Part I101

    Church Records of Plimouth


    Ecclesia Christi102

    Christian Reader,

    I haue Looked att it as a duty Incombent on mee to Comitt to writing the first Beginnings and after progresse of the Church of Christ att Plymouth in New England; forasmuch as I can not vnderstand That there is any thing prticularly extant concerning it and almost all the Members of the said Church: both Elders & others Being deceased by whom Intelligence of Matters in that behalf might be procured, I dare not charge the Reuerend Elders of that Church whoe are Gon to there Rest; with any Neglect on that behalf for when they were in holland they were Nessesitated to defend the Cause of Christ by writing against opposites of seuerall sortes; soe as such like Imployes Together with the Constant and faithfull discharge of the duties of their offices probably took vpp the Greatest prte of theire time; And since the Church prted and a considerable prte therof came vnto this Goeing downe of the sun; It might be Neglected ptly on the accoumt103 That diuers writings some wherof being put forth in print, did point att; and in a Great measure discriminate the affaires of the Church; forasmuch (as then) the smale comonwealth in our first begining att New Plymouth Consisted mostly of such as were members of the church which was first begun and afterwards carryed on in Leyden in holland; for about the space of twelue yeers and Continewed and carryed on att Plymouth in New England; a smale prte wherof Remaineth vntill this day; if any thing was don on this kind; by those worthy Leaders; I suppose; the blame is Rather to be layed on those which had the first view; of theire studdyes and had theire bookes and writings in Custody after theire decease; for I ame prswaded that such was theire faithfulnes and prudence as that they did not wholly Neglect this matter some yeers since it pleased God to putt an Impulse vpon my speritt to doe somthing in a historicall way Concerning New England, more especially; with Respect to the Collonie off New Plymouth; which was Intitled New Englands Memoriall;104 In which I occasionally I took Notice of Gods Great and Graciouss worke in erecting soe many Churches of Christ in this wildernes; But it was Judged by some that were Judicious that I was to sparing and short in that behalf; The Consideration wherof put mee on thoughts of Recollecting somthing more prticularly105 Relateing to the Church of Plymouth but it pleased the Lord in holy wisdom soe to dispose that haueing accomplished my desires somtime after the finishing of this worke I was solliseted to lend it to a Reuerand frind att Boston where it was burned in the first fire that was soe destructiue att Boston in the yeer 1667.106) yett Notwithstanding I haue through the goodnes of God Crowded through many difficulties to atcheiue it the second time; and for that end did once againe Repaire to the studdy of my much honored Vncle William Bradfo[rd107] Esquire deceased for whose care and faithfulnes in such like Respects wee stand bound; as firstly and mostly to the Lord soe108 secondarily, to him and his whose labours in such Respect might fitly haue bin published to the world; had they Not bin Involved in and amongst prticulars of other Nature;

    Handwriting of Nathaniel Morton

    Engraved for The Colonial Society of Massachusetts

    Gentle Reader I humbly Craue thy Patience and acceptance of this smale treatice soe as to Read it ouer Consideratly wherin soe doeing thou wilt descern much of the Goodnes Mercye and power of God; whoe as att the first brought this fabrick of the world out of the womb of Nothing; hath brought soe many famous Churches of Christ out of soe smale beginings; with Many other vsefull Considera[tions] that thou mayest meet with in the serious prusall therof; Soe leaueing thee and this smale work To the blessing of the onely wise God

    I Remaine thyne in Christ Jesus

    Nathaniell Morton;

    Plymouth in New England

    January 13th 1680109


    An Introduction to the Eclesiasticall history of the Church of Christ att Plymouth in New England as followeth;

    [T]his was originally pened by mr Willam Bradford Gour of New Plymouth.111

    It is well knowne to the Godly and Judicious how that euer since the first breakeing out of the light of the Gospell in our honorable Nation of England which was the first of Nations whom the lord Adorned therwith after that Grosse darknes of Popery which had Couered and ouerspred the Christian world, what warrs and oppositions euer since Satan hath Raised mainetained and Continewed against the Saints from time to time; in one sort or other; sometimes by bloody death and Crewell torments; otherwhiles Imprisonments banishments and other hard vsages as being loth his Kingdome should Goe downe, the truth prevaile, and the Churches of God Reuert to theire Ancient purety and Recouer theire primatiue order libertie and bewty; But when hee Could not prevaile, by these means against the maine truthes of the Gospell but that they began to take Rooting in Many places being watered with the blood of the Martires; and blessed from heauen with a Graciouse Increase, hee then began to take him to his ancient Strattagems vsed of old against the first Christians; That when by the bloody and Barbarosenes of the heathen Emperours hee Could not stop and subvert the course of the Gospell; but that It speedily ouerspred with a wonderful Celeritie to the then best known prts of the world hee then began to sow errors herresies and wonderfull desentions amonst the professors themselues, working vpon theire prid and Ambition; with other Corrupt Passions Insident to all Mortall men: yee to the Saints themselues (in some Measure) by which woefull effects followed, as not onely bitter; Contensions and hartburnings Schismes112 with other horrible Confusions, but Satan took occasion and advantage thereby to ffoist in a Number of vile Serrimonies with many vnproffitable Canons and decrees which haue since bine as snares to many peacable poor soules euen to this day; soe as in the ancient times the prsecutions by the heathen and theire Emperours was not Greater then of the Christians one against another; The Arians and other theire accomplices against the orthodox and true Christians as wittnesseth Socrates in his 2cond book; saith hee) “was noe less then that of old practised towards the Christians when they were Compelled and drawne to Sacrefice to Idolls for many Indured sundry kinds of Torments oftens113 Racking and dismembering of theire Joynts Confiscateing of theire Goods some bereaued of theire Natiue soyle others departed this life vnder the hands of the tormentor and some died in banishment and Neuer saw theire Country againe;”114

    libr: 2 Cha 22

    The like Meathod Satan hath seemed to hold in these Latter times since the truth began to springe and spred after the Great defection made by Antichrist the Man of sin; for to lett pas the Many examples in sundry Nations in seuerall places of the world and Instance of our oune; when as the old serpent Could not prevaile by those fiery fflames and other his Crewell tragedies, which hee by his Instruments put in115 ure euery wher in the dayes of Queen Mary and before; hee then began another kind of warr and went more Closely to worke Not onely to oppuggen but euen to Ruinate and destroy the kingdom of Christ by more Cecrett and subtill meanes, by kindleing the fflames of Contention and sowing the seeds of discord and bitter enmitie amongst the professors and seeming Reformed themselues, for when hee Could not prevaile by the former meanes against the principall doctrines of faith; hee bent his force against the holy discipline and outward Regiment of the Kingdom of Christ by which those holy doctrines should be Conserued, and true Piety maintained amongst the Saints and people of God;

    Mr ffox Recordeth how that besides those worthy martires and Confessors which were burned in Queen Maryes dayes and otherwise tormented, many both Studients and others filed out of the land to the Number of 800: and became seuerall Congregations att Wesell ffrankford Bassill Emden Markpurge Strausburough & Geneua &c:

    Actes & mon: page 581116 Edition: 2:

    Amongst whom especially those att ffrankford began a bitter warr of Contention and Persecution about the Cerrimonies and seruice book and other Popish and Antichristian [stuffe t]he Plague of England to this day, which are like [the] high places [in Israell,] which the prophetts Cryed out against and were the[ir ruine;]117 [2] which the better prte sought according to the puritie of the Gospell to Root out, and vtterly [to abandon] and the other prt vnder vailed pretences for theire owne ends and118 advancem[ents] sought as stifly to Continew maintaine and defend, as appereth by the discourse thereof published [in] print Anno: 1575 a book119 that deserues better to be knowne and Considered then it is120 the one syde Labored to [have] the Right worshipp of God and discipline of Christ established in the Church according to the simplisitie of the Gospell without the mixture of mens Inventions, and to haue and to be Ruled by the Lawes of Gods word dispenced in those offices and by those officers of Pastours and Teachers and Elders according to the Scriptures; The other partye though vnder many Coullers and pretences Indeauored to haue the episcopall dignitie, after the121 Popish manor, with theire large power and Jurisdiction still Retained with all those Covrt Cannons, and Cerrimonies together, with all such liueings Revenewes and subbordinate officers with other such means as formerly upheld theire Antichristian122 Greatnes, and enabled them with Lordly and tiranus power to prsecute the poor servants of God, This Contension was soe Great as Neither the honor of God123 the Comon prsecution nor the Mediation of Mr Calvin and other worthyes of the Lord, in those places, Could prevaile with those thus Episcopally minded; but they proceaded by all meanes to disturbe the peace of this poor prsecuted Church soe farr as to Charge very vnjustly, and vngodlely (yett prelate Like) some of theire Cheiffe opposers with Rebellion and high Treason against the Emperour and other such Crimes;

    And this Contension died not with Queen Mary nor was left beyond the seas but att her death these people Returning into England vnder Gracious Queen Elizabeth many of them prserued aspired to Bishopprickes and other promotions according to their aimes and desires. & Now124 That Inveterate hatred against the holy discipline of Christ in his church hath Continewed to this day, In soemuch that for feare it should prevaile all plott and deuises haue bin vsed to keep it out Insenceing the Queen and State against it as dangerouse to the Comon wealth and that it was most Needfull for the foundamenta[l] points of Religion should be preaced in125 in those Ignorant and superstitious t[imes] and to win the weake and Ignorant, they might Retaine diuers harmles Ceremonies and though it were to be wished that diuers thinges were Reformed yett this was [not] a season for it; and many the like to stopp the mouthes of the More Godly; to bring them on to yeild to one Ceremony after an other, and one corruption after an other by the[se]126 wyles beguilling some and Corrupting others vntill att length they began to prsecute al[l] the zealous professors in the land (altho they knew Little what this disipline mente) both by word and deed if they would not submitt to theire Ceremonies and become Slaues to them and theire popish trash which haue noe Ground in the word of God, but are Relicts of the man of sin; and the more the light of the Gospell Gre[w] the more they vrged theire subscribsions to these corruptions soe as notwithstandi[ng] all theire former pretences and faire Coullers they whose eyes God had not Justly blinded might esily see whereto these thinges tended; and to Cast Contempt the more vpon the Cenceer servants of God they approbriously and Most Injuriously Gaue vnto and Imposed vpon them that Name of puritans, which is said the Nouatians out of Prid did assume and take vnto themselues, and lamentable it is to see the effects which haue followed; Religion hath bine disgraced: the Godly Greiued afflicted prsecuted and many excilled sundry haue lost theire liues in prisons and other wayes, on the other hand sin hath bin Countenanced Ignoranse prophanes and athiesme Increased the papests Incurraged to hope againe for a day;

    Euseb: lib: 6 Chap 42

    This made that holy man mr Perkins127 Cry out in his exhortations vnto Repenten[ce] on Zepha 2 Religion saith hee, “hath bin amongst vs this 35 yeers But the more it is published the more it is Contemned and Reproached of many &c Thus not proph[anes] nor wickednes but Religion it selfe is a byword a mocking stock and Matter of Reproach soe that in England att this day the man or woman that begins to profess Relig[ion] and to serue G[od must] Resolue with him selfe to sustaine M[ock]s and Injvries euen [as] though hee [lived amongst] the enimies of Religion” and [this commone] experience [hath confirmed, and made too apparente.”] [4128]

    page 421

    But before I pass on I can not omitt an observation worthy to be noted which was observed by the author viz: mr William Bradford as followeth:

    Saith hee, full litle did I think that the doune fall of the Bishopps with theire Courts Cannon and Ceremonies had bin soe near when I first began this writing which about the year 1630 and soe peeced att Leasvre time afterwards, or that I should haue liued to haue seen or heard of the same But it is the lords doeing and ought to be Marvelous in our eyes; euery Plant which mine heauenl[y]129 father hath not planted saith our father shalbe Rooted vp: Mat: 15:13: I haue Snared thee and thou art taken oh Babell (Bishops) and thou wast not aware; thou art found and alsoe caught because thou hast Striven against the Lord Jer: 50:24: But will they needs strive against the truth against the servants of the lord; what and against the lord himself doe they provoake the lord to anger are they stronger than hee 1 Cor 10: 22: noe noe they haue mett with theire match; Behold I Come against the oh proud man saith the lord God of hostes for thy day is coming euen the time that I will visitt thee Jer: 50: 31: May not the people of God now say; and these poor people among the Rest; The lord hath brought forth our Rightousnes come lett vs declare in Zion the work of the Lord our God Jer: 51:10: lett all fflesh be still before the Lord for hee is Raised vp out of his holy place Zach: 2:13:130

    This poor people may say (amonge the thousands of Israell) when the Lord brought againe the Captiuity of Zion wee were like them that dreame Psalm 126:1 The Lord hath done Great thinges for vs whereof wee Rejoyce verse the third; They that sow in teares shall Reape in Joy; they went weeping and Carryed precious seed but they shall Return with Joy and bringe theire sheaues verse 5:6:

    Doe yee not Now see the fruits of youer labours oh all yee servants of the Lord that haue suffered for his truth and haue bin faithfull witnesses of the same; and yee little handfull amongst the Rest the least amongst the thousands of Israeli; you haue not had a seed time, but many of you haue seen a Joyfull haruest. should yee not then Rejoyce yee againe Rejoyce and sing hallelujah saluation and Glory and honor and power be to the Lord our God for true and Righteouse are his Judgments Reu: 19:1: 2.

    But thou wilt aske what is the matter what is done; Why art thou a stranger [in] Israell that thou shouldest not know what is done; are not those Jebusites ouercome that haue vexed the people of Israell soe longe euen holding Jerusalem euen vntil Dauids Dayes and bin as thornes in theire sydes soe many ages and Now bega[n] to scorne that not any Dauid should meddle with them; they begaine to fortify theire tower as that of the old babilonians; But those proud Anakims are Now throwne downe; and theire Glory layed in the dust, the tiranous Bishopps are ejected there Co[urts] desolued theire Canons fforceles theire service books Casheired theire Cerremonies vseles [and] despised theire plotts for Popery prevented, and all theire superstitions dis[carded] and Returned to Roome from whence they Came; and the moniments of Idolletry [rooted] out of the land, and the proud and prophane supporters and Crewell defenders [of] these, as bloody Papists wicked Athiests and theire mallignant Consorts marue[lously] ouerthrowne, and are not these Great things, whoe Can deney it;

    But whoe hath don it euen hee that siteth on the white horse whoe is called faithf[ul] and true and Judgeth and fighteth Righteously Reuelati 19: 11: whose Garments are diped in blood; and his Name was Called the word of God verse 13: for hee shall Rule them with a Rod of Iron for it is hee that treadeth the winepresse of the ffeircnes of the wrath of God Almighty, and hee hath vpon his Garment and vpon his thye a name written, the Kinge of Kinges and the lord of Lords, Hallelujah;

    Anno Dom 1646

    See how this holy man his sperit was Elivated and his hart Raised vp in praiseing of the Lord in Consideration of the downefall of the proud prelatse; as hee and many more of the Saints had Good Reason; who felt the smart of theire bitter and Crewell tirany; whoe are endeed a limbe of Antichrist; and if the Generallitie of the Saints had bin those sencible of this Great and131 Marueilous work of God, posibly that proud hirachy, had not Gott vp soe soone againe as they haue done soone, after this Good man[s] departure out of this world;132 Neuertheles wee doubt not but that God wil bring them down in his Good time; for vndoubtedly all those that will not that the Lord Jesus should Raig[n] ouer them; but ensteed therof exercise a usurped lordly power over the poor saints of God sha[ll be] brought and slaine before him; (and without Repentance) shall together with the beast and ffalse prophett be thrown into the lake burning with fier and brimstone; when Babilon [cometh into] Remembrance before God then shall the saints with the angell say thou art J[ust] and holy because [thou hast judged] these thinges for they; viz: that hord133 of Room [an]d the prelates theire ad[herents] haue shed the blood [of the saints. Give them blood to drink; for they are worthy.134] [5]

    Reu: 17 5: 6: :7

    The exordium being Concluded; I shall come more Nearier my Intended purpose: viz: in Reference vnto the Church of Christ at Plymouth in New England; first begun in old England and carryed on in holland; and att Plymouth aforsaid;

    Chapter I.

