaac Newton’s philosophy. 2 vols. London, 1720.
- Spiritual Warfare a new Book.
- Andrew Gray. The Spiritual Warfare; or, some sermons concerning the nature of mortification, together with the right exercise & spiritual advantages thereof. Edinburgh, 1671.
- Nomen Clator.
- Francis Gregory. Nomenclatura Brevis Anglo-Latino-Graeca in usum scholarum. Together with examples of the five declensions of nouns, with the words in propria quae Maribus, and quae genus, reduced to each declension. London, 1675.
- Guthrie’s Tryal of Int. in X.
- Guthree on Tully.
- William Guthrie. A Short Treatise of the Christian’s Great Interest, divided into two parts; the first whereof containeth the trial of a saving interest in Christ. Edinburgh, 1659.
- William Guthrie. M. T. Cicero de Oratore; or, his three dialogues upon the character and qualifications of an orator. Translated into English. London, 1742.
- The Tea Table.
- Eliza Haywood. The Tea-Table, or a conversation between some polite persons of both sexes at a lady’s visiting day. London, 1725.
- Hedericus’es Lexicon.
- Benjamin Hederich. Lexicon Manuale Graecum. London, 1722.
- Hill’s Lexicon.
- Joseph Hill. This is an edition of Schrevel’s Lexicon. See above, p. 428.
- Horace Delp.’
- Opera cum interp. et notis P. Rodellii, ad usum Delphini. London, 1690.
- Opera cum notis L. Desprez in usum Delphini. London, 1699.
- Hutchinson’s Xenophontis de Cyri &c.
- Thomas Hutchinson (1698–1769). De Cyri Institutione Libri Octo. Oxford, 1727.
- Aristocles Syst of Morality.
- [Samuel Johnson (1696–1772)]. Ethices Elementa or the first principles of moral philosophy. By Aristocles. Boston, 1746.
- Kennett’s Roman Antiquities.
- Basil Kennet. Romae Antiquae Notitia, or the antiquities of Rome. London, 1696.
- King’s Heathen Gods.
- William King. An Historical Account of the Heathen Gods and Heroes, necessary for the understanding of the ancient poets. London, 1710.
- Gentleman’s Libray.
- [Andrew Kippis and others.] The Library: or, moral and critical magazine. By a Society of Gentlemen. 2 vols. London, 1761.
- Seneca’s Morals Englishd.
- Roger L’Estrange. Seneca’s Morals by Way of Abstract. 5th edition. London, 1613.
- Lillies Grammar.
- William Lily. A Shorte Introduction of Grammar, generally to be used; compyled and set forth for the bringing up of all those that intende to attayne the knowledge of the Latine tongue. London, 1577.
- Littlton’s Dictiony Eng. & Lat. 4to.
- Adam Littleton. Linguae Latinae Liber Dictionarius Quadripartitus. London, 1678.
- Philosophic Solitude; a poem.
- [William Livingston.] Philosophic Solitude: or, choices of a rural life. A poem. By a gentleman educated at Yale College. New York, 1747.
- Martin’s Philosophl Grammar.
- Benjamin Martin. The Philosophical Grammar; being a view of the present state of experimental physiology, or natural philosophy. London, 1735.
- Mason on self Knowledge.
- John Mason. Self-knowledge. A treatise, shewing the nature and benefit of that important science, and the way to attain it. London, 1745.
- Maul’s Sermon on moral Virtue, a Book against it & a Vindication of Sad Sermon.
- Milner’s Greek Grammar.
- John Milner. A Practical Grammar of the Greek Tongue. London, 1740.
- Monies’s Grammar.
- Life of Czar.
- John Mottley. The History of the Life of Peter I. Emperor of Russia. 3 vols. London, 1739.
- Oldfield’s Logick.
- Joshua Oldfield. An Essay towards the Improvement of Reason; in the pursuit of learning and conduct of life. London, 1707.
- Origin of Human Soul.
- An Enquiry into the Nature of the Human Soul, its origin, properties and faculties &c. London, 1750.
- Otis on Prosodia.
- James Otis (1725–1783). The Rudiments of Latin Prosody; with a dissertation on letters, and the principles of harmony, in poetic and prosaic composition. Boston, 1760.
- Owen on ye Divine Original of the Scriptures.
- John Owen (1616–1683). Of the Divine Originall, Authority, Self-evidencing Light, and Power of the Scriptures. Oxford, 1659.
- Ozels Logick.
- John Ozell. Logic, or the Art of Thinking. London, 1717.
- Pasor’s Lexicon in Nw Testm.
- See above, p. 135.
- Pomfrett’s Poems.
- John Pomfret. Poems upon Several Occasions. London, 1699.
- Quakerism display’d.
- Reusneri heroica Symbola.
- Nikolaus Reusner. Symbola Heroica Imperatorum et Caesarum Romanorum. London, 1618.
- 3 Grammars by Robinson Monis866 & Sewall.
- Thomas Robinson (Robertson). Lillies Rules Construed. Whereunto are added T. Robinson’s [Robertson’s] Heteroclites, the Latin syntaxis and Qui Mihi. London, 1642.
- Stephen Sewall. An Hebrew Grammar. Boston, 1763.
- Rollin’s ancient History wth Maps.
- Rollin’s Belles Lettres.
- Charles Rollin. The Ancient History of the Egyptians, Carthaginians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes and Persians, Macedonians and Grecians. 2nd edition. 10 vols. London, 1738–40.
- Charles Rollin. The Method of Teaching and Studying the Belles Lettres. 3rd edition. 2 vols. London, 1742.
- Schiekards Grammar.
- Wilhelm Schickard. Institutiones Linguae Ebraeae, noviter recognitae et auctae. Jena, 1647.
2d & 3d Vol Sherlock’s Serm.
- Thomas Sherlock. Several Discourses Preached at the Temple Church. 4 vols. 2nd ed. London, Oxford, 1754–58.
- Smith’s Theory of moral Sentiments.
- Adam Smith. The Theory of Moral Sentiments. London, 1759.
- Sylvanus’ Homer.
- Georgius Sylvanus. Homeri Iliados liber primus. London, 1685.
- Tate and Brady’s psalms.
- Nahum Tate and Nicholas Brady. A New Version of the Psalms of David, fitted to the tunes used in churches. London, 1704.
- Textor’s Do [Epistles].
- Johannes Ravisius Textor. Epistolae. Paris, 1549.
- Trap on Virgil.
- Joseph Trapp. The Aeneis of Virgil, translated into English verse. 2 vols. London, 1718–20. 2nd edition, 3 vols. London, 1735.
- Duke of Buckingham’s Works.
- George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. Works. London, 1704–5.
- Vinson’s Catechism.
- See Thomas Vincent, above, p. 169.
- Virgil in usum.
- P. V. M. opera; illustravit Ruaeus in usum Delphini. 2 vols. Paris, 1722.
- The Mariners Compass.
- Andrew Wakeley. The Mariner’s Compass Rectified: containing tables for the hours of the day. 3rd ed. London, 1684.
- Various prospects of Mankind, Providence &ca.
- Robert Wallace. Various Prospects of Mankind, Nature and Providence. London, 1761.
- Ward’s Mathematicks.
- John Ward. The Young Mathematician’s Guide; being a plain and easie introduction to the mathematicks. London, 1709. 7th ed., London, 1740: “To which is now first added, a supplement, containing the history of logarithms, and an index.”
- Wats’s Astronomy.
- Watts’ Logic & Improvement of the Mind 2 Volumes.
- Watts’ Strength & Weakness of humn Reason.
- Isaac Watts. The Knowledge of the Heavens and the Earth Made Easy, or the first principles of astronomy and geography explain’d by the use of globes and maps, etc. London, 1726.
- Isaac Watts. Logick: or the right use of reason in the inquiry after truth. London, 1725.
- Isaac Watts. The Improvement of the Mind; or, a supplement to the art of logick. London, 1711.
- Isaac Watts. The Strength and Weakness of Human Reason. London,1731.
- Westminster Ditto [Grammar].
- See above, p. 397, under Camden.
- New-England’s Lamentations.
- John White (c 1677–1760). New England’s Lamentations under these three heads. The decay of the power of godliness; the danger of Arminian principles; the declining state of our church-order, government, and discipline. Boston, 1734.
- A Book by Mr. Wigglesworth.
- Edward Wigglesworth. The Doctrine of Reprobation Briefly Considered: being the substance of some lectures in Harvard-College. Boston, 1763.867
- See above, p. 434.
FIRST PAGE OF NEWS FROM THE MOON
Mr. Chester N. Greenough presented the following paper:
On March 13, 1721, the Boston Gazette advertised as “just published” and “to be sold by Benjamin Gray Bookseller” a small eight-page pamphlet called “News from the Moon. A Review of the State of the British Nation, Vol. 7, Numb. 14. Page 53. Tuesday, May 2, 1710.” At the January meeting, 1910, of this Society, our late associate Andrew McFarland Davis submitted this pamphlet to a very careful examination, but felt that there remained “several questions for future settlement by the bibliographers engaged in the study of Defoe’s works.”
The main questions proposed by Mr. Davis were: (1) the possibility of an Edinburgh edition of the seventh volume of Defoe’s Review and its relation to the London issues of that volume; (2) the identity of the printer of News from the Moon, conjecturally supposed to be James Franklin; (3) the relation of News from the Moon to certain other writings and certain events of that period. Let us, in that order, consider these three topics.
Following the specifications on the first page of News from the Moon, Mr. Davis asked the authorities of the British Museum to send him a copy of Volume VII, No. 14, of Defoe’s Review, and indicated the nature of the subject-matter which he naturally expected to find in that number. He was told that the number which he required was not No. 14, dated Tuesday, May 2, 1710, and paged 53–56, but No. 15, dated Saturday, April 29, 1710, and paged 57–60. Mr. Davis was naturally puzzled at these discrepancies. However, with the assistance of our associate Albert Matthews, and with the aid of an incomplete run of the seventh volume of the Review owned by the American Antiquarian Society, Mr. Davis made what was, in view of the inaccessibility of much of the material involved, a brilliant conjecture. That there was an Edinburgh edition of the sixth volume of Defoe’s Review had long been known.869 Mr. Davis and Mr. Matthews thought, though they were unable to prove, that there might have been an Edinburgh edition of the seventh volume, or of a portion of that volume, and that such a volume might contain a number that would correspond in subject-matter, date, numbering, and pagination with News from the Moon.
The conjecture was correct: the first thirty-five numbers, at least, of the seventh volume of the Review exist in an issue which in respect to numbering, pagination, and dates, and to a certain extent in subject-matter and typography, are unlike the London issue. One of these numbers corresponds exactly (except for minute details in phrasing) with News from the Moon. Let us call these thirty-five numbers the Edinburgh issue of the Review, though probably it was printed in London. The Library of the University of Texas, which has these Edinburgh issues, very kindly supplied a photostat of the number that was reprinted in News from the Moon and a few essential facts concerning the other thirty-four numbers. Although this discovery is not of startling importance, it is perhaps better that, since the question was raised by a member of this Society, the answer should not be made by an outsider.
DEFOE’S REVIEW. VOLUME VII, EDINBURGH NUMBER 14
Careful examination would almost certainly reveal some marked differences between the relation of the London to the Edinburgh issues of Volume VI and the relation of the London to the Edinburgh issues of the first thirty-five numbers of Volume VII.
We know that Defoe was in Scotland during much, if not all, of the latter part of the period (from the end of March, 1709, to the end of February, 1710) covered by Volume VI. He was in Scotland by September 13, 1709.870 He was in northern Scotland when he wrote the Edinburgh issue of Review, No. 73 (September 22). In No. 84 (Edinburgh, October 18) he says (p. 33, last sentence): “I am writing this paper in Scotland, where I could look out of my Window, and see the Fields standing full of the Shocks of Corn.” He was in Scotland when he wrote the Edinburgh issue of No. 95 (November 12). At the end of December (London No. 115) a parcel of Reviews from Edinburgh missed the Wednesday post and did not arrive until Friday, December 30; therefore there was no London issue of Thursday, December 29. On January 28, 1710, the Review (Edinburgh No. 128) announced that the author was “leaving Scotland for a time.” Thus Defoe probably remained in Scotland from early September, 1709, until almost the end of January, 1710 — the period, roughly, from No. 70 to No. 128 of the Edinburgh issue. In March, 1710, Defoe was apparently in London: the material of his Edinburgh No. 142 (March 2) had been published in London on February 25; on March 8, he wrote to Stanhope offering to appear at any time as a witness against Sacheverell.871 The late appearance of the Edinburgh Nos. 147, 148, and 149 was explained in the paper as due to the fact that the letters “which bring the printed copies from England” had gone astray. The notice spoke of the author as one “who lives so remote.”
In the early days of the seventh volume, that is, between April 1 and June 20, 1710, Defoe seems to have been in London. There are letters from Defoe dated from London on April 7 and on June 17; and passages in the Review of April 13, June 1, and June 8 imply, to say the least, that he was then in the city or near at hand.
Of these thirty-five numbers it would seem that London No. 6 corresponds to nothing in the Edinburgh series and that Edinburgh No. 35 corresponds to nothing in the London series. With these two exceptions, the contents seem to be substantially the same. Nos. 1–5 of the two issues correspond in subject-matter. London Nos. 7–35 correspond to Edinburgh Nos. 6–34. And after No. 35 the Edinburgh issues seem not to exist.
So far as the text may be regarded as conclusive, one could not confidently say whether the Boston printer of News from the Moon followed the London or the Edinburgh issue. Disregarding punctuation, italics, and the like (as the Boston printer obviously did), there are thirty-three variations between the Boston reprint and the two other versions. In thirty-one of these, both the London and the Edinburgh issue differ from the Boston reprint, though not from each other. In one instance the Boston reprint follows the Edinburgh issue, which differs from the London issue. And in one instance the Boston reprint follows the London issue, which differs from the Edinburgh issue. In each of these last two cases the Boston reprint avoids a trifling typographical error (Gases for Cases, trangress for transgress) which either the London or the Edinburgh printer had committed.872
But since the Boston reprint agrees with the Edinburgh issue in date, number, and pagination, and thus differs from the London issue in each of those points, we may confidently say that the Boston printer followed the Edinburgh issue.
Who printed News from the Moon? Its date of publication seems approximately fixed by the advertisement which, on March 13, 1721, declares it to have been then “just published.” The place of publication is assumed to have been Boston because it was advertised there, it was to be had of a Boston bookseller, and it seems to concern Massachusetts affairs. The printer is often assumed to have been James Franklin. The Brinley Catalogue, No. 1441, attributes the work, questioningly, to him.873 Charles Evans (American Bibliography, i. 302) describes the pamphlet as “[Boston: Printed by J. Franklin. 1721.]” The form of the entry would seem to indicate certainty about all three of the facts recorded. Mr. Ford definitely declares James Franklin to have been the printer.874 But none of these give their evidence. Mr. Davis suggests875 that “the specific attribution to the press of J. Franklin may have been the result of a careful examination of the font of type and the various ornaments used in the pamphlet.” Feeling that judgment on the basis of type was too technical for me to indulge in, I have wholly ignored that phase of the subject. It is greatly to be desired that some expert should tell us, if he can, who printed the pamphlets that, like News from the Moon, bear no printer’s name but obviously concern Massachusetts affairs at a time when disputes were warm and the press was sharply watched.