    When by the trauell and dilligence of some Godly and Zelous Preachers and Gods blesing on theire labours as in other places of the Land soe in the North prtes many became Inlightened by the word of God and had theire Ignorance and sines discouered by the word135 of Gods Grace; and began by his Grace, to Reforme theire Hues and make Consience of theire wayes, the work of God was noe sooner manifest in them but prsently they were both scoffed and scorned by the prophane Multitude and the minnesters vrged with the yoake of Subscribption or else must be silenced; and the poor people were soe136 vexed with apparrators and Pursvants and the Comission courts as truly theire affliction was not smale; which Notwithstanding they bare sundry yeers with much Patience vntill they were occationed by the Continewance and Increase of those troubles and other meanes which the Lord Raised vp in those dayes; to see further Into thinges by the Light of the word, of God; how not onely137 those base beggerly Ceremonies were vnlawfull but alsoe that the lordly tiranous power of the Prelates ought Not to be submitted to which thuse Contrary to the ffreedome of the Gospell would load and burten mens Consiences with and by theire Compulsiue power make a prophaine mixtvre of prsons and thinges in the worship of God; and that theire offices and Callings Courts and Cannons &c: were vnlawfull and Antichristian being such as haue noe warrant in the word of God but the same that were vsed in Popery: and still Retained; of which a famous Auther thus writeth in his duch Comentaryes138


    “Att139 the Comeing of Kinge James out of Scotland into England, the New Kinge (saith hee) found there established the Reformed Religion; According to the Reformed Religion of Kinge Edward the sixt, Retaining or keeping still the speritvall state of the bishopes &c: after the old manor much varying and differing from the Reformed Churches of Scotland ffrance and the Netherlands Emden Geneva etc whose Reformation is Cutt or shapen much Nearer the first Churches as it was vsed in the Apostles times;”

    Soe many therfore of these proffessers as saw the euil of these thinges, in these prtes and whose harts the Lord had touched with heauenly Zeale for his truth, they shook of this yoake of Antichristian Bondage and as the Lords ffree people Joyned themselues (by a Covenant of the Lord) into a Church estate in the ffellowshipp of the Gospell to walk in all his wayes made knowne or to be made knowne vnto them according to theire best endeauors whatsoeuer it should Cost them140 and that it Cost them much paines trouble sorrow affliction and141 prsecution; and expence of theire estates &c this ensueing history will declare

    These people became two distinct bodyes or Churches; in Regard of Distance of Place and did Congregate Seuerally for they were of seuerall townes & villages some in Nottingamsheire some in Lankishsheire142 and some of Yorksheire where they bordered Nearest together; In the one of these Churches besides others of Note was mr John Smith a man of Able Giftes and a Good preacher whoe afterwards was Chosen their Pastour but these afterwards falling into some errours in the low Countryes, there for the Most prte buriyed themselues and theire Names

    But in this other Church; which must be the subject of our discourse besides other worthy men was Mr Richard Clifton a Graue and Reuerend Preacher whoe by his paines and dilligence had don much Good and vnder God had bin a meanes of the Conversion of Many; and Alsoe that famous and worthy man Mr John Robinson whoe afterwards was theire Pastour for many yeers vntill the Lord [6] The Lord took him away by death; And alsoe mr William Brewster a Reuere[nd] man who afterwards was Chosen an Elder of the Church and liued with them [until] old age; and death

    Butt after these thinges they Could not longe Continew in any peacable manor but were hunted and prsecuted on euery side soe as theire former Afflictions; were but as molehills to Mountaines, in Comparison to these; which now Came vpon them; for some were taken and Claped vp in prisons, others had theire houses besett and watched Night and day and hardly escaped theire hands and the most were faine to fly and leaue theire houses and habitations, and the meanes of theire liuelihood yett these and many other sharper thinges which afterward befell them were Noe other then they looked for; and therfore were the better prepared to beare them by the Assistance of Gods Grace and speritt; yett seeing themselues thus Molested, and that there was noe hope of theire Continewance theire; by a Joynt Consent they Resolued to Goe into the low Countryes; where they heard was ffreedom of Religion for all men; as alsoe how sundry from London and other ptes of the land that had bine exiled and prsecuted for the same Cause and were Gon thither and liued att Amsterdam143 and in other places of the land;

    Soe after they had Continewed together about a yeer and kept theire meetinges euery sabbath in one place or other exercising the worship of God amongst themselues, Notwithstanding all the dilligence and mallice of theire aduersaries; they seeing they Could Noe Longer Continew in that Condition they resolued to Gett ouer Into holland as they Could which was in the yeer 1607 and 1608: of which more in that which followeth;


    of theire departure Into holland And theire troubles therabout with some of the many difficulties they found and mett withall

    2 Chapt

    Being thus Constrained to Leaue theire Natiue Country theire lands & liueings and all theire frinds and familliar acquaintance, It was much and thought marueilious by many; But to Goe into a Country they knew not (but by hearsay) where they must learn a New Language and Gett theire Liuings they knew not how; It being a deare place and subject to the Misseryes of warr It was by many thought an adventure almost desparate, a Case Intollerable and a missery worse then death especially seing they were Not acquainted with trades nor traffick (by which the) Country doeth subsist; but had onely bin vsed to a plaine Country life and the Inocent trade of husbandry; But these thinges did not dismay them (although they did sometimes trouble them) for theire desires were sett on the wayes of God and to enjoy his ordinances But they Rested on his prouidence; and knew whom they had beleiued; yett this was not all for although they Could not stay; yett were they not suffered to Goe but the ports and hauens were shutt against them.; soe as they were faine to seeke secrett meanes of Conveyance and to see the Marrinors and Giue extreordinary Rates for theire passages and yett were they oftentimes betrayed many of them; and both they and theire goods Intercepted and surprised and therby put to Great trouble; and Charge of which I will Giue an Instance or two and omitt the Rest;

    There was a Great Companie of them purposed to Gett passage att Boston in Linkensheire and for that end had hiered a shipp wholly to themselues and made agreement with the Master to be Ready att a Certaine day; and take them and theire goods in att a [7] Conuenient place where they accordingly would all attend in Reddines; soe aften longe waiting and large expences, though hee kept not the day with them yett hee came att Length and took them in In the Night, and when hee had them and theire Goods aboard, hee betrayed them haueing before hand Comploted with the serchers and others officers soe to doe, whoe took them and putt them into open boates and there Rifelled and Ransaked them serching them to theire shirts for mony, yee euen the weomen further then became Modesty; and then Carryed them backe into the Towne, and made them a spectacle and wonderment to the Multitude which came mocking on all sydes to behold them; Being thus by the Catchpole144 officers Riffled and striped of theire Mony bookes and much other goods they were prsented to the Majestrates and Messengers sent to Informe the Lords of the Councell of them; and soe they were comitted to ward Indeed the Majestrates vsed them Curtuovsly and shewed them what fauor they Could but Could not deliuer them vntill order Came from the Councell Table, but the Issue was that after a month Imprisonment the Greatest prte were dismissed and sent to the place from whence they Came; but some145 of the principall were still kept in prison and bound ouer to the Assices.

    p. 40/1.146

    The Next spring after there was another attempt made by some of these and others made to Gett ouer att another place; and it soe fell out that they lited of a duch man att hull haueing a shipp of his owne belonging to Zealand; they made agreement with him and acquainted him with theire Condition; hopeing to find more faithfullness in him, then in the former or of theire owne Nation; hee bad them not feare for hee would doe welenough hee was by appointment to take them in between Grimsbey and hull where was a large Comon a Goodway147 distant from any towne; Now against the prfixed time the weomen and Children with the Goods were sent to the place in a smale barque which they had hiered for that end and the men were to meet them by land but it soe fell out that they were there a day before the shipp Came, and the sea being Rough and the weomen very148 very sick prevailed with the seamen to put into a Creek hard by where they lay on Ground att Low water The Next morning the shipp came but they were fast and Could Not stirr vntill about noone; In the mean time the shipp Master prseiveing how the Mater was sent his boate to be Getting the149 Men aboard whome hee150 saw walking about the shore but after the first boate full was Gott aboard and shee was Reddy to Goe for more the Master espyed a Great Companie both horse and foot with bills and Guns and other weapons for the Country was Raised to take them; The duch man seeing that, swore his Countryes Oath (Sarament) and haueing the wind faire wayed his Ancre hoysed sayles and away but the poor men which were Gott on board were in Great Distress for theire wiues and Children which they saw thuse to be taken and were left destitute of their healpes and themselues alsoe, Not haueing a Cloth to shift them with more then they had on theire backes; and some scarse apeny about them all they had being on board the barke; It drew tears from theire eyes and any thinge they had they would haue Giuen to haue bin on shore againe but all in vaine there was Noe Remedy they must thus sadly prte; and afterward Indured a fear-full storme att Sea being forteen dayes or more before they ariued att theire151 port; In seauen whereof they Neither saw Sun moon Nor starrs; and were driuen to the Coast of Norway the Marrinors them selues often desparring of life; and once with shrikes and Cryes Gaue ouer all as if the shipp had bine foundered in the sea, and they sinking without Recouery; But when Mans hope and healp wholly faylleth the lords power and Mercy appeered for theire Recouery for the shipp Rose againe, and Gaue the Marriners Corrage againe to Manage her; and if Modesty would suffer [8] mee I might declare with whate feruent prayers they Cryed vnto the Lord in this Gr[eat] distress especially some of them euen without any Great destraction when the water Ran in theire very ears and Mouthes; and the Marrynors Cryed out wee sinke wee sink; they Cryed if not with Miraculous yett with a Great hight of divine ffaith; yett Lord thou Canst saue yett Lord, thou Canst saue; with such other expressions as I will forbeare;152 vpon which the shipp did not onely Recouer but shortly after the violence of the storme began to abate; and the Lord filled theire afflicted Minds with such Comforts as euery one Can not vnderstand; and in the end brought them to theire desired hauen where the people Came fflocking admireing theire deliuerance, the storme haueing bin soe longe and sore; in which much hurt had bin don as the Masters frinds had Related vnto him, in theire Congratulations;

    But to Returne to the others where wee left; the Rest of the men that were in the Greatest danger made shift to escape away before the troope Could Surprise them those onely staying that best might; to be assistant to the weomen but pittifull it was to see the heauy case of these poor weomen; in their destress what weeping and Crying on euery syde, some for theire husbands that were Carryed away in the shipp as it was before related; others not knowing what should become of them and theire Little ones others melted in153 teares seeing theire poor Little ones hanging about them Crying for feare and quaking with Cold; being thus apprehended they were hurryed from one place to another and from one Justice to another vntill in the end they knew not what to doe with them for to Imprison soe many weomen and Inocent Children, for noe other Cause (Many of them) but that they must Goe with theire husbands, seemed to be vnreasonable154 and all would Cry out of them, and to155 send them home againe was as difficult; for they alledged (as the truth was) They had noe homes to Goe to; for they had sold or otherwise disposed of their houses and liueings to be short after they had bin thus tormoyled, a good while and Conveyed from one Constable to another they were Glad to be Rid of them, in the end vpon any tearmes for all were wearie and tired with them; tho in the mean time the poor soules Indewred Misery enough and thus in the end Nessisitie forced a way for them;

    But that I be not tedious in these thinges I will omitt the Rest; although I might Relate many other Notable passages and troubles which they Indvred, and vnderwent in these theire wanderings and trauells both att156 Land and Sea. But I hast to other thinges yett I may not omitt the fruite that Came heerby; for by those soe publick troubles in soe many eminent places theire Cause became famous, and occationed Many to Looke into the same, and theire Godly Carryage and Christian behauiour; was such as left a157 deep Impression in the minds of Many; and tho, some few shrunke; att those first Conflicts and sharp beginin[gs] (as it was noe Maruell) yett many more Came on with ffresh Corrage and Greatly anymated others; and in the end158 Notwithstanding all these stormes of159 opposition they all Gott ouer att160 length some att one time and some att another and mett together againe according to theire desires with noe smale Rejoycing;

    Chapt: 3

    of theire settleing in holland and theire manor of Liueing and entertainment there;

    Being now Come into the Lowcountryes161 they saw many Goodly and fortified Cittyes strongly waled and Gaurded with troopes of Armed men; alsoe they heard a strange and vncouth Language and beheld the different Manors and Customes of the people with theire strange fashions and attires; all soe farr diffiring from that of theire plaine Countrye villages wherein they were bread and borne and had soe longe liued; as it seemed they were Come into a New world; but those were not the thinges they much looked on, or longe took vp theire thoughts for they had other work in hand; and another kind of warr to wage and maintain [9] ffor though they saw fair and butifull Cittyes fflowing with aboundance of all sorts of wealth and Riches, yett it was not longe before they saw the Grime and Griseled face of pouerty Comeing on them like an Armed man, with whom they must buckle & incounter, and from whom they Could not ffly But they were armed with faith and Patience against him and all his encounters and though they were sometimes foyled, yett by Gods assistance they prevailed and Gott the162 victory; Now when Mr Robinson Mr Brewster and other principall Members were Come ouer for they were of the last and stayed to healp the weakest ouer before them; such thinges were thought on as were Nessesary for theire settleing and best ordering of the Church affaires and when they had liued att Amsterdam about a yeer; Mr Robinson theire Pastovr, and some others of best descerning seeing how mr John Smith and his Companie was alreddy fallen into Contension (with the Church) that was there before them;163 and noe meane[s] they Could vse would doe any Good to Cure the same; and also that the fflames of Contension were like to breake out in that ancient Church; it selfe as afterwards Lamentably Came to pase; which thinges they prudently foreseing; thought itt was best to Remoue before they were any way engaged [with] the same; though they well knew it would be much to the prejudice of theire outward estate both att prsent and in likelyhood in the future; as Indeed it proued to be; for these and some other Reasons they Remoued to Leyden a fayre and butifull Citty and of a sweet Scittuation; But made more famous by the vnivercety wherwith it is adorned in which of late ha[th] it bin, by soe many Learned men; But wanting that traffick by sea which Amsterdam Injoyed It was not soe benificiall for theire outward means of liueing and estates; but being Now heere pitched they fell to such trades and Imployments as they best Could vallueing peace and their sperituall Comfort aboue any other Riches whatsoeuer; and att length they came to Raise a Competent and Comfortable Liueing; and with hard and Continuall labour being thus settled after many difficulties they Continewed Many164 yeers In a Comfortable Condidition Injoying much sweet and delightfull society; and sperituall Comfort together in the wayes of God vnder the able minnestry and Prudent Gouerment of Mr John Robinson and Mr William Brewster who was an Assistant vnto him in the place of an elder, vnto which hee was Now Called and Chosen by165 the Church soe as they Grew in knowlidge and other Gifts and Graces of the speritt of God And liued together in peace and loue and holines; and Many Came vnto them from diuers prtes of England; soe as they Grew a Great Congregation; and if att any time any differences did arise or offences broke out, as it Can not be but that somtimes166 there will euen amongst the best of men; they were eue[r] soe mett with and Nipt in the head betimes or other wise soe, well Composed a[s] still loue peace and Comunion was Continewed, or else the Church purged of those that were Incurable; and Incorrigable, when after much Patience vsed noe other meanes167 would serue which seldome comes to pass yee such was the mutvall loue and Resiprocall Respect; That this worthy man had to his mock and his fflock to him, that it might be said of them168 as it once was said of that famous Emperour Marcus Aurelivs and the people of Roome; That it was hard to Judge whether hee delighted more in haueing such a people; or they in haueing such a pastor his loue was Great towards them; and his Care was alwaies bent for their best Good both for soule and body for besides his singular abillities in diuine thinges (wherin hee excelled) hee was able alsoe to Giue direccion [10] In Civill affaires and to foresee dangers and Inconveniences, by which meanes hee was [very] healpfull to theire outward estates; and soe was euery way as a Comon father vnto them, and none did more offend him; then those that were Close and Cleaue-ing to themselues and Retired from the Comon Good; as alsoe such as would be stiffe and Ridged in Matters of outward order and169 Invay against the euills of others; and yett be Remise in them selues, and not soe Carefull to express a vertuous Conversation; they in like manor had euer a Reverent Regard vnto him and had him in precious estemation as his worth and wisdome did deserue, and although they esteemed him highly whiles hee liued and laboured amongst them; yett much more after his death when they Came to feele the want of his healp and saw by woefull experience170 what a treasure they had lost of the Greife of theire hearts and wounding of theire soules, yee such a Iosse as they saw Could not be Regained for it was hard for them to find such another leader and feeder in all Respects, as the Taborites to find another Ziska; and although they did not Call themselues orphanes as the other did after his death yett they had Cause as much to Lament in another Regard, theire prsent Condition and after vsage; But to Returne I know not but it may be spoken to the honor of171 God and without prejudice to any That such was the humble Zeale and feruent loue of this people (whiles they thus liued together) towards God and his wayes and the single hartednes and senseer affection one towards another That they Came as Neare the primitiue Patteren of the first Churches as any other Church of these latter times haue don; according to theire Ranke and qvallitie; But seeing it is not my purpose to treat of the seuerall passages that befell this people whiles they thus liued in the low Countryes, which might worthyly Reqvire a large treatice of it selfe; But to manifest somthing of theire begining and after progresse in New England which I principally Scope, and aime att; yett because some of theire Adversaries did vpon the Rumer of theire Remoueall Cast out Slanders against them; as if that State had bine weary172 of them; and had Rather driuen them out as the heathen histories did faine of Moses and the Israellits when they went out of egipt; then it was theire owne free Choise and motion; I will therfore mention a prticular or two to shew the Contrary; and that Good acceptation they had in the place and first altho it was low with many of them yett theire word would be taken amongst the duches when they wanted mony, because they had found by experience how Care full they were to keep theire word; and saw them soe painefull and dilligent in theire Callings that they stroue to Gett theire Customes, and to Imploy them aboue others in theire work for theire honesty and dilligence;

    Goulden book &c:173

    [A] Great [h]onor [to] the [G]ospell

    Again174 the Majestrates of the Cittey about the time of their Coming away or a little before in the publick place of Justice Gaue this Comendable Testimony of them in Reproffe of the Walloones (whoe were of the ffrench Church) in the Cyttey; these English (said they) haue lived amongst vs now this 12 yeers; and yett wee Neuer had any suite or accusation Came against them; but youer striffes and qvarrells are Continuall &c:

    In these times alsoe were the Great troubles Raised by the Arminians whoe as they Greatly molested the whole state soe this Cittey in prticular, in which was the Cheiffe Vniversitie soe as there was dayly and hott disputes in the Scooles therabouts and as the Students and other learned were deuided in theire opinnions heerin; soe were the two professours or diuinity Readers themselues, the one daely teaching for it, and the other against it; which Grew to that passe that few of the desiples of the one would heare the other teach; But Mr Robinson although hee taught thrise a weeke himself and wrott sundry bookes besides his Manifold paines otherwise; yett hee went Constantly to heare theire Readings and heard as well one as the other; by which means hee was soe well Grounded in the Controversy and saw the force of all theire175 Arguments and knew the shifts of the Adversary; and being himself very able, Non was fitter to buckle with them then hims[elfe] as appeered by sundry disputes, soe as hee began to be terible to the Arminions [11] which made epescopious176 the Arminian Proffesor to put forth his best strength and sett out sundry thesies which by publick disputes hee would defend against all men; Now Poliander177 the other professor and the Cheiffe preachers of the178 Citie desired Mr Robinson to despute against him but hee was loth being a stranger yett the other did Importune him and tould him that such was the abillitie and Nimblenes of witt of the Adversary that the truth would suffer; if hee did not help them soe as hee Condecended and prepared him self against the time; and when the time came the Lord did soe healp him to defend the truth and foyle his Adversary; as hee put him to an apparent Nonplus in this Great and publick Audience; and the like hee did two or three times vpon such179 like occations the which as it caused many to praise God that the truth had soe famous a victory soe it procured him much honor and Respect from those Learned men and others which loued the truth; yee soe farr were they from being weary of him and his people or desireing theire absence, as that it was said by some (of noe mean Note) That were it not for Giveing offence to the State of England they would haue prefered him otherwise if hee would, and allowed them some publick fauor yee when theire was speech of theire Remouall into these pts: sundry of Note and eminensy of that Nation would haue had them Come vnder them and for that end made them Large offers; Now although I might alledge many prticulars and examples of the Like kind to shew the vntruth and vnliklihood of this Slaunder yett these shall suffice seing it was beleiued of few being onely Raised by the Mallice of Some whoe lahovred theire disgrace;

    The 4th Chapt:

    shewing the Reasons and Causes of their Removall180

    After they had liued in this Citty about eleuen or twelue yeers; (which is the more) (obseruable) being the whole time of that famous truce181 between that state and the Spainiards; and sundry of them were taken away by death and many others began to be well stricken in yeers; the Graue mistris Experience haueing taught them many things; these prudent Gournors with sundry of the sagest members began both deeply to apprehend theire prsent dangers; and wisely to foresee the future and think of timly Remedy in the agitation of their thoughts and much discovrse of prticulars heerabout; the began to encline to this Conclusion of Removall to some other place Not out of Any New fangleednes or other such like Giddy humer by which men are many [time]s Transported to theire Great hurt and danger but for sundry waighty and sollid Reasons; the Cheife of which I will heer Resight and breifly touch; and first: they found and saw by experience the hardnes of the place and Country to be such as few in comparison182 would Come to them and fewer that would bide it out; and Continew with them; for many that cam to them and many more that desired to be with them Could not Indure the Great labour and hard fare with other Inconveniencyes which they vnder went and were Contented with; But though they loued theire prsons and approued theire Cause and honored theire sufferings, yett they left them as it were weeping as orpha did her mother in law Naomy; or as those183 Romans did Catoe in vtica whoe desired to be excused; and borne with: though they could not all be Catoes;

    1 for many though184 they desired to Injoy the ordinances of God in theire purity and the libertie of the Gospell with them yett alas they admitted of Bondage with danger, of Consience Rather then to Indure these hardshipps; yee some prefered and Chose prisons in England Rather then this libertie in holland; with these afflictions; but it was thought that if a beter and easier place of liueing Could be had it would draw many and take away these discurragements, yea theire Pastour would oftens say that many of those that both write and preached now against them if they were in a place where they might haue libertie and Hue Comfortably they would then practice as they did

    2 They saw that although the people Generally bore all theire difficult [ies] very Chearfully and with a Resolute Currage being in the best of theire strength yett old age began to Come on some of them; and theire Great and Continewall labours with other Crosses and sorrowes hastened it before the time; soe as it was not onely probably thought, but apparently seen that within a few yeers more they were in danger to scatter by Nessesitie pressing them; or sink vnder theire burdens, or both; and therfore according to the diuine proverb; That a wise man seeth the Plague when it Cometh and hydeth himself proverbes 22:3 soe they like skilfull and beaten souldiers were fearfull either to be Intrapped or surrounded [12] by theire enimies; soe as they should neither be able to ffight nor ffly and therefore thought it better to dislodge betimes to some place of better advantage and lesse danger if any Could be found;

    3 As Nessesitie was a task Master ouer them; soe they were fforced to be such not onely to their servants but in a sort to theire dearest Children, the which as it did a little wound the tender harts of many a loueing father and mother soe it produced alsoe many sad and sorrowfull effects for many of theire Children that were of best dispositions and Graciouse Inclinations; haueing Learned to beare the yoake, in theire youth and willing to beare part of theire parents burden were often times, soe oppressed with theire heauy Labours; that although theire minds were ffree and willing; yett theire bodyes bowed vnder the waight of the same and became decriped in their early youth the vigour of Nature being Consumed in the very bud (as it were) But that which was more lamentable and of all sorrowes most heavy to be bourne was that many of theire Children by these occasions and the Great lysenciousnes of youth in the Country, and the manyfold temptations of the place were drawne away by euill examples vnto extrauigant and dangerouse Courses Getting the Raines on theire neckes and departing from their parents some became souldiers others tooke vpon them farr voyages by sea and other some, worse Courses tending to desolutenes, and the danger of theire soules to the Great Greiffe of theire parents and dishonor of God soe that they saw theire posteritie would be in danger to degenerate and be Corrupted;

    Lastly and which was not the185 least a Great hope and Inward Zeal they had of laying some Good foundation or att least to make some way thervnto for186 the propagateing; and advanceing the Gospell of the kingdom of Christ in those Remote prtes of the world, yee, though they should be but as stepping stones vnto other, for prforming of soe Great a worke;

    These and some other like Reasons moued them to vndertake this Resolution of their Removall the which they afterward procecuted with soe Great difficulties as by the sequell will appeer;

    The place they had thoughts on were some of those vnpeopled Countryes of America which are fruitfull and fitt for habitation being devoid of all Civill187 Inhabitants, where ther are onely salvage and brutish people which Range vp and downe little otherwise then the wild beasts; this proposition being made publi[ck] and Comeing to the scaning of all it Raised many variable oppinions amongst men, and Caused many feares and doubts amongst themselues; some from theire Reasons and hopes Conceiued; laboured to stir vp and Incurrage the Rest to vndertake and procecute the same; others againe out of theire feares objected against it; and sought to divert from it, alledging many thinges and those neither vnreasonable nor vnprobable; and that it was a Great designe and subject to many Inconceivable prrells and dangers as besides the causaltie[s] of the seas (which none can be freed from) the length of the voyage was such as the weake bodyes of men and weomen and such other prsons worne out with age and travill (as many of them were) could neuer be able to Indure; and yett if they should; the miseryes of the land which they should be exposed vnto would be to hard to be bourn and likely some or all of them to Consume and vtterly to Ruinate them; for theire they should be188 lyable to famine and Naked[nes] and the want in a Manor of all thinges; the Changing of the189 aire diatt and drinking of water would Infect theire bodyes with sore sicknesses and all tho[se] which should escape or ouercome these difficulties should yett be in Contin[ual] danger of the salvage people whoe are Crewell190 Barbarous and treach[erous] [13] being most furious in theire Rage and Mercyles where they ouercome not being Content onely to kill and take away life, but delight to torment men in most bloody Manor that may be; fflaying men alive with the shells of ffishes Cuting of the Joynts and members of others by peece meales; and broyling them on the Coles; and causing men to eate the Collopps of theire fflesh in theire sight whiles they liue; with other Creweltyes horible to be Related; and surely It could not be thought but the hearing of these thinges: could not but moue the bowells of men to Grate within them and mak the weak to qvak and tremble It was further objected that, it would Require Greater sumes of mony to furnish such a voiage; and to fitt them with Nessesaries then theire estates would amount to; and yett they must all as well look to be seconded with supplies, as prsently to be transported; alsoe the like presedents of ill successe and lamentable Miseryes befallen others in the like191 designs were easey to be found and not forgotten: to be alledged, besides theire owne experience in theire former troubles and hardshipps in theire Removall into holland, and how hard a thinge it was for them to liue in that strange place although it was an Naighbour Country; and a Ciuill and Rich Comon wealth;

    It was Answared that all Great and honorable Actions were accompanied with Great difficulties; and must be both enterprised and ouercome with Answarable Currages, It was Granted the dangers were Great but not desparate, and the difficultie were many192 but Not Invincible, for although there were Many of them likely yett they were not Certaine; It might be that some of193 the thinges feared might Neuer befall them. Others by prouidence Care and the vse of Good meanes might in a Great Measure be prevented; and all of them through the healp of God by fortitude and patience;194 might195 either be bourne or ouercome; true it was that such Attempts; were not to be made and vndertaken but vpon Good Ground and Reason, Not Rashly or lightly as many haue don for Curiossety or hope of Gaine &c: But theire Condition was Not ordinary theire ends were Good and honorable theire Calling lawfull and vrgent; and therefore they might expect a blessing of God in theire proceeding yee although they should loose theire liues in this action yett they might haue Comfort in the same; and theire Indeauors would be honorable.196

    They liued heer but as men in exile and in a poor Condition; and as Great Misseryes might posibly befall them, in this place, for the 12 yeers of truce were now out,197 and there was Nothing but beating of drums and preparing for warr, the euents whereof are alwaies vncertaine; the spainiard might proue as Crewell as the saluages of America; and the famine and pestilence as sore heer as theire and theire libertie lesse to look out for Remedy After; Many other prticular thinges answared and alledged on both sydes It was fully Concluded by the Major part to put this designe in execution and to procecute it by the best meanes they could.

    The 5th Chapt:

    [s]hewing what [m]eanes they [used] for [prepa]ration to [this] [w]aithty voiage198

    And first after theire humble prayers vnto God for his direction and Assistance And a Generall Conferrence held therabouts; they Consulted what prticular place to pitch vpon; and prepare for; some and none of the meanest had [14] had thoughts and were earnest for Goyanna or some of those fertile places in hott Clymetts others were for some prtes of Verginnia where the English had alreddy made enterance and begining, those for Goyanna alledged that the Country was Rich fruitfull and blessed with a prpetvall springe; and a fflorishing Greenes; wher vigorous Nature brought forth all thinges in aboundance and plentey without any Great Labour or art of man soe as it must Needs make the Inhabitants Rich, seeing lesse prouision of Clothing and other thinges would serue them then in more Colder and lesse fruitfull Countryes must be h[ad] as alsoe that the spainyards haueing much more then they Could, posesse had not yett planted there nor any where very Neare the same;

    But to this it was Answared that out of qvestion the Country was both fruitfull and pleasant and might yeild Riches and maintenance to the posessors more esely then to199 other yett other thinges Considered it would not be soe fitt; and first that such hott Countryes are subject to Greevious diseases and many Noysome Impediments, which other more tempara[te] places are freer from and would Not soe well agree with our English bodyes; againe if they should there liue and doe well the Jealious spaniyard, would Neauer suffer them longe but would displant and ouerthrow them, as hee did the ffrench in fflorida whoe were settled further from his Richest Countryes; and the sooner because they should haue None to Protect them and theire owne strength would be too smale to Resist soe Potent an enimie soe Neare an Naighbor,

    On the other hand for Verginnia200 it was objected that if they liued amongst the English which were theire planted, or soe Near them as to be vnder theire Gourment they should be in as Great danger to be troubled and prsecuted for theire Cause of Religion as if they liued in England (and it might be worse and if they) liued to farr of, they should neither haue succor or defence from them;

    And att length the Conclusion was to liue in a distinct body by themselues vnder the Gener[al] Govrment of Verginnia; and by theire ffrinds to sue to his Matie that hee would be pleased to Graunt them free liberty, and ffredom of Religion; and that this May be obtained they were put in Good hope; by some Great prsons of Good Rank and qval[ity] that were made theire ffrindes;