I have, however, collected a little evidence based on the printer’s ornaments that appear on the first page — except for that there is no title-page — of News from the Moon; and I present that evidence briefly, for whatever it may be worth to some later investigator more learned in the details of printing.
The ornaments in question876 were used in books and pamphlets printed at London from 1711 on. The Critical Specimen, which is a satirical little pamphlet aimed at John Dennis, has them on its title-page. But unfortunately the printer’s name is not given: “London: printed in the Year, 1711” is all that the title-page tells us. In 1714, there were two editions, both bearing these ornaments, of Churchill’s Annals, both “printed for S[arah] Popping at the Black Raven in Pater-Noster-Row; and sold by the Booksellers of London and Westminster.” The work leans strongly to the Whig side, praising Marlborough’s “Glorious Actions both in the Field and Cabinet.”
In the same year (1714) John Dennis published Whigg Loyalty, which was “Printed by T. Warner near Ludgate,” and which uses the ornaments. And in 1716 we have them in Samuel Rosewell’s “The Protestant Dissenters Hopes from the Present Government. Freely Declar’d. And the Grounds that support them. . . . London: Printed and sold by J. Roberts in Warwick-Lane, J. Harrison at the Royal-Exchange, S. Boulter at Charing-Cross, and T. Fox in Westminster Hall.”877
Of works printed in Boston which make use of these ornaments and which bear the imprint of James Franklin, I find:
1718. Increase Mather and others, Sermon, Charge, etc., at Thomas Prince’s Ordination. Boston: printed by J. Franklin for S. Gerrish. hcl.
1719. Richard Bernard, The Isle of Man. Boston: reprinted by J. Franklin for B. Eliot. Harvard-Andover.
1720. A Letter from One in the Country. Boston: J. Franklin for D. Henchman, mhs.878
(Date doubtful). Nathan Bailey, Preliminary Exercises on the Most Easy and Fundamental Rules of Syntaxis, English and Latin. Boston: printed by J. Franklin for D. Henchman, hcl (imperfect).
Of works printed in Boston which made use of these ornaments and which bear the names of other printers than James Franklin, there are, at least, the following:
1718. Increase Mather, A Sermon Preached at Roxbury, October 29, 1718. When Mr. Thomas Walter Was Ordained. Boston: printed by S. Kneeland for J. Edwards, hcl.
1719. An Addition to the Present Melancholy Circumstances of the Province Considered. Boston: printed by S. Kneeland for B. Gray and J. Edwards, mhs.879
1720. [Oliver Noyes?],880 A Letter from a Gentleman, containing some remarks upon the several answers given unto Mr. Colman’s entituled, The Distressed State of the Town of Boston. Boston: printed by S. Kneeland for Nicholas Boone, Benjamin Gray, and John Edwards, bpl.881
1720. A Vindication of the Remarks of one in the country upon The Distressed State of Boston, from some exceptions made against ’em in a letter to Mr. Colman. Boston: printed by S. Kneeland for D. Henchman.
1721. [Cotton Mather], The World Alann’d. Boston: printed by B. Green for S. Gerrish. mhs.
1721. Cotton Mather, The Accomplish’d Singer. Boston: printed by B. Green for S. Gerrish. hcl.
1724. Thomas Foxcroft, God’s Face Set against an Incorrigible People. Boston: printed by B. Green for John Eliot. hcl.
1726. Thomas Foxcroft, Ministers, Spiritual Parents. A sermon preach’d at the ordination of the Rev. Mr. John Lowell. Boston: printed by B. Green for Samuel Gerrish. hcl.
Of works printed (or supposed to have been printed) in Boston which make use of these ornaments and which bear the name of no printer, there are, at least, the following:
1720. Some Proposals to Benefit the Province. Boston: printed for and sold by Benj. Eliot, aas.883
1721. [John Wise?], A Friendly Check, from a Kind Relation, to the Chief Cannoneer, founded on a late information, dated N.E. Castle-William, 1720,21. mhs.884
1721. [John Wise], A Word of Comfort to A Melancholy Country; or the bank of credit fairly defended. By Amicus Patriae. Boston, hcl.
1722. [Cotton Mather], The Minister. Boston, hcl.
1724. [Edward Wigglesworth], Sober Remarks on A Modest Proof of the Order and Government Settled by Christ and his Apostles in the Church. 2nd ed. Boston. Printed for Samuel Gerrish. hcl.
1725/6. The Explanatory Charter Granted to the Province of the Massachusetts Bay Anno 1725. mhs.
(N.d.). A Letter from the Author of the Postscript of the defence of a book, entituled, A Modest Proof of Church Government, &c. to Jonathan Dickinson, author of the remarks on that postscript, hcl.
From these few titles — four by James Franklin, four by Samuel Kneeland, four by Bartholomew Green, and seven by unknown printers — no positive conclusion can be drawn. As matters stand, the assumption that James Franklin printed News from the Moon, in so far as that assumption is based on the use of certain printer’s ornaments, seems unsafe.
The Boston Athenaeum has a copy of the Edinburgh issue of Defoe’s Review, Vol. VI, which bears upon its half-title the autograph of “J. Franklin,”885 as well as the inscription “Andrew Craigies Book 1756.”886 The “J. Franklin” of the Athenaeum volume may be James Franklin, or his father Josiah,887 or his brother John, who was postmaster of Boston when he died. No authentic autograph of James Franklin seems to be known. The Athenaeum signature bears a fairly close resemblance — especially in the flourish at the end — to the autograph of John Franklin that is reproduced in Winsor’s Memorial History of Boston (II. 271). Furthermore, Andrew Craigie seems to mean by his inscription that he acquired the book in 1756. It was on Friday, January 30, 1756, that John Franklin died.888 In its issues of August 5 and August 12, 1756, the Boston News-Letter advertises for sale on August 12 “A large and valuable Collection of BOOKS belonging to the Estate of Mr. John Franklin, late of Boston, Gentleman, deceased.” These facts seem to take us rather far toward establishing John Franklin’s ownership for some period ending in 1756.889 It is possible that John Franklin acquired the book from James Franklin, who died in February, 1735,890 and still more likely that James may have had the use, if not the ownership, of it. One would very much like to know if John Franklin’s books included any of those mentioned in the notice of the Courant’s “office library” in 1722. To whatever extent he did possess such books, there might seem to be a fair chance that this Athenaeum copy of the Review was in the possession of James Franklin before passing through John Franklin’s hands to those of Andrew Craigie. Certainly, if this book did belong, as early as 1721, to James Franklin or his brother John, there would seem to be some possibility that that person also possessed other numbers of the Review and that the chances of James Franklin’s having printed News from the Moon had thereby been somewhat strengthened.
But the present state of the evidence does not seem to permit any settlement of that interesting question.