    Whervpon two were Chosen and sent into England att the Charge of the Rest [to] sollissit this matter whoe201 found the Verginnia Companie very desirous to haue them Goe thither, and willing to Graunt them a Pattent with as ample privilid[ges] as they had or could Graint to any, and to Giue them the best furtherance they C[ould] and some of the Cheiffe of the Company doubted Not to obtaine theire suite of the king for libertie in Religion and to haue it Confeirmed vnder the Kinges broad sea[l] according to theire desires but it proued a harder peece of work then they tooke it for; for although many meanes was vsed to bring it aboute yett it Could not be effe[cted] for there were diuers of Good worth laboured with the Kinge to obtaine it among[st] whom was one of his Cheife Secretaries;202 and some other wrought with the arc[h] Bishop to Giue way thervnto, but it proued all in Vaine; yet thus farr, they prevaile[d] in sounding his Maties Mind, that hee would Conive att them, and Not molest them prouided they Carryed themselues peacably; But to allow or tollerate them by his publick authoritie vnder his seale, they found it would not bee; and this was all that the Cheefe of the verginnia Company or any other of theire best frinds Could do in the Case; yett they prswaded them to Goe on for they prsumed they should not bee troubled and with this answare the messengers Returned and signifyed what dilligen[ce] had bin vsed and to what Issue thinges were Come;

    But this made a damp in the business and Caused som destraction for many wer[e] affraid that if they should vnsettle themselues put offe their estates and Goe vpon the[se] hopes It might proue dangerous and but a sandy foundation; yee it was thou[ght] they might better haue presumed heervpon without makeing any suite att all th[en] haueing made it to be thus Rejected; but some of the Cheifest thought othe[rwise] [15] And that they might well proceed heervpon and that the Kinges Matie was willing enough to suffer them without molestation though for other Reasons hee would not Confeirme it by any publick acte; and furthermore if there was Noe securitie in this promise Intimated there would be noe great Certainty in A further Confeirmation of the same for if afterward there should be a purpose or desire to wronge them though they had a seal as broad as the house flore It would not serue the turne for there would be means enough found to Recall or Reverse it; and seeing therfore the Course is probable they must Rest heerin on Gods Prouidence as they had don in other thinges;

    vpon this Resolution other Messengers203 were dispatched to end with the Virginia Companie as well as they Could and to procure a patent with as Good and ample Conditions as they might by any Good meanes Attaine as alsoe to treat and Conclude with such Marchants and other frinds as had manifested theire forwardnes to provoak to and adventure in this voyage for which end they had Instructions Giuen them vpon what Conditions they should proceed with them or else to Conclude Nothing without furder advice; and heer it wilbe Reqvisite to Insert a letter or two that may Giue light to these proceedinges

    A Coppy of a letter from Sir Edwin Sands directed to mr John Robinson and mr William Brewster

    After my harty sallutations, The agents of youer Congregation Robert Cushman and John Caruer haue bin in Comunication with diuers Celect Gentlemen of his Maties Councell for Verginnia, and by the writing of seuen articles204 with youer Names haue Giuen them that Good degree of Satisffaction; which hath Carryed them on with a Resolution to sett forward youer desire in the best sort that may be for youer own and the publick Good diuers prticulars wherof wee leaue to theire faithfull Report; haueing Carryed themselues heer with that Good descretion as is both to theire owne and theire Creditt from whence they Came; and whereas being to treat for a Multitude of people they haue Reqvested further time to Confer with them, that are to be Interrested in this action about the seuerall prticulars which in the prosecution therof will fall out Considerable; It hath bin very willingly assented vnto, and soe they doe Now Returne vnto you; if therfore it may please God soe to direct youer desires; as that on youer prtes there fall out noe Just Impediments I trust by the same direction It shall likewise appeer that on our prtes all forwardnes to sett you forward205 shalbe found In the best sort, which with Reason May be expected; and soe I betake you with this designe, which I hope verily is the worke of God to the Gracious Protection and blesing of the highest.

    Youer very Loueing ffrind

    Edwin Sands

    London Nouember 12 1617


    Theire Answare was as followeth

    Right WorPLL

    Our humble duties Remembered in our owne our messengers and our Churches name, with all thankfull acknowlidgement of youer singular loue expressing it self as otherwise soe more especially in youer Great Care and earnest Indeauor of our Good, in this waighty business about Verginnia; which the lesse able wee are to Requite wee shall thinke our selues the more bound to Comend in our prayers vnto God for Recompence, whom as for the prsent you Rightly behould in our Indeauors soe shall wee not be wanting on our prtes (the same God Assisting vs) to Returne all Answarable fruite and Respect vnto the labour of youer loue bestowed vpon vs wee haue with the best speed and Consideration withall; that wee Could sett down our Requests in writing subscribed (as you willed) with the206 Greatest prte of our Congregation and haue sent the same vnto the Counsell by our agent207 A deacon of our Church John Caruer vnto whom wee haue alsoe Requested a Gentleman of our Companie to adjoyne himself, to the Care and descretion of which two wee doe208 Refer the prosecuting of the busines; Now wee prswade our selues Right Worppll That wee need not to prouok youer Godly and loueing mind to any further or more tender Care of vs, since you haue pleased soe farr to Interest vs in youer self that vnder God aboue all prsons and thinges in the world wee Relye vpon you; expecting the Care of youer Loue Councell of youer wisdom and the healp and Countenance of youer Authoritie, Notwithstanding for youer Incurragment in the work soe farr as probabilleties may lead wee will not forbear to mension these Instances of Inducement;

    1 Wee verily beleiue and trust the Lord is with vs vnto whom and whose service wee haue Giuen our selues in Many tryalls; and that hee will Graciously prosper our Indeauors according to the simplissety of our harts therin

    2 Wee are well weaned from the dillicate milk of our mother Country and Invred to the difficulties of a strange and hard land which yett in Great prte wee haue by patience ouercome;

    3 The people are for the body of them Industruous and frugall wee think wee may safely say as any Companie of people in the world;

    4 Wee are knitt together as a body in a more strict and sacred bond and Couenant of the Lord of the violation whero[f] wee mak209 Consience; and by vertue wherof wee doe hold our selues straitly tyed to all Care of each others Good; and of the whole by euery and soe Mutuall;

    5 And lastly it is not with vs as with other men whome smale thinges can discurrage or smale discontentments Cause to wish them selues att home againe wee know our entertainment in England and holland; wee shall much prejudice both our artes and meanes by Remouall whoe if wee should be driuen to Returne wee should not hope to Recouer our prsent healps and Comforts neither indeed210 looke euer to attaine211 the like in any other place during our liues which are Now drawing towards theire Periods.

    These motiues wee haue ben bould to tender vnto you which you in youer wisdome may alsoe Impart to any other our worshipfull frinds of the Councell with you of all whose Godly dispositions and loueing, towards our dispised prsons wee are most Glad and shall not faile by all Good meanes to Continew and Increase the same; wee shall not be further troublesome But doe with the Renewed Remembrance of our humble dutyes to youer Worshipp and soe farr as in Modesty wee may be bold to any other of our welwillers of the Councell with you, wee tak our Leaues Comitting youer prsons and Councells to the Guidance and Protection of the almighty

    Youers much bounden in all duty

    John Robinson

    Wilƚam Brewster

    Leyden the 15 of december 1617


    I found anexed vnto the forgoeing letters these following lines written by mr Bradford, with speciall Reference vnto the fovrth prticular on the other syde written

    O Sacred bond whilest Inviolably prserued how sweet and precious were the fruites that flowed from the same but when this fidelitie decayed then there Ruine approached oh that these antient members had not died or bin dissipated if it had bine the will of God or else that this holy Care and Constant faithfulnes had still liued and Remained with those that surviued that were in times afterwards aded vnto them; but alas that Subtile Serpent hath slyly wound in him selfe vnder faire pretences of Nessesitie and the like to vntwist212 these Sacred bonds and tyes and as it were Insensibly by degrees to desolue or in a Great measure to weaken the same I haue bin happy in my first times to see and with much Comfort to Injoy the blessed fruites of this sweet Comunion; But it is now a prte of my Misery in old age to find and feele the decay and want213 therof in a Great measure, and with Greiffe and sorrow of hart to Lament and bewaile the same, and for others warning and214 admonition and my owne humilliation doe I heer Note the same,

    thuse much by way of digression215

    ffor further light in these proceedinges fornamed see some other letters and Notes as followeth

    The Coppy of a letter sent to Sir John Worsingham

    Right WorPPLL

    With due acknowlidgement of our thankfulnes for youer singular Care and paines in the busines of Verginia for our and (wee hope,216 the Comon good) wee doe Remember our humble duties vnto you and haue sent as is (desired) a further explanation of our Judgments in the three points specifyed by some of his Maties honorable privy Councell, and although it be Greuious vnto vs that such vnjust Insinuations are made against vs, yett wee are most Glad of the occation of making our Just purgation, vnto the soe honorable prsonages the declarations wee haue sent Inclosed, the one more breiffe and Generall which wee think the fitter to be presented, the other som thing217 more large and in which wee expresse some smale accedentall differences which if it seeme Good vnto you and other of youre Worshipps frinds you may send in steed of the former; our prayers vnto God is that youer worshipp may see the fruite of youer worthy Indeauors, which on our prte wee shall Not faile to further by all Good meanes and soe praying that you would with all Conveniency that may be;218 Giue vs knowlidge of the successe of the busines with his Maties Privey Councell and accordingly what youer further pleasure is, either for our direction or furtherance in the same, soe wee Rest

    Youer worshipps in all dutye

    John Robinson

    Wilƚam Brewster

    Leyden January 27 1617 old stile


    The first219 breiffe note was this220

    Touching the Eclesiastical minnestry Namely of Pastours for teaching Elders for Ruleing and deacons for distributing the Churches Contribution as alsoe for the two sacraments Baptisme and the Lords supper wee doe wholly and in all points agree with the ffrench Reformed Churches, according to theire publick confession of ffaith though some smale differences

    The oath of Supremacye we shall willingly tak if it be Reqvired of vs if221 that Convenient satisfaction be not222 giuen by our takeing the oath of Allegience

    John Robinson

    Wilƚam Brewster

    the second was223

    This touching the Eclesiasticall Minnestry as in the former, &c wee agree in all thinges with the ffrench Reformed Churches according to theire publick Confession of ffaith though some smale differences be to be found in our practices not att all in the substance of the224 thinges but onely in some accedentall Cercumstances,

    1 as first theire225 minnesters doe pray with theire heads Couered; wee vncouered;

    2 Wee Chose none for Gourning Elders but such as are able to teach which abillitie they doe not Require.

    1 Theire Elders and deacons are Anuall or att the most for two or three yeers; ours prpetuall;

    4 our Elders doe Adminnester theire office in Admonitions and excomunicatio[n] for publick scandalls publickly and before the Congregation theires more privately and in theire Consistories;

    5 Wee doe Adminnester Baptismee onely to such Infants as wherof the one parent (att the least) is of some Church; which some of theire Churches doe not obserue, although in it our practices accords with theire publick Confession; and the Judgment of the most learned amongst them

    other differences (worthy mensioning) wee know none


    John Robinson

    Wilƚam Brewster

    London ffeb 14 1617

    prte of an other letter from him that deliuered these,

    Youer letter to Sir John Worsingham I deliuered allmost as soone as I had it to his owne hands (and stayed with him the opening and Reading therof) there were 2 papers Inclosed hee Read them to himself as alsoe the Letter, and in the Reading hee spake to mee and said whoe shall make them viz: the Minnesters I answared his worship; that the power of making was in the Church; to be ordained by the Imposition of hands by the fitest Instruments, they haue It must either be in the Church or from the Pope and the Pope is Antichrist; he said Sir John, what the Pope holds Good (as in the trenity) that wee doe well to Assent to, but said hee wee will not enter into dispute Now, and as for youer letters hee would Not shew them att any hand lest hee should spoyle all; hee expected you should haue bin of the Archbishops mind for the Calling of minnesters, but it seemes you differed; I Could haue wished to haue known the Contents of youer two enclosed, att which hee stuck soe much especially the larger; I asked his worshipp what Good Newes hee had for mee to write tomorrow; hee told mee226 Good newes for both the Kinges Matie and the Bishopps haue Consented; hee said hee would Goe to Mr Chanceler Sir ffolke Griuell, as this day, and Next week I should know more. I mett [19] I mett with Sir Edwin Sands on weddensday Night, hee wished mee to be att the Verginnia Court the Next weddensday, where I purpose to be thus loath to be troublesome att Present, I hope to haue somthing Next week of Certainty Concerning you I Comitt you to the Lord;

    Youers S: B:227

    These thinges being longe in agitation and Messengers passing to and againe about them after all theire hopes they were longe delayed by many obstacles that fell in the way, for att the Returne of these Messengers into England; they found thinges farr other wise then they expected; for the Verginia Councell was Now soe disturbed with factions and qvarrells amongst themselues as Noe busines Could well Goe forward; the which may the better appeer in one of the Messengers, Letters as followeth;

    To his Loueing frinds

    I haue thought Long since to haue writt vnto you but Could Not effect that which I aimed att Neither Can Yett: sett thinges as I wished yett Notwithstanding I doubt Not but Mr Brewster hath written to mr Robinson, but I think my selfe bound alsoe to doe somthinge least I be thought to Neglect you; The maine hinderance of our proceedinges in the verginia busines is the desentions and factions as they tearme it amongst the Councell and companie of Verginia which are such as that euer since wee Came vp noe busines Could by them be dispatched the occation of this trouble amongst them is, That a while since Sir Thomas Smith Repining att his Many offices and troubles, wished the Companie of Verginia to ease him of his office in being Treasurer, and Gour of the Verginia Companie; whervpon the Companie tooke occation to dismise him, and Chose Sir Edwin Sands Treasurer and Gour of the Companie, hee haueing 60 voyces; Sir John Worsingham 16 voyces and alderman Johnson 24 But Sir Thomas Smith when hee saw som prte of his honor lost was very Angry and Raised a ffaction to Cauill and Contend about the election; and sought to tax Sir Edwin with Many thinges that might both disgrace him and alsoe put him by his office, of Gour: In which Contensions they yett Stick and are not fitt Nor Reddy to entermeddle in Any busines, and what Issue thinges will Come to I know Not, nor are wee yett Certaine It is most like Sir Edwin will Carry it away and if hee doe thinges will Goe well in Verginia, if otherwise they will Goe ill enough alwaies; wee hope in 2 or 3 Court dayes thinges will settle, mean space I thinke to Goe downe into Kent, and come vp againe about 14 dayes or three weekes hence, except either by these aforsaid Contentions or by ill tidings from Verginia, wee be wholly discurraged of which tidinges as followeth

    Capt. Argoll is Come home this week; hee vpon Notice of the Intent of the Councell Came away before Sir Gorge yeardly Came there and soe there is Noe smale desention but his tidinges is ill altho his prson be welcome; hee saith Mr Blackwells Shipp Came, not ther vntill march but Goeing towards winter they had still Northwest winds which Carryed them to the southworth beyond theire Course and the Mr of the Shipp and some six of the Marriners dieing It seemed they Could not find the Bay; till after long seeking and beating about; Mr Blackwell is dead, and mr Maggner the Capt: yee there are dead hee saith 130 prsons one and other in the shipp; It is said there was in all 180 prsons in the ship; soe as they were packed together like herrings they had amongst them a fflux and alsoe want of ffresh water soe as it is heer Rather [20]228 wondered that soe many are aliue then that soe many are dead the229 the marchants heer say it was mr Blackwells fault to packe soe many in the shipp yee and there was Great murmuring and Repining amongst them and obraiding of mr Blackwell for his dealing and disposing of them when they saw how hee had disposed of them and how hee Insulted ouer them; yee the streets att Grausend Rang of theire extream qvarrelling crying out one of another thou hast brought mee to this I may thank thee for this, heavy Newes it is and I would230 be Glad to heare how farr it will discurrage: I see none heer discurraged much but Rather desire to learne to beware by other mens harmes, and to amend that wherin they haue fayled, as wee desire to serue one another in loue soe take heed of being Inthraled by other Imperious prsons, especially if they be descemed to haue an eye to themselues; It doth often trouble mee to think that in this busines wee are to learne and none to teach but beter soe then to depend vpon such teachers as mr Blackwell, was such a strattagem hee made for mr Johnson and his people att Emden much was their subversion but though hee their Clenlely yett vnhonestly plucked his Neck out of the Coller yett att last his foot is caught; heer are noe letters Come; the shipps captain Argoll came in is yett in the west prtes, all that wee heare is but his Report it seemeth hee came away secretly, the shipp that mr Blackwell went in wilbe heer shortly; It is as mr Robinson once said, hee thought wee should heare Noe good of them, mr Brewster is not well, att this time whether hee will Goe back to you or goe into the North I yett know not, for my self I hope to see an end of this Busines eare I Come tho I am sorry to be thus from you; if thinges had gon231 Roundly forward I should haue bin with you within this fourteen dayes I pray God direct vs and Giue vs that speritt, which is fiting for such a busines thus haueing232 sumarily pointed att thinges, which mr Brewster I think hath233 more largely write of, to mr Robinson, I leaue you to the Lords Protection;

    Youer in all Reddynes &c:

    Robert Cushman

    London May the 8th 1619

    A word or two by way of digression234 touching this mr Blackwell hee was an Elder of the Church of Amsterdam a man well knowne of most of them; hee declined from the truth with mr Johnson; and the Rest and went with him when they departed assunder in that wofull manor, which brought soe Great dishonor to God scandall to the truth and outward Ruin to themselues, in this world; but I hope Notwithstanding through the mercyes of the Lord, theire soules are now att Rest with God in the heauens; and that they are ariued in the hauen of happines; though some of theire bodyes were thus burie[d] in the terible seas, and others sunck vnder the burden of bitter afflictions; hee with some others had prepared for to Goe to Verginia, and hee with sundry Godly Cittyzens being att a private meeting (I take it) att a fast in london being discouered many of them were apprehended wherof mr Blackwell was one, but hee soe Glosed with the bishop and either decembled or fflatly denyed the truth which formerly hee had maintained; and not onely soe but vnworthyly betrayed and accused another Godly man235 whoe had escaped that soe hee might slipp his owne Neck out of the Collor; and to obtaine his owne freedom brought others into bonds; whervpon hee soe won the bishopps fauor but lost the Lords, as hee was Not onely dismissed but in open Court the Archbishopp Gaue him Great Applause, and his sollem blessing to proceed in his voyage; But if such euents follow the Bishopps blessing happy are they that mise236 the same, It is much better to keep a Good Conscience237 and haue the Lords blessing whether in life or death, but see how that man apprehended by mr Blackwells meanes writes to a frind of his;


    Right deare frind and Christian Brother mR Caruer

    I sallute you and youers in the lord; Sir as for my owne prsent Condition I doubt not but you well vnderstand it by our brother Masterson whoe should haue tasted of the sam cup had his place of Residence and his prson bin as well known as my selfe. [21] Somwhat I haue written to mr Cushman238 how the matter still Continewes. I haue Petitioned twise to mr Sheriffes and once to my lord Cook and haue vsed such Reasons to moue them to pitty; that if they were not ouerruled by some others I suppose I should haue soone Gained my liberty; as that I was a man liueing by239 my Creditt In debt to diuers in our Sittey, liueing in more then ordinary Charges in a Close240 and tedious prison; besides Great Rents abroad all my busines lying still my onely servant lying lame in the Countrey my wife being alsoe Great with child; and yett noe answer vntill the lords of his Maties Councell Gaue Consent: howbeitt mr Blackwell a man as deep in this action, as I was deliuered att a Cheaper Rate with a great deale lesse adoe; yee with an addition of the archbishops blessing; I ame sorry for mr Blackwells weaknes I wish it may proue noe worse, but yett hee and some others of them, were not sorry but thought it was for the best that I was Nominated Not because the Lord Sanctifyes euill to Good but that the action was Good; yea for the best; one Reason I well Remember hee vsed was because this trouble would Increase the Virginia plantation; that now people began More Generally to Incline to Goe and if hee had not Nominated some such as I; hee had not bin free being it was knowne that Many Cittizens besides them selues were theire; I expect an Answare shortly what they Intend Concerning mee; I purpose to write to some other of you; by whom you shall know the Certainty, thus Not haueing further att prsent to acquaint you withall Comending my selfe to youer prayers I sease and Comitt you and vs all to the Lord; from my Chamber in wood street Counter Sept: 4th 1618

    Youer frind and Brother in bonds

    Sabin Starsmore

    But thus much by the way which may be of Good vse I haue bin the larger in these thinges that the Rising Generation may seriously take notice of the many difficultyes theire poor leaders241 vnderwent in the first enterprises toward coming into New England242

    But att last after all these thinges and theire longe Attendance they had a Patent Graunted them and Confeirmed vnder the Companies seale but these deuisions and destractions had shaken of Many of theire pretended frinds and disapointed them of many of theire hoped for and proffered meanes; by the advice of some frinds this Pattent was Not taken in the Name of any of theire owne But in the Name of mr John Wincobb a Religious Gentleman then belonging to the Countice of Lincolne; whoe Intended to Goe with them But God soe disposed as hee Neuer went Nor they neuer made vse of this Pattent which had Cost them soe much labour and Charge; as by the sequell will appeer This Pattent being sent ouer for them to view and Consider as alsoe the passages about the propositions between them and such Marchants and frinds as should either Goe or adventure with them, and especially with them on whome they did Cheiffly depend for shiping and meanes whose proffers had bin large they were Requested to fitt and prepare themselues with all243 speed;

    A Right Imblem It may be of the vncertaine thinges of this world that when men have toyled them selues they vanish into smoak;

    vpon a Receipt of these thinges by one of theire Messengers they had a sollemne meeting and a day of humilliation to seeke the lord for his direction And theire Pastour took this text 1 Sam: 23: 3: 4: and dauids men said vnto him see wee be affraid heer in Judah;244 how much more if wee Come to Keilah against the host of the Phillistines; Then dauid asked Counsell of the Lord againe; from which text hee taught many thinges very aptly and befitting theire present occation and condition to strengthen245 them against theire feares and prplexeties and Incurrageing them in theire Resolutions; [22]

    In the foregoeing fiue Chapters the Reader may take a view of some of the many difficulties our blessed prdecessors went through in theire first246 acheiuement of this waightey Interprise of Remouall of our Church into these American prtes; the Imediate following Relations in mr Bradfords book (out of which diuers of these matters are Recollected) doe more especially Concerne the Conditions of theire agreement; with seuerall Marchant adventures towards the voyage &c: as alsoe seuerall247 letters sent too and fro from frind to frind Relateing to the premises which are Not soe prtenent to the Nature of this smale history; wherfore I shall heer omitt to Insert them; Judging them Not soe suitable to my prsent purpose, and heer alsoe sease to follow the foregoeing meathod; by way of Capters;

    After such trauell and tormoiles248 and debates which they went thinges were Gotten Reddy for theire departure from Leyspecting this den a smale shipp249 was provided in holland of about sixty tun which was Intended as to serue250 to transport some of them ouer the seas; soe to stay in the Country and to tend vpon ffishing; and such other affaires as might be for the Good and benifitt of the whol, when they should Come to the place Intended; another251 was hiered att London of burden about Nine score and all other thinges Gott in a Reddynes, soe be[ing rea]dy to depart they had a day of sollemne humilliation theire Pastour takeing his te[xt fr]om Ezra the 8th 21 and theire att the Riuer by252 Ahaua I proclaimed a ffast, that [wee] might humble ourselues before our God and seek of him a Right way for vs and our children and for all our substance253 vpon which hee spent a good prte of the day very profittably and suitably to theire prsent occation the Rest of the time was spent in powering out prayers to the lord with Great feuency mixed with aboundance of teares; and the time being Come that they must depart they were accompanied with the most of theire bretheren out of the Cittey vnto a towne sundry miles off Called dealfes hauen; where the shipp lay Reddy to Receiue them; soe they left that Goodly and pleasant Citty which had bin theire Resting place Neare 12 yeers, but they kne[w] they were pilgrimes254 and looked not much on those thinges, but lifted vp theire eyes to heauen; theire dearest Country and quieted theire speritts; when they Came to the place they fou[nd] the shipp and all thinges Reddy, and such of theire frinds as Could Not Come with them followed after them; and sundry alsoe Came from Amsterdam to see them shippt, and to255 take theire leaue of them; that Night was spent with little sleep by the most, but with frindly entertainment and Christian discourse; and other Reall expressions of true Christian loue the Next day the wind being ffaire they went on board and frinds with them; wher truely dolfull was the sight of that sad and Mornfull prteing to see what sythes and sobbs and prayers did sound amongst them; what256 teares did Gush from euery eye; and pithey speeches peirsed each others harte; That sundry of the duch strangers that stood on the keey as spectators257 Could Not Refraine from teares; yett Comfortabl and sweet it was to see such liuely and true expression of deare and vnfeighned loue but the tide which stayes for noe man Calling them away that were thus loth to depart theire Reuerend Pastour falling downe on his knees and they all with him with watery Cheekes Comended them with most feruent prayers to the lord and his blessing and then with mutuall Imbraces and many teares they took theire leaues of one another which proued to be theire last leaue to many of them;

    much of theire troubles Respecting this matter is not expressed in this booke

    heb: 11

    of this see New Englands Memoriall page 4: 5:

    Thus hoysing sayle with a prosperous wind they Came in short time to Southampton where they found the bigger shipp Come from london lying Reddy with all the Rest of theire Companie after a Joyfull welcome and mutuall Congratulation, with other frindly entertainments; they fell to parley258 about theire future proceedinges;

    A breife letter written by mr John Robinson to mr John Caruer att theire prteing aboue said in which the tender loue and Godly Care of a true Pastour appeers;

    My dear Brother

    I Receiued enclosed youer last letter and Note of Information which I shall Carefully keep and mak vse of, as theire shalbe occation, I haue a true feeling of youer prplexety of mind [23] and toyle of body; but I hope that you; haueing alwayes bin able soe plentifully to adminnester Comfort vnto others, in theire tryalls are soe well furnished for your self, as that farr Greater difficulties then you haue yett vndergon; though I Conceiue them to be Great; enough; Can not oppresse you though259 they presse you as the Apostle speaketh; the sperit of a man (sustained by the speritt of God) will sustaine his Infermities; I doubt not soe will youers, and the better much when you shall Injoy the prsence and healp of soe many Godly and wise bretheren, for the bearing of prte of youer burden; whoe alsoe will not Admitt into theire harts, the least thought of suspision; of Any the least Negligence att least presumption to haue bin in you; whatsoeuer they think in others; Now what shall I say260 or writt vnto you, and youer Good wife my loueing sister; euen onely this; I desire (and alwaies shall) mercy and blessing vnto you from the Lord as vnto my owne soule; and Assure youer self that my hart is with you; and that I will not foreslow my bodily Comeing att the first opportunetie; I haue written a large letter to the whole and am sorry I shall nott Rather speak then write to them, and the more Considering the want of a preacher which I shall alsoe mak some spurr to my hastening towards you, I doe euer Comend my best affection vnto you: which, if I thought you made any doubt of; I would expresse in more and the same more ample and full words And the lord in whom you261 trust: and whom you serue, euer in this busines; and Journey, Guid you with his hand, protect you with his winge, and shew you and vs, his saluation, in the end, and bringe vs in the mean while together in the place desired, (if such be his Good will) for his Christ262 his sake

    Amen youers

    John Robinson

    July 27th 1620

    This was the last letter that mr Caruer liued to see from him;

    Att theire prteing mr Robinson writt a letter to the whole Companie which although it hath alreddy bin printed yett I thought Good heer likwise to Insert it;

    Loueing Christian frinds.

    I doe hartily and in the Lord sallute you as being those with whom I am prsent in my best affections and most earnest longings after you; though I be Constrained for a while to be bodily absent from you I say Constrained, God knowing263 how willingly much Rather then otherwise I would haue bourne my prte with you in this first brunt were I Not by strong Nessesitie held back for the prsent, Make accoumpt of mee in the mean while as of a man deuided in my selfe with Great paine and as (Naturall bonds sett asside) haueing my better prte with you and though I doubt not but in youer264 Godly wisdome you both265 forsee & Resolue vpon that which Concerneth youer prsent state, and Condition both seuerally and Joyntly yett haue I thought it but my duty to adde some further spurr of prouocation to them that Run well alreddy, if not because you need it, yett because I owe it, in loue and duty; and first as wee are dayly to Renew our Repentance with our God especially for our sins known and Generally for our vnknowne sines, and treaspasses soe doth the Lord Call vs in a singular Manor vpon occations of such difficulty, and danger as lyeth vpon you to a both more Narrower serch and Carefull Reformation of our waies in his sight, least hee Calling to Remembrance our sines forgotton by vs or vnrepented of, tak advantage against vs and in Judgment leaue vs for the same, to be swallowed vp in one danger or other, wheras on the Contrary sin being taken away by earnest Repentance and the prdon therof from the Lord sealed vp from a mans Conscience by his speritt Great shalbe the securitie and peace in all dangers sweet his Comfort in all destresses with happ deliuerance from all euill whether in life or in death;

    Now next after this heauenly peace with God, and our owne Consiences wee are Carefully to prouide for peace with all men what in vs lyeth [24] especially with our Associates and for that watchfulnes must be had that wee Neither att all in our selues doe Giue noe Nor easily take offence being Given by others woe be vnto the world for offences, for although it be Nessesary Considering the Mallice of Satan, and Mans Corruption, that offences come yett woe vnto that man or woman either, by whom the offence Cometh saith Christ Mat: 18–7: and if offences in vnseasonable vse of thinges in themselues Indifferent be more to be266 feared then death it selfe as the Apostle teacheth 1 Cor. 9:15. how much more in thinges simply euill in which neither honor of God nor loue of man is thought worthy to be Regarded; Neither yett is it sufficient that wee keep ourselues by the Grace of God from Giueing offence except with all wee be armed against the takeing of them; when they be Given by others, for how vnperfect and lame is the worke of Grace in that prson whoe wants Charity to Couer a multitude of offences,267 or wisdome duely to wey humaine frailties or lastly and Grossely though Close hipocrites as Christ our lord teacheth mat: 7: 1: 2: 3: as indeed in my owne experience few or none haue bin found which sooner Giue offence; then such as easely tak it; Neither haue they euer proued sound and profittable Members in societies which haue Nurrished this touchey humer but besides these there are diuers motiues provoaking you aboue others to Great care and Conscience this way;

    as first you are many of you strangers as to the prsons soe to the Infeirmities one of another and soe stand in Need of more watchfulnes this way least when such thinges fall out in men and weomen, as you suspected not you be Inordinately affected with them; which doth Require att youer hands much wisdom and Charritie for the Couering and preuenting of Insident offences that way And lastly youer Intended Course of Ciuill Comunity will minnester Continuall occation of offence; and wilbe as fewell for that fier except you dilligently quench it; with brotherly forbearance; and if takeing of offence Causlesly or ezely att Mens doeinges; be soe Carefully to be268 avoided how much more heed is to be taken that wee take Not offence att God himselfe which yett wee Certainly doe soe oft as wee doe murmer att his prouidence in our Crosses or beare Impatiently such afflictions as wherwith hee pleaseth to visite vs, Stor vp therefore269 Patience against the euill day without which wee take offence att the Lord himself in his holy and Just workes;