Perhaps the most difficult question that Mr. Davis asked, or at least the one that takes longest to answer, was that concerning the relation of News from the Moon to the controversies of 1720–1721 in Massachusetts. “ . . . It has been supposed to have had some connection with the legislative controversies of that time,” says Mr. Davis.891 The Brinley Catalogue, No. 1441, calls it “a satire aimed, apparently, at the House of Representatives, for their proceedings against the publisher and printer of ‘New News from Robinson Cruso’s Island.’” Evans892 calls it “a burlesque on the prosecution of Benjamin Gray for ordering the printing of ‘A Letter to an Eminent Clergyman.’” Mr. Ford893 regards it as “a burlesque on the trial of a fellow printer.” Mr. Davis found that News from the Moon “does not deal with the currency.”894 He amended the explanation in the Brinley Catalogue because he did not find that there were any proceedings in the matter of New News from Robinson Cruso’s Island.895 And at the end of his article (p. 15) he wrote: “The question, How could a reprint of an article by Defoe be of value in the polemics of that day? remains still a mystery.” And again: “How then could it be possible that the general public could appreciate the application of Defoe’s satire to a new situation sufficiently to justify its republication?”
Before we attempt to answer these questions, the reader must be warned not to expect too much: we are not at all likely to find that News from the Moon fits into the Boston situation of 1721 in the way that the final piece of a picture puzzle fits, completing an interdependent series of fragments that cry out for the final piece and leave no place for any additional fragment or for any fragment of another shape. For such an exact fit is hardly to be found in the original Review, though in that case the whole was the work of a single writer. It is hardly to be found in the case of the Spectator, where, though there were several contributors, the editorship was wholly in the hands of a single man. Certainly it could not be expected in the case of a very considerable body of books, pamphlets, and periodical essays, by various authors, representing a warfare that was waged on several fronts at once.
Moreover, we must always remember that News from the Moon was not written to apply to the Boston situation of 1721: it was a reprint of a pamphlet intended to apply to the English situation of 1710. And it was virtually a literal reprint of that pamphlet. The detail of “114” men, for example, which in the original Review seems to have had a definite significance, the details of “Lord A—” and “Mr. H—d” and “a Lord Bishop” and so on, which could have had specific personal application in England, are reprinted in the Boston pamphlet, though they could have had no specific American application. If the notion of substituting local hits in place of such details as these ever crossed the mind of the Boston printer, he doubtless rejected the idea because he thought that it might prove convenient to be able to point out certain details in News from the Moon which, he might plausibly say, could not by any stretch of the imagination be interpreted in terms of Massachusetts dignitaries.
It will be enough, therefore, if in answer to Mr. Davis’s questions we can discern some purpose that may make reasonable, in a general way, the action of the person — let us call him the printer — who, about March, 1721, introduced Defoe’s pamphlet to his Boston readers.
Just what does News from the Moon896 contain? It is the story of a tailor (i.e., an author) who is put on trial for making a coat (i.e., a piece of writing which takes the measure of a certain man or group of men) that is thought by certain persons to fit them and not to represent them correctly. This coat is called, in the language of the world in the moon, “a Thocacterraca, in English, a Representer or a Character Coat.”
For convenience, let us in the remainder of our short summary of News from the Moon use the words “author” and “character” instead of “tailor” and “character coat.” The author, then, is questioned by the authorities about his purpose in writing a certain “character.” In his defense he alleges that a “character” made for one man may fit, or seem to fit, another, and sometimes a great many. This is partly because the kind of people who are liable to satirical representation are, at least in the country of the moon, very much alike. And it is especially true because there are some men who, when they read a “character,” cannot help trying to make it fit them, whether it will or no. They even go so far as to distort the natural meaning of the “character” to see if they can make it fit them. Thus, in the case of Defoe’s Review, when the author happened “to be Pointing out the Character of a State Mountebank, a City Hero, a Coward to his Cause, a Fool, a Knave, and a Deserter of his Friends . . . One said, . . . that’s at me; another, that’s at me; and the like; . . . when far was it from the Thoughts of that poor Author, to do any of these Gentlemen so much Honour.”
All this, pleads Defoe, is very hard on the poor author, because a “character” is “made to represent him that it represents.” The writer’s design is not to fit an individual, but simply to write a “character”; if it fits many individuals, the writer cannot help that.
Having completed his bold defense, which is much more vivid and effective than can be shown by any summary, the tailor, far from showing any desire to mend his ways, “threw the Coat down in the middle of the Hall,” and the pamphlet ends there.
The key-word in this account of News from the Moon is the word “character.” But, before we attempt to define the “character” and outline its history in England up to the year 1721, it will be well to inquire into Defoe’s purpose in writing for his Review a paper on this subject.
The paper in question (Review, VII, No. 14 in the Edinburgh issue) appeared late in April, 1710.897 In the preface to his seventh volume, Defoe, who was of course an ardent supporter of a free press, writes as follows about the imminent tax upon periodicals:
If such a Design goes on, it will soon appear whether it be a Proposal to raise Money, or a Design to crush and suppress the Papers themselves; if it be the first, it may really answer the End, there being as I have Calculated it, above two Hundred Thousand single Papers publish’d every Week in this Nation, and a light Tax would raise a considerable Summ, and yet not check the Thing; but if it be a Design to suppress the Papers, it will be seen by their laying on such a Rate, as will disable the Printing them.
Defoe prophesies that if the Tories do succeed in stopping the opposition press, such an event will have a result contrary to expectation:
the stopping the Press will be the opening the Mouth, and the Diminution of Printing will be the Encrease of Writing, in which the Liberty is tenfold, because no Authors can be found out, or Punished if they are; and this made King Ch[arles] II. say, and he understood those Things very well, That the Licenser of the Press did more harm than good, and that if every one was left to Print what they would, there would be less Treason spread about, and fewer Pasquinades — And I take up[on] me to say, that let them stop the Press when they will — What is wanting in Pamphlet, will be made up in Lampoon.
In the first paper of Volume VII (March 28, 1710), Defoe writes that he is very sorry to start a new volume by opening the highly controversial subject of Dr. Sacheverell.898 But “there is no Help for it, we must either defend our Cause, or give our Cause up.” He is “satisfied, the Cause of Liberty is the Cause of Truth; and it is from this Principle only” that he opposes “the High-Church Darling Dr. Sacheverell,” and does it “in the Teeth of his Mob, when his Cause would be thought Rising, and when [he sees] Men that pretend to be for Revolution-Principles, cow’d and afraid.” Defoe has nothing to say to the man Sacheverell himself: “it is the Temper of insulting the Laws, and preaching up Tyranny: ’tis this I oppose, and this I will oppose, if the Tyrant were an Emperor.”
Having thus thrown down the gauntlet, Defoe carried on his warfare bitterly against Sacheverell and his Tory supporters, boldly denouncing individuals and not sparing the Lord Mayor or certain aldermen. In No. 5 (April 6, 1710, in the London issue) we find him incorrigibly continuing the little joke899 that had once sent him to the pillory: “we Tories and High-Flyers,” he writes, propose certain fundamental changes in the English government, of which one project is: “We will cause the Articles of the late Union, and the unhappy Settlement of the pretended Succession, which are so contrary to the true Doctrine of Non-Resistance and Passive-Obedience, to be laid before our most free Parliament, in order to be repeal’d in a legal Way.”
In a series of some half-dozen numbers900 he attacked the extreme Tories in one of those well-sustained allegories of which he was a master, and represented their army and his own drawn up in battle.