    A further thinge there is Carefully to be prouided for towitt that with our Comon Imployments you Joyne Comon affections truly bent vpon the Generali Good; avoiding as a deadly plague of youer both Comon and speciall Comfort all Retirednes of mind for proper advantagee and all singularly affected any manor of way; lett euery man Represse in himselfe and the whole body in each prson as soe many Rebells against the Comon Good all private Respect of mens selues not sorting with the Generali Conveniency; and as men are Carefull not to haue a New house shaken with any violence before it be well settled and the prtes feirmly knitt soe be you I beseech you much more Carefull; that the house of God which you are and are to be: be not shaken with vnessesary Nouelties or other oppositions att the first settleing therof lastly wheras you are to become a body Pollitique vseing amongst youer selues Ciuill Gourment; and are Not ffurnished with any prsons of speciall eminency about the Rest to be Chosen by you into office of Gourment; lett youer wisdom, and Godlynes appeer not onely in Chosing such prsons; as doe Intirely loue and will promote the Comon Good; but alsoe in yeilding vnto them all270 due honor and obeidience in theire lawfull adminnestrations; Not beholding in them the ordinarines of theire prsons; but Gods ordinarines for youer Good; not being like the folish; multitude; whoe more honor a Gay Coate then either the271 vertuouse mind of the Man or Gloriouse ordinance of God [25] But you know better thinges and that the Image of the Lords power And Authoritie which the Majestrate beareth is honorable in how meane prsons soeuer; and this duty you both may the more willingly and ought the More Consionably to prforme because you are att least for the prsent, to haue them for youer ordinary Gournors which youer selues shall make Choise of, for that work;

    Sundry other thinges272 of Importance I Could put you in Mind of; and of those before mensioned in More words, but I will not soe farr wrong youer Godly minds as to think you heedles of these thinges there being alsoe diuers among you well able to Admonish both them273 selues and others; of what Concerneth them; These few thinges therfore and the same in few words; I doe earnestly Comend vnto youer Care and Consience Joyning therwith my dayly Inceasent prayers vnto the Lord; that hee whoe hath made the heauens and the earth the sea and all Riuers of waters and whose prouidence is ouer all his workes especially ouer all his deare Children for Good would soe Guid and Gaurd you in youer wayes, as Inwardly by his speritt soe outwardly by the hand of his power; as that you and wee alsoe for and with you may haue after matter of praiseing his Name all the dayes of youer & our liues, fare you well in him in whom you trust and in home I Rest

    An vnfeigned wellwiller of youer happy succes in this hopefull voyage

    John Robinson;

    This letter though large being soe fruitfull in it self and suitable to theire occations I thought meet to Insert in this place;

    All thinges being Gott Reddy And euery busines dispatched the Companie was Called together and this Letter Read Amongst them; which had Good Acceptation with all and after ffruite with many then they ordered and distributed theire Companie for either shipp as they Conceiued for the best; and Chose a Gour and two or three Assistants for each274 shipp, to order the people by the way and to see to the disposing of theire prouisions, and such like affaires, all which was Not onely with the likeing of the Masters of the shipps, but According to theire desires, which being done; they sett sayle from thence about the fift of August, But what befell them further vpon the Coast of England will Appear in the275 book Intitled New Englands Memoriall page 10

    And likewise of the voyage and how they passed the sea and of theire safe Ariuall att Cape Codd; see New Englands Memoriall page 12 [26]

    Being Now passed the vast occean and a sea of troubles before theire preparation vnto further proceedings as to seeke out a place for habitation &c: They fell downe vpon theire Knees and blessed the God of heauen whoe had brought them ouer the vast and furious Ocean, and deliuered them from all prrills and Misseryes thereof againe to sett theire ffeet on the feirme and stable earth theire proper Ellement; and Noe Maruell if they were thus Joyfull seeing wise Senica was soe affected with sayleing a few miles on the Coast of his owne Italy as hee affeirmed hee had Rather Remaine twenty yeers in his way by land then pas by sea to any place in a short time soe tedious and dreadfull was the same to him;

    they ariued att Cape Codd the 11th of Nouemb: 1620 in safty

    Epist 53

    But heer I Can not but stay and make a Pause and stand half amased att these poor peoples Condition and soe I think will the Reader to, when hee well Considers the same for haueing passed through many troubles, both before and vpon the voyage as aforsaid; They had now Noe frinds to welcome them Noe Inns to entertaine or Refresh them, noe houses much lesse townes to Repaire vnto to seek for succor It is recorded in Scripture as a mercye to the Apostle; and his shipwracked companie that the barbarians shewed them noe smale kindnes in Refreshing them; but these salvage Barbarians when they mett with them, as after will appeer; were Reddier to fill theire sydes full of Arrowes then otherwise and, for the season; it was winter; and they that know the winters of that Countrey, know them to be sharp and violent and subject to violent stormes dangerouse to trauell to knowne places much more to serch out vnknowne Coasts; besides what could they see276 but a heidious and desolate277 wildernes full of wild beastes and wild men and what multitudes there might be of them they knew not Neither could they (as it were) Goe vp to the topp of Pisgae to view from this wildernes a more Goodly Companie278 to feed theire Hopes, for which way soe279 euer they turned theire eyes (saue vpward to the heauens) they could haue little solace or Content in Respect of any outward objects, for somer being done all thinges stand for them to look vpon280 with a weatherbeaten face, and the whole Country being full of woods and thicket[s] Represented a wild and saluage hiew if they looked behind them there was the mighty ocean which they had passed; and was now as a maine barr and Gulf to separate them from all the Ciuill prtes of the world; if it be said they had a shipp to succour them it is true but what heard they dayly from the Master and Companie but that with speed they should look out a place with theire shallopp where they would281 be att some Neare distance for the season was such as hee would not stirr from thence vntill a safe harbour was discouered by them where they would be and hee might goe without danger; and that victuales Consumed apace but hee must and would keep sufficient for him self, and Companie for theire Return yee it was muttered by some that if they Gott Not a place in time they would turne them and theire Goods on shore and leaue them; lett it be alsoe Considered what weak hopes of supply and succor they left behind them that might beare vp theire minds in this sad Condition and tryalls they were vnder and they Could not but be very smale; It is true Indeed the affections and loue of theire bretheren att Leyden was Cordiall and Intire but they had little power to healp them or themselues; and how the Case stood between them and the Marchants att theire Coming away, hath alreddy bin declared what could now sustaine them but the speritt of God, and his Grace; may not and ought Not the Children of these fathers Rightly say our fathers were Englishmen which Came ouer this Great ocian and were Reddy to perish in this wildernes; But they Cryed vnto the lord; and hee heard theire voyce; and looked on theire adversitie; And lett them therfore praise the lord because hee is Good and his mercyes Indure for euer yee lett them which haue bin the Redeemed of the lord shew how hee hath deliuered them from the hand of the oppressor; when they wandered in the desert wildernes out of the way, and found noe Cittey to dwell in, both hungry and thirsty theire soule was ouerwhelmed in them; lett them Confesse before the lord his loueing kindnes and his wonderfull workes before the Children of Men;

    dewtry 26: 5: 7:

    Psa: 107 1: 2: 3: 5: 8

    of the troubles that befell them after theire ariuall with sundry other prticulares Concerning theire theire transactings with the Marchant adventerers and many other passages not soe prtinent to this prsent discourse I shall Refer the Reader to; New Englands memoriall and vnto mr Bradfords book where they are att large pened to his plentifull satisfaction282 and therefore I shall Gather vp some speciall prticulars; more properly Relateing to this history as it may283 be called Eclesiasticall; [27]

    Before I pas on I may not omitt to take Notice of the sad losse the Church and this Infant Comonwealth sustained by the death of mr John Caruer whoe was one of the deacons of the Church in leyden but Now had bine and was theire first Gour: this worthy Gentleman was one of singular Piety and Rare for humillitie which appeered (as otherwise) soe by his Great Condesendencye when as this miserable people were in Great sicknes hee shuned not to doe very meane284 services for them yee the meanest of them; hee bore a share likewise of theire labour in his owne prson; according as theire Great Nessesitie Required; whoe being one alsoe of a Considerable estate spent the Maine prte of it, in this enterprise and from first to last approued himself, not onely as theire agent in the first Transacting of thinges, but alsoe all alonge to the Period of his life; to be a pious faithfull and very benificiall Instrument; hee deceased in the Month285 of Aprill in the yeer 1621, and Now is Reaping the fruite of his labour with the lord;286

    mr John Carvers death

    287 With a letter written by Mr Sherly to Mr Bradford these following objections were sent, which were not his, but were made by Adversaries against the Church; and theire proceedings; which I thought meet to Insert with theire Answares; as followeth;

    January 25 1623

    1 objection was diuersitie about Religion

    Answar Wee know Noe such Matter for heer was neuer any Controversye or opposition either publicke or private to our knowlidge since wee Came;

    2 obj Neglect of family dutyes on the Lords day

    Answ Wee allow noe such thinge but blame it in our selues and others, and they that thus Report it should haue shewed theire Christian loue the more if they had in loue tould the offenders of it Rather then thuse to Reproach them behind theire backes; But to say noe more; wee wish them selues had Giuen better example;

    3 object Want of both the Sacraments;

    Answ the more is our Greiff that our Pastour is Kept from vs by whom wee might Injoy them; for wee vsed to haue the Lords Supper euery sabbath and Baptismee as often as there was occation of Children to Baptise;

    4 object Children not Cattachised nor taught to Read;

    Answ; This is Not true in Neither prte therof for diuers take paines with theire owne as they Can; Indeed wee haue noe Comon scoole for want of a fitt prson or hitherto meanes to maintaine one though wee desire now to begin;

    When the Answars to these objections aboue mensioned were sent ouer att the Returne of the shipp; the aforsaid letter came in; the objectors were soe Confounded as some of them Confessed theire faults and others deneyed what they had said; and eat theire words, and some others of them haue since Come ouer againe and heer liued to Convince themselues sufficiently both in their owne and other288 Judgments seuerall other objections of other Nature were made besides those aboue Named which with theire Answares I will not att prsent trouble the Reader with But these aboue I thought meet to Insert that the Reader may desern with what difficulties of all sorts our deare honored predesessors Grappled with;

    heer followeth a letter from mr Robinson to mr Brewster our Elder wherin the Reader may descene the sollisitous Care of a faithfull Pastour to his fflock and the singular loue that mutually was expressed between those two holly men whoe were ffellow Elders in the same fflock; &c:

    Loueing and deare frind and brother that which I most desired of God in Regard289 of you; Namely the Continuance of youer life and health and the safe Coming of these sent vnto you; That I most Gladly heare of and praise God for the same; and I hope mrs290 Brewsters weak and decayed state of Body will haue some Repaireing by the coming of her daughters; and the prouisions in this and other shipps sent; which I heare is made for you; which makes vs with [28] the more Patience beare our Languishing state and the defering of the desireing of our desired transportation (which I call desired Rather then hoped for) whatsoueuer you are bourn in hand with by others for first there is Noe hope att all that I know nor Can Conceiue off of any New stock to be Raised for that end soe that all must depend vpon Returnes from you in which are soe may vncertaintyes; as that Nothing with any Certainty Can thence be Concluded besides howsoeuer for the prsent the adventerers alledge Nothing but want of Mony; which is an Invinceable difficulty yett if that be taken away by you, others without doubt wilbe found; for the better clearing of this wee must dispose the adventerers into three prtes and off them some fiue or six (as I conceiue) are absolutely bent for vs aboue others, other 5: or 6: are our bitter professed adversaries, The Rest being the body; I Conceiue to be honestly minded and loueingly alsoe towards vs; yett such as haue others; Namly the forward preachers nearer vnto them then vs; and whose Course soe farr as there is any difference they would advance Rather then ours; Now what a hanke these men haue ouer the professors you know and I prswade my selfe that for mee they of all others are vnwilling I should be transported especially such as haue an eye that way themselues as thinking if I come there theire markett wilbe Mared in Many Regards; and for those adversaries,291 if they haue but halfe theire will to theire Mallice they will stopp my Course when they see it Intended; for which this delaying serueth them very opportunly; and as one Rusty Jade Can hinder by hanging backe more then two or three Can or will att least if they be not very free) draw forward, soe will it be in this case A Noteable experiment of this they Gaue in youer Messengers prsence Constraining the Companie to promise that none of the Mony Now Gathered should be expended or Imployed to the healp of any of vs towards you; Now touching the question propounded by you I judge it Not lawfull for you being a Ruleing Elder, as Rom 12: 7: 8: and first of tim: 5: 17 opposed to the Elders that teach and exhort and labour in the word and doctrin to which the Sacrament[s] are anexed: to Adminnester them Nor Convenient if it were lawfull; Be you hartily salluted and youer wife with you, both from mee and mine; youer God and ours and the God of all his; bring vs together if it be his will and keep vs in the mean while and alwaies to his Glory; and make vs seruiceable to his Matie and faithful to the end Amen;

    Youer very Loueing Brother

    John Robinson292

    Leyden december 20 1623

    By the aboue written Letter it may appeer how much the adversary hindered the Coming of this Blessed servant of Christ from Coming into New England; although hee soe much longed to be with his fflock and his fflock for him, a worthy patern vnto all Churchs and theire Minesters to be Imitated;

    In the springe ariued att New Plymouth a preacher; one mr John Lyford whoe when hee Came on shore salluted the principall men amongst vs; with that seeming humillitie as is seldom to be seen and Indeed Made them ashamed hee soe bowed and Cringed vnto them and would haue kised theire hands if they would haue suffered him (of which were many witnesses [)] hee likwise blessed God also that had brought him to see theire faces and admireing the thinges they had done in theire wants &c: as if hee had bin made all of Loue and the humblest prson in the world his words being alsoe accompanied with teares; and all the while, if wee may Judge by his after Carriages hee was but like him Mensioned in Psa. 10: 10: that Croucheth and boweth that heapes of poor may fall by his Might, or like to decembling Ishmaell whoe when hee had slaine Gedelia went out weeping and made them which were Coming to offer Incence in the house of the Lord, saying come to Gedelia when hee ment to slay them; they Gaue him the best entertainment they Could (in all simplisitie) and a larger allowance of ffood and of the Store then any other had; and as the Gour had used in all waighty affaires to Consult with theire Elder mr Brewster together with theire Assistants soe Now hee Called mr Lyford alsoe to Counsell in theire waightiest businesses after some short time hee desired to Joyne himself a member of the Church heer and accordingly was Receiued hee made a large Confession of his faith and acknowlidgment of his former disorderly walkeing [29] And his being Intangled with many Corruptions which had bin a burden to his Consience and blessed God for this opportunity of ffreedome and libertie to Injoy the ordinances of God in puritie amongst his people with many more such like expressions; afterwards Joyning with one John Oldum a factious speritted man they shewed a speritt of Mallignitie drawing as many Into faction as they Could were they Neuer soe vild293 or prophane they did Norish and backe them in all theire doeinges soe they would but Cleaue to them and speak against the Church heer soe as there was Nothing but private meetings and whispering amongst them; they feeding themselues and others with what they should294 bring to passe in England by the ffaction of theire frinds there; which brought others as well as themselues into a fooles Parradice yett they Could not Carry soe closly but much of both theire doeings and295 sayings were discouered and outwardly they still sett a fare face of thinges; and they Conspired together and sent letters for England in Complaints against vs to our adversaries which were of the Marchant adventorers; which letters were Intercepted by the Gour; and the said Lyford was detected for opening of letters and other mischeiffes which hee acheiued against296 the Church and this poor Infant Comonwelth; Att length matters Grew to such height that Lyford with his Complices without euer speaking one word297 either to the Gour: Church or Elder298 withdrew themselues and sett vp a publicke meeting apart on the Lords day with sundry such Insolent Carriages to longe heer to Relate; And the said Oldum brake forth into open Rebellion against the Gourment of the Collonie which prticulars being299 proued to theire faces in open Court by the letters the said Lyford sent which were Intercepted as aforsaid, the said Oldum Continewed in his obstinacye a while but was Curbed att last as will afterwards be Manifest and as for Lyford first they dealt with him in the Church for his disimulation att his Admition therinto; in that hee then professed to Concurr with them in All thinges; and that hee held not him self a minnester till hee had a New Calling &c. and yett hee Now Contested against them and drew a Companie apart and sequestered him self; and would Goe and adminnester the Sacrements (by his Episcopall) Calling without euer speaking a word vnto them either as Majestrates or bretheren