The Enemies Army have in their first Line the High-Church in the Center, a Party of select Domino-Dominoques on their Right, and the Mob on the Left. In their second Line Non-jurors in the Center, Papists on their Right, and the Pretender with his Mercenaries on their Left; and two Bodies of Tackers and Bigotts make the reserves. The Army they fight against . . . [has the Commons of Britain in the Center] the QUEEN and the Nobility on the Right Wing . . . and all fighting under the Command of that Old General CONSTITUTION.901
Such boldness could hardly go unnoticed or unpunished. That it was noticed appears clearly enough from the diary kept by that outspoken Tory and Oxford antiquary, Thomas Hearne, whose entry for March 6, 1710, not only shows the violent feeling against the Whigs at the time of Sacheverell’s trial, but specifically mentions the Review as one of the principal offenders.902
To what extent Defoe’s bold attack was unpunished we cannot be sure. Punishment by the national government would perhaps not be expected, for the Whigs were still in power. But censorship of the press had to be reckoned with, and there were also the City authorities to consider.903
We have Defoe’s definite statement904 that the Tories had tried every possible method of suppressing his paper and that they had urged both the government and the grand jury to take action. “Great Endeavours have been us’d to stifle and suppress this Paper; . . . sometimes they carry it to this Grand-Jury to get it presented, sometimes to that; sometimes the Government is sollicited to discourage and silence it.”905 We have also his word906 that his enemies had seized the issue of April 25, 1710, and had so thoroughly intimidated his printer, Matthews, that Defoe changed to John Baker, whose imprint appears beginning with No. 13. Careful students907 of Defoe’s life and of the Review have not been able to discover that he was actually brought to trial or even summoned to appear for examination by the Common Council. But his sweeping statement that his enemies had tried every way to silence him may well mean that he had been so summoned. Furthermore, there is a curious detail in Review, VII, No. 14 (London issue), which must be dwelt on for a moment. In the course of that paper (and therefore in News from the Moon) we learn that the poor tailor was seized and carried “into a great Assembly of that City,” which assembly “is call’d in their Language the Momonciculoc: I will not pretend to Knowledge enough in the Lunar Language to translate — Some think, it may resemble a Common Council.” Then, “of a sudden,” various persons began to complain that “the Coat is made for me,” until, “to be short with my Story, no less than 114 of them challeng’d the poor Man for bringing this Coat out to expose them in particular.”
Why one hundred and fourteen? As has already been pointed out, Defoe had less to fear from the Government than from the authorities of London. In a case of this sort the City would naturally act through the Lord Mayor, the aldermen, and the common councilmen, who together constituted the Court of Common Council. If, therefore, this body numbered one hundred and fourteen men, we have a fact of considerable interest. Consulting the standard contemporary authority, John Chamberlayne’s Magnae Britanniae Notitia: or, the Present State of Great Britain for the year 1710 (pp. 630–632), we find that this body did in that year number exactly 114 men.908
Taking all the evidence together, there is therefore a distinct possibility that Defoe may have come up before the City authorities and that the dialogue between the tailor and his questioners may to some degree represent Defoe’s version of an actual hearing.909 Even if this possibility be disregarded, we may fairly enough say that anyone in Boston in 1721 who knew Defoe’s Review would more or less fully have realized that this periodical and its author represented Nonconformity, active resentment of intolerance, freedom of the press, and advanced ideas in general, to say nothing of such vigorous, informal, and prolific journalism as could hardly be found anywhere else in the world.910
However significant it may have proved to examine Defoe’s possible reasons for printing News from the Moon just when he did, it is now time to ask just what a “character” is and whether some knowledge of the ways of certain English “character”-writers before 1721 may not help us to unravel Mr. Davis’s “mystery.” Some years ago in examining John Dunton’s use of the “character”911 I said that the “character” was “a well recognized, prolific, popular, and influential form in English literature of the seventeenth century.” More is known about the “character” now than was the case at that time (1912); but still the form may well be defined in the words of a schoolmaster named Ralph Johnson, who in 1665 published The Scholar’s Guide from the Accidence to the University.912 Johnson there (p. 15) defines the “character” as “a witty and facetious description of the nature and qualities of some person, or sort of people.” In his rules for making of “characters”913 Johnson emphasizes the selection, as subjects, of those sorts of men whom one would naturally treat with a considerable degree of disapproval; the delineation of their reprehensible natures by a series of “tart nipping jerks about their vices or miscarriages”; and a constant effort toward “wit and pleasantness.” In the remaining pages of this article, the word “character” will, unless otherwise indicated, always be used (without quotation marks) with the meaning Johnson here gives it.
The general impression left by Johnson’s definition and rules could easily be confirmed, if space permitted, by other contemporary definitions and comments, as well as by many examples. One must not, however, suppose that characters are regularly adverse or that they are necessarily of persons: they may be, and often are, favorable; and they not infrequently take for their subject such impersonal topics as a coffee-house or a prison.
Before leaving our definition of the character let us try to clarify it still further by examining the boundaries between it and the portrait, often called a character, of some individual who is named and is openly characterized. Richard Flecknoe, in the preface to his Heroick Portraits (1660), thinks that “the Portrait has this advantage of the Character, that it gives the Bodies resemblance together with the disposition of the Minde.” And Sir Charles Firth,914 comparing the portraits by Clarendon with those of Burnet, regards the latter as stronger in observation, though weaker in insight. “Clarendon’s description of the exterior of the personages he mentions is usually vague,” Firth observes, whereas Burnet, “notices a number of minor particulars of every kind which Clarendon neglects or disdains.” Firth goes even further: he accounts for this difference by observing that Clarendon, “instead of individualising his personages by noting the little peculiarities which differentiated them from other men, . . . seems to endeavour to generalise, and to reduce them all to certain universal types.” Thus we may say that although portraits, as Flecknoe remarked, tend to differ from characters in being more concerned with externals, we must not forget that the extent of this difference varies greatly with the individual writer and that in the case of Clarendon’s portraits this variation, in the direction of the method more typical of the impersonal character as defined by Ralph Johnson, is so great that Firth well observes that “in reading the History of the Rebellion one is continually reminded that the description of imaginary915 types of character was a popular literary exercise in Clarendon’s day.” Moreover, we may well remember that portraits like Burnet’s, as well as those like Clarendon’s, were, in spite of Flecknoe’s distinction in terminology, habitually called characters throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Between 1608, when Bishop Joseph Hall published his Characters of Virtues and Vices, and 1721, when News from the Moon appeared in Boston, there were literally thousands of characters, singly and in collections, published in England. To a certain extent one may arrange them in periods. Let us attempt to do so, always remembering that the pattern is not quite so regular as it appears in any brief summary.
From 1608 until about 1642, the essay-character flourished, after a fashion the norm of which is pretty well indicated by Ralph Johnson’s definition. This is the period of Hall (1608), the Overbury group (1614), Earle (1628), and Fuller (1642), to mention only a few great names. Even in this period the character was made use of by dramatists, sermon-writers, and others, as well as by the large number of those who may fairly be called essayists. Sometimes they published essays and characters (as did Earle and Mynshul) in the same volume. Sometimes they illustrated to excess (as did Nicholas Breton) the idea of euphuistic style that was stressed in Ralph Johnson’s definition.
In the period from 1660 to 1688, the pattern becomes even less distinct. There are survivals in plenty of the essay-character; there are numerous examples of the type of character or portrait represented by Clarendon; there are frequent instances where the character is used by dramatists and writers of various sorts of prose treatises; and there are examples — Dry den is a notable one — of poets who write, usually with a satirical intent, characterizations in verse of individuals or of imaginary types. But — numerically, at least — the most important form of character in this period is what may be called the pamphlet-character, like Halifax’s Character of a Trimmer, though that is longer, better written, and more fair-minded than most examples of its class. The pamphlet-character tends to be a justification of belief, or, much oftener, an attack upon the beliefs of others, which for greater effectiveness borrows the name and some of the hall-marks of the essay-character.916
In the period which begins, roughly, in 1688, when La Bruyere’s Caractères first appeared, and which runs along until, in the 1740’s its path can hardly be followed further because of the rise of the novel of character, we have, as before, an abundance of survivals and, out-topping them in importance, if not in numbers, a new sort of character. Of the survivals we can pause only long enough to say that they represent every variety of the character that has previously been mentioned. But with a much more entertaining kind of character that is found for the first time in this period we must deal somewhat more particularly.