    See New Englands memoriall folio 54

    In Conclusion hee was fully Convicted and brak forth into teares and Confessed hee was a Reprobate his sins were soe Great that hee doubted God would Not pardon them hee was vnsauory salt &c: and that hee had soe wronged them as hee could Neuer make them amens Confessing all hee had written against them was ffalse and Nought both for matter and manor; and all this hee did with as much fulnes as words and tears Could expresse;

    After theire tryall and Conviction the Court Censured both hee and Oldum to300 depart the Gourment Oldum prsently; though his wife and family had liberty to stay all winter or Longer vntill hee Could make prouision to Remoue301 them Comfortably; Lyford had liberty to stay sixe monthes It was Indeed with some eye to his Release if hee Carryed him self well in the mean time and that his Repentance proued sound Lyford acknowlidged his sentance was farr lesse then hee deserued; Afterwards hee Confessed his sin publickly in the Church with tears more largely then before; I shall heer sett it downe as I find it in writing as it was taken from his mouth That hee had don very euill and Slaunderously abused them; and thinking most of the people would tak prte with him; hee thought to Carry all by violence and stronge hand against them; and that God migh Justly lay Inosent blood302 to his Charge for hee knew Not what hurt might haue Come of these his writings; and blessed God they were Stayed; and that hee spared not to tak knowlidge from Any of any Euill; but shutt his eyes and eares against all the Good; and if God should make him a303 vagabond in the earth as was Caine It was but Just for hee had sined in Envie and mallice against his bretheren as hee did; and hee Confessed304 three thinges to be the Ground and Causes of these his doeinges Prid Vaine Glory and selfe loue amplyfying these heads with Many other sad expressions in the prticulars of them soe as they began againe to Conceiue Good thoughts of him vpon this his Repentance, and admitted him to teach amongst them as before; and mr Samuell ffuller a deacon amongst them and some other tender harted men amongst them were soe taken with his [30] synes of sorrow and Repentance as they professed they would fall vpon theire knees to haue his Censure Released;

    But that which made them all Stand amased; In the end, and May doe all others that shall Come to heare the same (for a Rarer Presedent can Scarce be seen or shewen) was that after305 a month or two; Nowithstanding all his former Confessions Convictions and former acknowlidgments, both in the face of the Church and whole Companie with soe many teares and sad Censures of himself before God and man, hee should Goe againe to Justify what hee had don;

    ffor Secretly hee writt a second letter to the adventorers in England in which hee Justifyed all his former writinges (saue in some thinges which tended to theire damage) the which because it is soe large I shall heer306 omitt with the answare heervnto307 least I should treaspus too much on the patience of the Reader;

    But before I draw to a Conclusion of this matter I shall Insert a few objections of many that this euill sperited man made against the people of God308 in this place which I shall faithfully enter with theire Answares;

    1 hee saith the Church would haue none to liue heer but them selues;

    2 Neither are any willing soe to doe if they had Company to liue else where;

    Answ theire Answare was that this is ffalse in both prtes of it for they were willing and desirous of any honest men309 to310 liue with them that will Carry them selues peacably and seek the Comon Good, or att least doe them noe hurt, and againe there are many that will not liue else where soe longe as they may liue with them;

    2 That if311 there Comes ouer any honest man; they would soon distast them &c:

    Answ There answare was as before that it was a ffalse Callumnation; for they had many Amongst them that they liked well of and were Glad of theire Companie, and should be of any such like as should Come amongst them;

    3 That they excepted against312 him for these 2 doctrines Raised from 2 Samu 12 first that minnesters must some times prticularly apply theire doctrine to speciall prsons secondly that Great men may be Reproued as well as meaner

    Answ: theire Answar was that both these were without either truth, or couller of the same as was proued to his face; and that they had taught and beleiued these thinges longe before they knew mr Lyford:

    And with these objections hee comes to Giue his frinds Councell one prticular wher[of] was that the Leyden Companie (mr Robinson and the Rest) must still be kept Back or else all wilbe spoyled, and least any of them should be taken in priuately some where on the Coast of England (as it was feared might be done) they must Change the Mr of the shipp mr Wiliam Peirse; and put another alsoe in mr Winslowes Rome for Marchant, or otherwise it would not be prevented,

    these prticulars are313 sent by him to the adverse prte of the Adventurers

    Then hee would haue such a Number prouided as would ouersway them heer; and further proposeth to them some wayes, and meanes wherby this may be effected:

    Then hee showes that if by the said meanes they Cannot be strengthened to Carry and ouer beare; thinges; it would be best for him and his Confeaderats; to plant else where by themselu[es]

    Lastly hee concludes that if some Number Comes not ouer to beare them vp viz. him and his314 Confeaderates heer, then there would be noe abiding for them but by Joyning with these heer Then hee adds since hee began to write, there are letters Come from youer315 Companie wherin they would Giue sole Authoritie in diuers thinges vnto theire Gour: heer which if it take place then Ve nobis316) but I hope you wilbe more Vigelent heerafter that Nothinge May passe in such a Manor,

    Thus I haue breiffly touched some of the Cheiff thinges Contained and expressed in his Letters and otherwise; wherby his hipocresye ffalcenes and mallice appeered; But being loth to be burthensom[e] to the Reader with the more full Relation of matters Concering this Instrument of Sathan to worke317 mischiffe and Inded to318 Indeauor the ouerthrow of this poor Church and Collonie, I319 shall Indeauor to Contract matters, into as Narrow a Rome as I Can if any shall haue a desire to know more of them; I shall Refer them to New Englands Memoria[ll] wherin In prte these prticulares are Related, and more especially unto320 mr Bradfords history wherin att large hee may haue a full Relation of these matters in theire seuerall321 Ceromst[ances] [31] Relateing vnto his trayterous Indeauors against vs and his abseane Carriages in Ireland which were discouered on these occations, finally after all these transactions of Matters about him and Oldum fore Named whoe was Copartenor and a Great stickeler in these thinges; both hee the said oldum and Lyford being banished the Collonie for theire aforsaid misdemenors they went into the Massachusetts Bay, and322 the said Oldum Goeing on a voyage in a storm323 like to haue bin Cast away about Cape Codd shoules in the Greatnes of his danger and extremity, being in terror of Consience Confessed his fault in his Indeauors against this Collonie; and vowed that if God would please to324 bring him safe to land; hee would; Reforme in that behalf; afterwards hee went on a voyage towards Conecticott, and Neare vnto blocke Iland was325 Crewelly murdered by the India[ns]

    I should haue noted that there was some frindly Corespondeney between the Collonie & oldum before his death

    And as for John Lyford hee went to Nantaskett being Banished and from thence to Salem where after hee had liued a while hee went to Veginnia and there hee died; in326 all which former discourse with much More that might haue bine said Respecting the prmises; It doth plainly appeer and is verifyed; that noe weapon that was formed against this poor fflock of Christ did prosper; and euery toungue that Rose vp in Judgment against them God did Condemne;

    Before I Pase on to other matteriall Relations lett the Reader take Notice of a speciall fauor of God and expression of his Goodnes that many whoe before stood somthing off from the Church Now seeing Lyfords vnrighteousnes in his Cariages and dealings and Mallignitie against the Church; Now tendered themselues to the Church and were Joyned to the same professing that it was not out of dislike of any thinge that they had stood of soe longe but a desire to fitt them selues better for such a state; and they saw Now the Lord Called327 for theire healp and soe the fornamed troubles produced a quite Contrary effect in sundry heer then these Adversaries hoped for which was looked att as a Great worke of God to draw on men by vnlikely meanes, and that in Reason which might Rather haue sett them further of;

    Anno: 1626

    this yeer Robinsons death; further brought them notice of the death of theire [a]ncient frind [m]r Cushman whom the lord tooke away [a]lsoe this yeer [a]bout this time whoe was as theire Right hand with theire frinds the Adventerours and for diuers yeers had don and agitated all their busines [wi]th them to theire Great Advantage328

    About the begining of Aprill Capt: Standish whoe was sent our agent for the Collonie to the Marchant adventerors to this Collonie in England329 Ariued in New England; Welcome hee was; but the News hee brought was sad in Many Regards but especially in Respect of the Great losse of our former worthy Pastour of whose death hee was the first that brought the sad tidinges therof which struck our Church and the Godly heer with much sorrow and sadnes as they had Great Cause;330 his and theire adversaries had bin Longe and Continewally ploting how they might hinder his Coming hither But the Lord had appointed him a better place Concerning whose death and the Manor therof; It will appeer by these few lines writt to the Gour and mr Brewster;

    Loueing and Kind frinds &c:

    I know not whether this will euer Come to youer hands or miscarry as other my letters haue done yett in Regard of the Lords dealing with vs heer I haue had a Greatt desire to write vnto you knowing youer desire to bear a part with vs both in our Joyes and sorrowes as wee doe with you; these are therfore to Giue you to vnderstand that it hath pleased the Lord to take out of this vale of teares youer and our loueing and faithfull pastour and my dear and Reuerend brother mr John Robinson; whoe was sick some eight dayes; hee began to bee sicke on saterday in the morning yett the next day being the Lords day hee taught vs twise and soe the week after Grew weaker and weaker euery day more then other yett hee felt Noe paine but weaknes all the time of his sicknes; the Phisicke hee took wrought kindly in Mans Judgment but hee Grew weaker euery day feeling litle or Noe paine and sensible to the very last hee fell sick the 22cond of ffebruary and departed this life the first of March hee had a Continuall Inward Ague but free from Infection soe that all his frinds Came freely to him; and if either prayers teares or meanes would haue saued his life hee had not Gon hence; but hee haueing faithfully finished his Course and prformed his work which the lord had appointed him heer to doe hee Now Resteth with the [Lo]rd in eternall happines; wee wanting him and all our Church Gournors [32]331 yett wee still by the Mercye of God Continew and hold Close together in peace and quiet[nes] And soe hope wee shall doe although wee be very weake wishing if such were the will of God that you and wee were againe vnited together in one either there or heer, but seeing it is the will of332 the Lord thus to dispose of thinges wee must labour with Patience to Rest Contented vntill it please the Lord to dispose for vs otherwise Newes heer is Not much only as In England wee haue lost our old Kinge James whoe departed this life about a month agoe soe heer they haue lost theire old Prince; Graue Mauris whoe [both] departed this life since my brother Robinson and as in England wee haue a New kinge Charles of whom there is Great hope; soe heer they haue made Prince Hendrick Generali in his brothers Place; Thus with my Loue Remembered I tak Leaue and Rest Youer Assured Loueing frind

    Roger White333

    Leyden 28 Aprill

    Ano 1625

    [Thus] these two Great [princes] and theire Pastour [left] this world neare about [one] time; death makes noe [differe]nce;

    [A] few poems made by a frind on the deplored death of mr John Robinson the worthy Pastour of the Church of God att Leyden as followeth

    [1] Blessed Robinson hath Run his Race

    from earth to heauen is Gon

    to be with Christ in heauenly place

    the blessed saints amonge

    [2] A burning and a shining Light

    was hee whiles hee was heer

    a preacher of the Gospell Bright

    whom wee did loue most deare

    [3] What tho hee dead his workes aliue

    and liue will to all Age

    The Comfort of them pleasant is

    To liueing saints each day

    4 Oh Blessed holy Sauiour

    the fountaine of all Grace

    from whom such blessed Instruments

    are sent and Run theire Race

    5 To lead vs to and Guid vs in

    the way to happines

    That soe oh Lord wee may alwaies

    for euermore Confesse

    6 That whosoeuer Gospell preacher be

    or waterer of the same

    Wee may alwayes most Constantly

    Giue Glory to thy Name

    About Anno: dom 1628 a Certaine young man Came ouer to be a Minnester to the peop[le] heer whether att the motion of some frinds or Noe I well know not, but am sure is with[out] any Invitation from the Church for they had smarted; by mr Lyford soe as they desir[ed] to know the prson well whome they should Invite amongst them his Name was mr Roger[s] but they prseiued vpon some tryall that hee was Crased in his braine soe they were fai[n] to be att further Charge to send him back againe the Next yeer and lose all the Charge that was expended in his hither bringing; which was not smale; and after hee departed hee Grew qvite destracted;

    About this time Not long after mr Rogers his departure; one mr Ralph Smith and his wif[e] and family Came ouer into the Massachusetts Bay and sojourned att prsent with th[e] stragling people which liued at Nantaskett; heer being a boate off this place put in there on some occation; hee earnestly desired they would Giue him and his pas[sage] for Plymouth and som such thinges as they Could well Carry; haueing before hear[d that] there was likelyhood hee might procure housrome for some time vntill hee should [r]esolue to settle if hee might there or elswhere as God should dispose for hee [was w]eary of being in that vncoth place and in a poor house that would Neither [keep him n]or his Goods dry soe seeing him to be [a Grave man] and [understood] hee had bin a Minnester [though they had no order for any shuch thing, yet they presumed and brought him. He was here accordingly kindly entertained and housed, and had the rest of his goods and servants sente for, and exercised his gifts amongst them, and afterwards was chosen into the ministrie, and so remained for sundrie years.] [33]

    In Anno 1629 a Considerable Number of the bretheren of the Church which were le[ft] in holland were Transported ouer to vs that were of the Church in New England which although it was att About 500lb charge yett it was bourne Chearfully by334 the poor bretheren heer Concerned in It; alsoe about that time seuerall Godly prsons; some wherof had bin of mr Laythorps Church in England and others alsoe Came to vs out of England; soe that wee. becaime through the Goodnes of God pretty335 Numerous and were in the best estate Respecting the Church that wee had as yett bine in New England; Althoug for minnestry it was low with vs;336 for as was before Noted; they had Chosen mr Ralph Smith fore Named to be theire Pastour yett hee proued but a [poor] healp337 to them in that being but of very weake338 prtes in the [ ] of the Minnestry; onely they had a Great healp by theire Reuer[ed] mr Brewster whoe was well Accomplished with Gifts and G[ ] for such worke; they had alsoe some Good healp by a Godly y[ ] Called mr Roger Williams of whom I would Craue libertie to [ ] a few words;

    Mr Roger Williams A man Godly and Zealous (saith mr Brad[ford] haueing Many prsious prtes but very vnsettled in Judgment) Came o[ver first] to the Massachusetts but vpon some discontent; left that place and Came [hither] where hee was frindly entertained according to theire abillitie and exer[cised] his Gifts amonst them; And after some time was Admitted a Member [of the] Church and his teaching well approued for the benifitt thereof (saith h[e) I] Still blesse God and am thankefull to him euen for his sharpest Adm[onitions] & Reproffes soe farr as they agreed with truth; hee this yeer fell [into] some strange oppinions; and from oppinion to practice, which caused some Controuersye between the Church and him; and in the end some disconten[t] on his prte; By occation wherof hee left them somthing abruptly; yett afterwards sued for his dismission to the Church of Salem which w[as] Graunted with some Caution to them Concerning him but hee339 soon fell into more thinges there both to theire and the Gourments trouble and disturbance I shall not need to Name prticulars they are to well knowne now to all though for a time the Church here went vnder some hard sensures by his occation from some that afterwards smarted themselues; But hee is to be pittied and prayed for; And soe I shall leaue the matter and desire the lord to shew him his errors and Reduce him into the way of truth and Giue him a setled Judgment and Constancy in the same; for I hope hee belongs to the Lord;

    Wheras seuerall of those which Came from Leyden Came ouer in the shipps which Came to Salem where mr Indicott had Cheiffe Command and by Infection which Grew amongst the passengers; It spread alsoe in them on shore; of which many died some of the Scirvey and [others of] Infectious340 feauors which Continewed somtime amon[gst them] though our people through Gods Goodnes escaped vpon wh[ich occasion] hee wrote to Plymouth for some healp vnderstanding that th[ere was one] that had skill that way and had Cu[red divers of the scurvie] and others of other deseases by lett[ing blood and other means] [vp]on which his Request [the Governer here sent him unto them, and also write to him, from whom he received an answere; the which, because it is breefe, and shows the begining of their acquaintance, and closing in the truth and ways of God, I thought it not unmeete, nor without use, hear to inserte it; and another showing the begining of their fellowship and church estate ther.] [34]