Broadly speaking, the character has up to this point been a sort of composite photograph of a number of people who, though spoken of as “he” or “she,” are intended to represent what is true of all Puritans, pedants, or Whigs. The subject of the character has no individual name; he rarely speaks; he is a sort of mounted specimen, who is the subject of an analysis. But in the work of such writers as La Bruyere, Ned Ward, and Addison we are now to see something quite different. The nature of this difference can best be shown by examples.
In 1628, John Earle’s Microcosmographie appeared, a collection of fifty-four characters, one of which was “An Antiquary.” One of the sentences in this character runs thus: “He would give all the books in his study (which are rarities all), for one of the old Roman binding, or six lines of Tully in his own hand.” The other thirteen sentences in the character are like this one: they all refer to the antiquary; they are all in the present tense; they all help to build up a somewhat artificially consistent picture of one whose “humor” is a love of old times and ancient objects. And the whole, despite its unity and its pleasant tone, has an air of unreality: we do not quite believe that the antiquary does these things, though we grant that if he were sufficiently alive to do anything, these are the things that he might be expected to do. Furthermore, the writer is as much outside of his subject as a historian or an essayist would be. So, though to read this character gives us a certain pleasure, it is not at all the kind of pleasure that we should take in a play by Ben Jonson or a novel by George Eliot that presented us with a pedant as one of its characters. And the pedant of Earle does not greatly tempt the reader to ask which of Earle’s friends sat for the portrait.
In 1710, Joseph Addison, in the Tatler, No. 158, represented a pedant in quite a different fashion. A part of the difference lies in the fact that the paper is supposed to consist of the observations of one Isaac Bickerstaff, who, being a fictitious character, can walk right in among Addison’s other characters and carry the essay well on toward a scene from a novel, whenever it suits his purpose.917 Again, Addison’s pedant has a name, “Tom Folio,” which helps to enliven him. Furthermore, no inconsiderable part of the essay consists of a little scene, with conversation, between Isaac Bickerstaff and Tom Folio. “I had yesterday morning a visit from this learned ideot,” Addison makes Mr. Bickerstaff say. In the course of the visit we have this very revealing dialogue, as narrated by Addison through Isaac Bickerstaff:
Knowing that Tom had not sense enough to give up an opinion which he had once received, that I might avoid wrangling, I told him, “that Virgil possibly had his oversights as well as another author.” “Ah! Mr. Bickerstaff,” says he, “you would have another opinion of him, if you would read him in Daniel Heinsius’s edition. I have perused him myself several times in that edition,” continued he; “and after the strictest and most malicious examination, could but find two faults in him; one of them is in the Aeneids, where there are two commas instead of a parenthesis; and another in the third Georgic, where you may find a semicolon turned upside down.” “Perhaps,” said I, “these were not Virgil’s faults, but those of the transcriber.” “I do not design it,” says Tom, “as a reflection on Virgil; on the contrary, I know that all the manuscripts reclaim against such a punctuation. Oh! Mr. Bickerstaff,” says he, “what would a man give to see one simile of Virgil writ in his own hand?” I asked him which was the simile he meant; but was answered, any simile in Virgil. He then told me . . . of many amendments which are made, and not yet published; and a thousand other particulars, which I would not have my memory burdened with for a Vatican.
At length, being fully persuaded that I thoroughly admired him, and looked upon him as a prodigy of learning, he took his leave.
This technique speaks for itself, and we see at once that the old formal character is now well on its way toward the novel of character.918
Before we attempt to indicate the relation of News from the Moon to the situation in Massachusetts in 1721, two other questions require attention. First, to what degree was the aim of the character-writer general and to what degree was it individual? And to what degree did the reading public seek “originals” for characters, whether such originals were or were not in the mind of the writer? Second, was the character something that Massachusetts people in 1721 — Cotton Mather, for example — knew nothing about?
There is more than a little evidence that the character-writer sometimes drew the picture of an individual. Ralph Johnson, it will be remembered, defined the character as “a . . . description . . . of some person919 or sort of people.” “L. G.,” who in 1661 published a volume of Essays and Characters, assures his readers that he does not reflect “upon any particular Person, save only in the Character of a Scandalous Minister, . . . whom I had some cause to know in the Country.”920 Richard Flecknoe’s titles seem occasionally to indicate a personal application, as in “Of one that shall be namelesse,” “Of a certain Nobleman,” and “Of an other” (i.e., another nobleman).921 And there are fairly numerous additional examples of this sort, not to speak of such characters as those “Of a Protector,” “A Duke of Bucks,” or “A true Character of the illustrious James Duke of York,” where portraiture of an individual is more than implied.
Usually, however, the evidence makes rather in the direction of a generic aim for the character-writer, or, at any rate, expresses his wish to be understood as speaking of a class, not of an individual. Of his Seventy-Eight Characters (1677) Flecknoe says that “the subject of them is taken from the observations of several Natures, Humors, and Dispositions; and whilst I name no body, let no body name themselves, if they be wise.” And Sir Roger L’Estrange922 writes that “a Character. . . Shoots Hail-Shot, and Strikes a great many more than ever the Marks-man, either Aim’d at, or Dreamt of.” Addison (in the Spectator, No. 34) begs
every particular person, who does me the honour to be a reader of this paper, never to think himself, or any of his friends or enemies, aimed at in what is said: for I promise him, never to draw a faulty character which does not fit at least a thousand people; or to publish a single paper that is not written in the spirit of benevolence, and with a love to mankind.
And to the same purpose, in No. 262, Addison writes:
I believe my Reader would still think the better of me, if he knew the Pains I am at in qualifying what I write after such a manner, that nothing may be interpreted as aimed at private Persons. For this Reason when I draw any faulty Character, I consider all those Persons to whom the Malice of the World may possibly apply it, and take care to dash it with such particular Circumstances as may prevent all such ill-natured Applications. If I write any Thing on a black Man, I run over in my Mind all the eminent Persons in the Nation who are of that Complection: When I place an imaginary Name at the Head of a Character, I examine every Syllable and Letter of it, that it may not bear any Resemblance to one that is real. I know very well the Value which every Man sets upon his Reputation, and how painful it is to be exposed to the Mirth and Derision of the Publick, and should therefore scorn to divert my Reader at the Expence of any private Man.923
But in spite of such protestations, a certain proportion of mankind has persisted in believing that many characters and similar portrayals were in fact aimed at, or derived from, individuals. Eustace Budgell, a cousin of Addison, prefaced his translation of the characters of Theophrastus (1714) with the observation that “Theophrastus was the Spectator of the age he lived in. He drew the pictures of particular men.” Dr. Johnson believed that the personages introduced in the Tatler and the Spectator “were not merely ideal; they were then known, and conspicuous in various stations.”924
In view of all this conflicting evidence, the question can never be really settled whether such a writer as those whom we have been considering copies from individuals and then corrects his results by comparison with his more or less abstract idea of the class, or whether he conceives an abstract idea and then modifies it by comparison with individuals. Often, no doubt, separate features are taken from different individuals and assembled in a portrait which cannot, without a kind of surgery to which it ought never to be subjected, be got into either of the two groups of character-portraits, which, after all, do tend to run into each other. Let us therefore take leave of this part of our subject without putting too much trust in any single witness, but with a fair degree of confidence that Sir Roger L’Estrange was not far wrong when he said:
A Character, . . . Shoots Hail-Shot, and Strikes a great many more than ever the Marks-man, either Aim’d at, or Dreamt of. There is a great deal of Difference, I know, betwixt the Whipping of the Vice, and of the Man; and betwixt the Whipping of the Vice for the Man’s sake, and the Whipping of the Man, for the sake of the Vice. But be it as it will; ’tis nonsense to Imagine, that a man draws a Figure in the Air, and Means No body; or that he had not some One Man more in his Thought then Another, toward the Instructing, or the Finishing of the Piece.925
We may, without hesitation, answer in the negative the question whether a Boston printer was giving his Massachusetts readers of 1721 too hard a task when he expected them to know enough about the character to see the more technical side of the point in News from the Moon. Let us merely outline the case.
In the first place, we know that by 1721 both the Tatler and the Spectator had reached New England. Steele had personally sent “all the Tatlers and Spectators being eleven volumes” to Yale in 1714.926 The New England Courant began to appear in August, 1721, less than five months after News from the Moon was advertised. In No. 48 of the Courant (July 21, 1722) the “office library” is advertised, containing both the Spectator and the Guardian. It is possible that these two periodicals were not imported until after News from the Moon appeared. But one doubts that: the Spectator is from the outset so clearly a model for the Courant that one feels reasonably sure that the books had been in Boston for some little time.
At all events, there was one man in Boston who, by August, 1713, had not only heard of the Spectator and the Guardian, but who at that time recorded in his diary the hope that “perhaps, by sending some agreeable Things, to the Author of, The Spectator, and, The Guardian, there may be brought forward some Services to the best Interests in the Nation.” The writer of this entry was, as it happens, Cotton Mather.927 It is possible that Cotton Mather knew, or knew of, Defoe’s Review, for it is certain that by May, 1711,928 he had had “some epistolar Conversation with Mr. De Foe,” and had resolved “in . . . [his] Letters unto him, [to] excite him to apply himself unto the work of collecting and publishing an History of the Persecutions which the Dissenters have undergone from the Ch[urch] of E[ngland].” Certainly the Review, and the very part of it where the original version of what was later called News from the Moon had appeared, was a work from which Mather would instantly perceive what a champion the Dissenters had in Defoe.
Putting aside conjecture, however, let us note a few solid facts. Cotton Mather had before 1721 used the word “character” frequently; had imitated an English book containing characters; and had himself written more than one work containing characters. For the sake of brevity the evidence for the first statement is given in a footnote,929 and only a few examples are mentioned to show that Cotton Mather had found the character a fit instrument for the Lord’s business, as many an English clergyman had found it before him.
Cotton Mather’s Ornaments for the Daughters of Zion, Or the Character and Happiness of a Virtuous Woman (1691)930 is interesting for our purpose because here and there it literally follows an English book which contains characters931 and because it contains a character by Cotton Mather. Mather’s funeral sermon on the Reverend John Baily (A Good Man Making a Good End, 1698) has as the running title of its last thirty pages “The Character of a Christian.” His Desiderius (1719) may fairly be called a character also, though it is the sub-title and the framework, rather than the details, that make it one. And in Mather’s Benedictus: Good Men Described, with some Character & History of Mr. Thomas Bridge (1715) the character certainly plays a part: the word is used on the title-page; the purpose of the work is declared (p. 4) to be “to set a lively Pourtraiture of a GOOD MAN before you”; and the general run of the part from the fourth to the top of the nineteenth page is that of the character as applied to the funeral elegy of the time in both England and America.
If Cotton Mather’s works do not more frequently contain outright characters of the more satirical and “literary” kind, it would therefore seem to be merely because he did not often employ the more secular forms of writing in which such portraiture would naturally appear.
When News from the Moon came out in March, 1721, the condition of affairs in Massachusetts was one of intensely opposed opinions, almost one of warfare, upon a number of questions.
Religious questions, as always in the early days of Massachusetts, were burning. Those who upheld the conservative side found that their ancient authority had somehow weakened. Of one among the radicals, John Wise,932 Williston Walker writes that “he presented a new and forceful treatment of Congregationalism, . . . basing its merits . . . on the broad principles of democracy which were to be the mainspring of so much of American thought and action. In so doing he emphasized the democratic element in Congregationalism as no previous writer had done.”933 Not unnaturally, therefore, Cotton Mather thought Wise “a furious Man,” and his book, though “a foolish libel,” most dangerous nevertheless, because “some of our People, who are not only tenacious of their Liberties, but also more suspicious than they have cause to be of a Design in their pastors to make abridgments of them; are too much led into Temptations, by such Invectives.”934
The small-pox was raging, and the pros and cons of inoculation were debated with great acrimony. Here, as is well known, Cotton Mather was on the liberal side. The controversy was by no means limited to those who understood the technical aspect of the matter. How it embittered the thoughts of Cotton Mather his Diary testifies: the opposition to his counsels in this matter has, he writes, “been carried on, with senseless Ignorance and raging Wickedness.”935
Governor Shute and his legislature were violently at loggerheads over the choice of a Speaker, the freedom of the press, and other issues. Shute presently went back to England and “arraigned the conduct of the Massachusetts assembly in a long memorial to the King,” in the course of which he expressed the general belief that the people of Boston “were too much inclined to be levellers, and to give a mutinous and disorderly support to the house in its encroachments.”936
The year 1721 also marked one of the crises in a long series of discussions about currency and banking. The merits of various banking projects were vigorously debated, so vigorously that the question of restraining the press became one of the chief issues of the moment.
As would naturally be expected, the number and importance of these questions greatly increased the amount of publication in Massachusetts and tended somewhat to change its tone. Before the year 1721 was over, the New England Courant had begun and the newer journalism had really come to Massachusetts. But some little time before that the change had already become perceptible. By March, 1721, it is fair to say that such men as in a few months were to start the New England Courant — in certain cases the very men who did start it937 — were doing something more than merely arguing for their own views. They were attempting a more familiar style and a less formal presentation of their authorities and arguments. They were introducing various means to enliven New England pamphleteering — the imaginary dialogue, the imaginary letter, the character, and other devices of that sort.
Certain English writers, as we have seen, had for some years before 1721 been taking that line, with the result sometimes of winning a readier acceptance for their views, and sometimes with the result, no doubt, of drawing upon their heads a sharper counter-attack from their opponents or a sterner punishment from the government than would have followed had their opinions been less facetiously expressed. Swift’s tone, nearly as much as his views, in A Tale of a Tub had injured his chances of advancement in the church. And Defoe had stood in the pillory partly because both friends and foes resented their slowness on the uptake when they had to make up their minds about his ironical Shortest Way with the Dissenters. So it may well be that some Massachusetts conservatives disapproved of the manner as well as the opinions of their opponents. In the case of Cotton Mather we have an explicit defense of his own “more Massy Way of Writing” as against the style of the coffee-house wits.938
Whatever its grounds, we know that resentment against the utterances of the liberals took the form not only of a host of pamphlets on the conservative side and bitter forebodings in Cotton Mather’s diary, but of certain actual prosecutions. John Colman’s Distressed State of the Town of Boston (April, 1720) caused his arrest and prosecution; and Benjamin Gray, a Boston bookseller, was prosecuted in 1721 for publishing A Letter to an Eminent Clergyman in the Massachusetts Bay (1720). The prosecution of Colman was dropped, but he was held under bonds until July, 1720. Gray, having declared that he meant no evil and having expressed regret, was discharged in May, 1721.939 The cases, therefore, may be said to have gone against the conservatives. The House of Representatives, though it was willing enough to declare it “an unhappy Circumstance attending a well Regulated Government, when they have Seditious and Scandalous Papers printed and publicly Sold or Dispersed,”940 was most unwilling to grant the governor the power of the press that he claimed as the king’s representative. And Duniway, reviewing these two cases and the later case of James Franklin, writes that they mark the end “of an attempt to revive and enforce censorship in Massachusetts.”941
Since some have regarded News from the Moon as a burlesque of one of these trials, it will be well to examine briefly the language of the charges against Colman and Gray. The former was charged with the authorship of a pamphlet containing passages “reflecting upon the Acts & Laws of the Province, & other proceedings of the Governmt” and having “a Tendency to Disturb the Administration of the Government, as well as the Publick Peace.”942 Gray was charged with having published the pamphlet already mentioned, and with causing a certain advertisement to appear, the language of which showed contempt of the Council, whose vote of censure (declaring that the pamphlet contained “many vile, scandalous, and abusive expressions”) had been printed in the newspapers.
The advertisement in question (which appeared in the Boston Gazette of March 13, 1721) reads as follows:
Just Published, The Mount Hope Packet. And News from the Moon, both to be Sold by Benjamin Gray Bookseller, at his Shop opposite to the Brick Church, where all Gentlemen, Trades-men and others may be supply’d by Wholesail or Retail at reasonable rates, with all Letters, Postscripts, News, Dialogues, and other Pamphlets, which come out from Time to Time.943
Now just what relation to all this has News from the Moon? That it is a “burlesque” of the proceedings against either Colman or Gray seems improbable. Why not take it for what it is — a perfectly clear, though perhaps disingenuous, attempt to controvert the belief that when a character-writer portrays a certain kind of person, he primarily or merely aims at an individual? If by the publication of News from the Moon the person responsible for it intended thus to lessen the objections to certain parts of recent publications, he was doing something worth while for his cause. And there are several passages in the then recent publications on the liberal side that may fairly be called characters and that probably caused personal application and resentment. The passage in Reflections upon Reflections (1720) about “one whose Scribendi Cacoethes has made him famous on both sides of the Atlantick”944 is certainly a good case: it can fairly be called a character, and it would almost certainly be thought to point toward Cotton Mather. Another case, in New News from Robinson Cruso’s Island (1720), is the short remark, very brief but nevertheless a character as far as it goes, about “the great DON-DAGO, the Primate-wou’d be of our Island,” who “like the famous Dr. S—l has long ago burst his Orb, and become Eccentrick.”945 And the passage in this same pamphlet about covetousness, envy, pride, and hypocrisy946 is also pertinent: it is not, as a whole, strictly a character, but it is at times very near it indeed, for example:
. . . Religion is made a Stalking-Horse, whereby some Men serve the most vile and unworthy Ends; cloaking their Designs of Covetousness, Ambition, or Revenge, with pretence of Conscience and Zeal; and under the specious Umbrage hereof, the most execrable Villanies have been acted.
It is not unreasonable to imagine that Cotton Mather regarded that as a character aimed at him.
But there is a much more striking case than any of these. John Colman’s Distressed State of the Town of Boston was one of the pamphlets which caused legal proceedings, as we have seen, and which most enraged the conservatives.947 In that pamphlet he boldly expressed dissatisfaction with many members of the House of Representatives and hoped
. . . our good Friends in the Country will consider our miserable circumstances, & send such Men to Represent them next May as may be Spirited for our Relief, not Sheriffs and Lawyers, who are the only Men who are benefited by the straights of their Neighbours, else I fear Ruin and Destruction will come upon us. . . .948
This charge, that many in the House were not men of public spirit, was taken up and flung back and forth. On April 18, 1720, the Boston News-Letter printed “The Country-Man’s Answer, to a Letter Intitutled, The Distressed State of the Town of Boston Considered.” The writer, who is thought to have been the Reverend Edward Wigglesworth, took up Colman’s challenge about the members of the House:
As to your Advice about the choice of our Representatives, which seems the main Spring and design of your Letter, we shall endeavour to choose Men of a Publick Spirit that understand and design the good of the Country in General, Men of good Substance and Interest in the Country. . . .949
On the same conservative note, the writer of A Letter from One in the Country to his Friend in Boston (1720) has his fling at Colman’s stinging words. He quotes Colman’s sentence about “men Spirited for our Relief,” and replies: “I hope also Men of a Publick Spirit, and heartily concerned for the Welfare of their Country will be sent.” The Letter from a Gentleman, “Containing some Remarks upon the Several Answers” to Colman, bears the date 1720 on its title-page and the more specific date May 16, 1720, at the end of its text. It is supposed to have been written by Dr. Oliver Noyes.950 He likewise joins in the hope “that the several Towns will chuse to Represent ’em in the General Court, Men of a Publick Spirit,” and prays God “to direct the Governour and General Court in some proper Measures for our Relief.”951 Thus the phrase “Men of a Public Spirit” was made so familiar that each successive use of it in the controversy called up the preceding arguments, in which both sides had claimed the term for themselves and denied it to their opponents.
Then came Some Proposals to Benefit the Province (1720).952 The copy at the American Antiquarian Society bears the initials “S. S.” (Samuel Sewall) and, in Sewall’s handwriting, a date which is, apparently, November 9, 1720. The pamphlet is signed “F. M.” Its great importance for us consists in the fact that it has a “Postscript” consisting of a pair of contrasted characters. Here we are not required to guess whether the author is consciously using the character form: he actually entitles one of them “A Character of a Publick Spirit,” and the other, “A Character of a Private Spirit.” The relation of those characters to the preceding controversy must have been perfectly clear. The character of a “Public Spirit” is the portrait of an ideal. The one of a “Private Spirit” is reprinted here:
A CHARACTER OF A PRIVATE SPIRIT
A Private Spirit is a selfish, narrow, contracted, little Spirit; it’s the Devil form’d in us: ye are of your father the Devil; taking advantage from the Execution of the Divine Sanction, viz. (the loss of the Image of GOD) which Satan was the author of, and is; our setting up self to be equal with or above GOD, which is Idolatry; and self, both the Idol & Medium, by which we serve the Devil: we are by him hurried with all our powers to possess Idol-self, with the profits, pleasures, and honours of this Life, and therefore substitute Religion, Reason and Nature to effect it; for while we remain in our Apostacy, we can act from no other being, nor to any higher end than self, that is the spring, and all our actions center therein, how Religious soever we be: This Self Idolatry is the Ruining of all Societies, and all Men of what Rank or Degree soever, Sacred or Civil, either Wholly or in Part are the Subjects thereof; the effects, fruits and evidences of Self, are Tyranny, Oppression, Wrath, &c. with all Moral and Penal evils. And frequently Hypocritical Covetous Men, makes [sic] the greatest show of Religion. Our All-glorious Saviour was not Wise and Holy enough for such Men, but by them most vilely and falsely contradicted, accused, persecuted and executed for one of the greatest Sinners, even when the Gentile Judge Justified Him, and wrought by all Means (save force) for His deliverance.
In view of all that had gone before, this character could easily have been so received by members of the House of Representatives and their friends as to create exactly the kind of situation that would be most effectively met by reprinting the paper from Defoe’s Review. That, I believe, or something very like it, is the genesis of News from the Moon. If so, the reprinting of Defoe’s clever defense is certainly no “mystery,” but a notably shrewd move — pertinent,953 entertaining, and less easily punishable than almost any other kind of counter-stroke that one can imagine.