    Right Worthy Sir

    It is a thinge Not vsuall that servants of one mr: and the same houshold should be strangers And I assure you I desire it Not Nay to speak more plainly I cannot be soe to you; Gods people are all marked with one and the same marke and sealed with one and the same seale and haue for the maine one and the same hart Guided by one and the same speritt of truth; and where this is theire Can be Noe discord Nay heer must needs be sweet harmony and the Request with you I make vnto the Lord that wee may be as Christian Bretheren; vnited by a heauenly and vnfeyned loue bending all our harts and forces in furthering a worke beyond our strength with Reuerence and fear fastening our eyes alwayes on him that onely is able to direct and prosper all our waies I acknowlidge my self much bound to you for youer kind loue and Care in sending mr ffuller amongst vs and Rejoyce much that I am by him satisfyed touching youer Judgments of the outward forme of Gods worshipp; It is as farr as I Can yett Gather; noe other then is warranted by the euidence of truth and the same which I haue professed and Maintained euer since the Lord in Mercye Reveiled himself to mee; being farr from the Comon Report that hath bin spread of you touching that prticular; But Gods Children must not looke for lesse heer below and it is a Great Mercye of God that hee strengthens them to Goe through with it; I shall not Need att this time to be tedious vnto you for God willing I purpose to see youer face shortly; In the mean time I humbly take my leaue of you Comitting you to the Lords blessing and Protection

    And Rest youer Assured Loueing frind

    John Endicott

    Neamkeak May 11th Anno: 1629

    This 2cond letter sheweth the proceedings in theire Church affaires att Salem which was the second Church erected in these prtes and afterwards the Lord aded many more in sundry other places;


    I make bold to trouble you with a few lines for to Certify you how it pleased God to deal with vs since you heard from vs; how Notwithstanding all opposition that hath bin heer and elswhere It hath pleased God to lay a foundation the which I hope is agreeable to his word in euery thinge; the 20th of July It pleased the Lord to moue the hart of our Gour: to sett it apart for a sollemne day of humilliation; for the Choise of a Pastour and Teacher the former prte of the day being spent in prayer and teaching the latter prte About the election which was after this Manor; the prsons thought on whoe had bin minnesters in England were demanded Concerning theire Callings; they acknowlidged theire was a two fould Calling; the one an Inward341 Calling when the Lord moued the hart of a man to take that Calling vpon him and fitted him with Gifts for the same the second was an outward Calling which was from the people; when a Companie of beleiuers, are Joyned together in Couenant to walk together in all the wayes of God and euery member (being men) are to haue a free voyce in Choise of theire officers &c; Now wee being prswaded that these two men were soe quallifyed as the Apostle speakes to timothy when hee saith a bishop must be blamles sober apt to teach &c I think I may say as the Eunuch said vnto Phillip what should lett from being baptised seeing there was water and hee beleeued; for these two servants of God Clearing all thinges by theire answares and being thus fitted wee saw Noe Reason but wee might freely Giue our voyces for theire election after this tryall soe mr Skilton was Chosen Pastour and mr higgenson to be Teacher; and they accepting the Choise mr higgenson with three or four of the Grauest Members of the Church layed theire hands on mr Skilton vseing prayer therwith; this being done there was Imposition of hands on mr higgenson alsoe; and since that time, thursday being as I tak if the 5th of August is appointed for another day of humilliation for the Choise of Elders and deacons and ordaining them,

    And Now Good Sir I hope that you and the Rest of Gods people whoe are acquainted with the wayes of God with you will say that heer was a Right foundation layed and that these two blessed servants of the Lord Came in att the dore and Not att the window; thus I haue made bould to trouble you with these few lines desiring you to Remember vs, and soe Rest

    Att youer service in what I may

    Charles Gott

    Salem July 30 1629


    A few ꝑticulars more Concerning the proceedings of our Reuerend frinds In the bay of the Massachusetts, whoe were lately Come ouer I thought it not amise heer to Insert then soe farr as prtenent to the prsent purpose and may be vsefull for after times;


    Being att Salem the 25th of July being the sabbath after the euening exercise mr Johnson Receiued a letter from the Gour mr John Winthrop manyfestinging the hand of God to be vpon them and against them att Charlstowne in visiting them with sicknes and takeing diuers from amongst them; Not sparing the Righteouse but prtakeing with the wicked in these bodily Judgments It was therfore by his desires taken into the Godly Consideration of the best heer what was to be don to passify the Lords wrath &c: wher it was Concluded that the lord was to be sought in Righteousness and to that end the sixt day being fryday of this prsent weeke is sett apart that they may humble themselues before God and seek him in his ordinances; and that then alsoe such Godly prsons that are amongst them and knowne each to other may publickly att the end of theire exercise make knowne theire desires and and practice the same viz: Sollomlly to enter into Couenant with the lord to walk in his wayes; and since they are soe disposed of in theire outward estates as to liue in three distinct places each haueing men of Abillities342 amongst them there to obserue the day; and become three distinct bodies not then Intending Rashley to proceed to the Choice of officers or the admitting of any other to theire societie then a few viz. such as are well knowne vnto them promising after to Receiue such by Confession of faith as shall appeer to be fitly qvallifyed for that estate; they doe earnestly Intreat that the Church of Plymouth would sett apart the same day for the same ends beseeching the Lord as to with draw his hand of Correction from them soe alsoe to establish and direct them in his wayes and tho the time be short wee pray you be prouoaked to this Godly worke seeing the causes are soe vrgent wherin God wilbe honored and they and wee vndoubtedly haue sweet Comfort be you all kindly salluted &c:

    Youer bretheren in Christ, &c:343

    Salem July 26 1630


    the sad newes heer is that many are sicke and Many are dead the lord in Mercye look vpon them some are heer entered into Church Couenant the first were four Namely the Gour: mr John Winthrop mr Johnson mr Dudley and mr Wilson; since that fiue more are Joyned to them and others it is lik will adde them selues to them dayly the lord Increase them both in Number and in holines for his Mercyes sake; heer is a Gentleman one mr Cottington a boston Man whoe told mee that mr Cottons Charge att hamton was; that they should take advise of them att Plymouth; and should doe Nothing to offend them; heer are diuers honest Christians that are desirous too see vs; some out of loue which they beare to vs and the Good prswasion they haue of vs; others to see whether wee be soe ill as they haue heard of vs; wee haue a Name of holines and loue to God and his saints the lord Make vs more and more Answarable and that it may be More then a Name or else it will doe vs Noe Good be you loueingly salluted and all the Rest of our frinds; The Lord Iesus blesse vs and the whole Israell of God Amen

    Youer loueing Brother &c344

    Charlstowne Augst

    the second 1630


    This yeer the people of the Plantation of Plymouth began to Grow in theire outward estates by Reason of the fflowing of Many people into the Country especially into the Bay of ye Massachusetts by which meanes Corne and Cattle Rose to a Great prise by which many were Inriched and Comodities Grew plentifull; and yett in other Regards theire benifitt turned to theire hurt and this accession of strength to theire weaknes for Now as theire stockes Increased and the Increase vendable; and the feare of the Indians taken away there was Noe longer any holding of them together, But now they must of Nessesitie Goe to theire Great lotts; they Could Not other wise keep theire Cattle; and haueing oxen Growne they must haue Land for plowing and tillage and Noe man now thought hee could liue except hee had Cattle and a Great deale of Ground to keep them, all striueing to Increase theire stockes, by which meanes they were scattered all ouer the bay quickly and the towne in which they liued Compactly vntil Now was left very thine and in a short time almost desolate; and if this had bin all it had bin lesse tho to much But the Church must alsoe be deuided; and those that had liued soe longe together in Christian and Comfortable ffellowshipp must Now prte and suffer Many deuissions; first those that liued on theire lotts on the other syde of the bay (Called duxburrow) they could not long bring theire wiues and Children to the publick worshipp and Church meetings heer but with such burthen, as Growing to some Competent Number they sued to be dismised and become a body of themselues; and soe they were dismised about this time though very vnwillingly, and somtime after being vnited into one Intire body they procured Reuerend mr Ralph Partrich to be theire Pastour; and mr William Leuerich alsoe was with them att the same time and preached the word of God amongst them but hee stayed Not longe amongst them ere hee Remoued to Sandwich and was teacher of the Church there a Considerable time; and after the death of holy mr Partrich; It pleased God to send a preciouse Gospell preacher amongst them Namely mr John holmes; whoe liued and died alsoe with them and since his death the lord Raised vp another precious man: viz: mr Ichabod Wiswell of whom345 there is Great hopes for a Continuewed succession of346 healp in the minnestry to that poor fflock of Christ whom God soe Greatly honored as they were Neuer long without a Minnister of Christ to preach the Gospell vnto them;


    this was the first Church that sprange out of the bowells of the Church of Plymouth

    But to touch this sad matter of the Churches prteing as hath bin said and to handle thinges together that fell out afterward; To preuent any further scattering from this place of the Towne of Plymouth; and weakening of the same; It was thought best to Giue out some Good ffarmes to speciall prsons that would promise to liue att Plymouth; and likely to be healpfull to the Church or Comon wealth; and soe to tye the lands to Plymouth as farmes for the same; and there they might keep theire Cattle and tillage by some servants and Retaine theire dewllings heer; and soe some speciall Lands were Graunted; att a place vsually Called Greensharbour where noe allotments had bin in the former diuision a place very well Meddowed and ffitt to keep and Rear Cattle Good store; But alsoe this Remedey proued worse then the desease for within few yeers those that had Gott footing there; Rent themselues away prtely by fforce and prtely by wearing the Rest with Importunitie and please of Nessesitie; soe as they must either suffer them to Goe or liue in Continuall opposition and Contension; and others still as they Conceiued them selues straightened or to want accommodation broak away vnder one pretence or other thinkeing theire347 owne Conceiued Nessesitie and the example of others a warrant sufficient for them; and this I feare wilbe the Ruine of New England att least of the Churches of God there348 and prouoke the Lords displeasure against them;

    This Church of Marshfeild (aboue Called Greensharbour) was began and afterwards Carryed on by the healp and Assistance (vnder God) of mr Edward Winslow; whoe att the first procured seuerall Welsh Gentlemen of Good note thither with mr Blinman a Godly able Minnester349 whoe vnanimously Joyned together in holy ffellowshipp or att least were in a likely way thervnto; but some desentions fell amongst them which Caused a prteing; Not longe after and soe the hopes of a Godly societie, as to them was; frusterated; Not long after those that went from Plymouth (with that Godly Gentleman mr Willam Thomas) keeping vp a Comunion; It pleased the lord to send vnto them a faithfull and able preacher of the Gospell Named Mr Edward Buckley whoe was Chosen theire Pastour and; officiated in that place very profittably diuers yeers; but350 att last hee left them and went to a place Called Concord in the351 Gourment of the Massachusetts; and a Considera[ble] time after the lord Raised vp and sent another faithfull servant of his whoe proued able and well fitted for the worke of the Minnestry mr Samuell Arnold by Name who Remaines amongst them for theire speciall Comfort in the worke of the minnestry [37]

    the begining of the Church of Marshfeild which was the second Church of God that Issued out from the352 Church of Plymouth

    About that353 time or a little before that the Church of duxburrow became a distinct body from the Church354 of Plymouth; the Towne of Scittuate began and seuerall of the Church of Plymouth Repaired thither, and seated them selues there;355 att which time Mr Timothy hatherly Came out of England with his family; and356 seated him self there alsoe; and seuerall others Godly ones of other places especially diuers out357 of Kent Repaired thither; these all Joyned together and became a Comfortable and exemplary Church of God; and the Lord sent vnto them that preciouse servant of his, Mr John Laythorp whoe Came to them out of Great prsecution358 and hee became theire Pastour; to which office hee was Indowed with a Competent measure of Gifts and eminently Indowed with a Great Measure of brokenes of hart and humillitie of sperritt hee was much honored of the most as hee well deserued;359 after some time a Considerable prte of the Church went from Scittuate to Barnstable and theire pastour fornamed with them, where they liued diuers yeers in Gospell order and were very exemplary for the life of Grace and power of Godlynes; But which is sad to Relate soone after the death of theire Godly Pastour fore Named; a sad desention fell amongst the Members of that Church soe as it Caused a Scisme and deuison amongst them, which Notwithstanding the Great Indeauors of diuers Churches both in360 the Bay and att home, in our owne Collonie; by sending theire Elders and Messengers whoe took great paines in the Controuersye to settle it, yett it Could not; for a longe time be healed and settled; vntill the lord Raised vp that worthy servant of his Mr Thomas Walley whom the lord sperited for that work and blessed his Indeauors soe therin as that soone after his Coming amonst them the Controuersyes were settled; and theire Comunion Revnited, to theire Generuall and Mutuall satisfaction and the Rejoyceing of the harts of the saints Round about them; and soe Remained vnto the death of the said mr Walley whoe361 not longe after ended his life362 amongst them; and still they Remaine a Church of God in peace and loue vnto this day

    I Can not say that the maine prte of this Church Came out of the Church of Plym: tho a Considerable prte of them did;

    mr Walley was theire Pastour and and serued Christ in that office amongst them to the end of his life

    But to Returne with a word or two Concerning those of the Church that were left att Scittuate whoe became a distinct body from the Rest viz: those that went to Bastable as afor said; and they had the healp of seuerall preachers to teach them as Mr Charlse Chauncye whoe was theire Pastour a Considerable time; and seuerall others363 taught the word of God vnto them in the vacansye of Minnestry; and the last in office ouer them;364 before the writing heerof was Mr Nicholas Baker whoe was a faithfull able dispencer of the word, and Pastour of theire365 soules, whoe after much dollorus paine, ended his life amongst them, and is Reaping the fruites of his labours and att the writing heerof, there is another preacher Come vnto them one mr Lawson that exercyseth amongst them;

    But to Returne againe vnto prticulars more Imediately Concerning the Church of Christ att Plymouth

    This yeer Mr Ralph Smith layed downe his place of Minnestry prtely by his owne willingnes as thinking it to heauy a burden and prtely att the desire and by the prswasion of others; and the Church sought out for some other haueing bine often disappointed in theire hopes and desires heertofore; and it pleased the Lord to send them an able and a Godly man; and of a Meek and humble sperite sound in the truth and euery way vnreprouable in his life and Conversation whoe after some time of tryall they Chose for theire Teacher, the fruites of whose labours they Injoyed many yeers with much Comfort in peace and agreement; mr John done mr Willam Paddy John Cooke deacons Afterwards John donham added


    mr John Reyner

    In the time when mr Smith aboue named was Pastour the Church was disirous to procure another to be healpfull vnto him in the Minnestry, and for that end sent by Mr Edward Winslow, bound then for England to procure them an able man for that purpose, and was prouided of one (as hee hoped) to Come ouer with him366 viz: one mr Glouer a very able dispencer of the word; but hee ended his life in London before hee Came on board; and afterwards by prouidence mr Winslow367 mett with Mr John Norton368 whoe (it seemes) was then Intended to Come for New England and soe did in the same shipp mr Winslow Came ouer in with whom hee369 had treaty Concerning our Case; hee Came into the harbour of Plymouth and there Ariued;370 it being the setting in towards winter; hee stayed vntill the March follow[ing] and371 then went into the Bay and Returned noe more but entertained an Invitation to Ipswich and372 after the death of Mr Cotton hee Came to Boston and was teacher of the old Church vntill his death thus this poor Church was put by theire hopes, and expectations Concerning these men and373 theire healps [38]

    After mr Reyner had bin in place a Considerable time It was desired374 that mr Charles Chauncey a Reuerend man should be Invited whoe being a very Godly and learned man they Intended vpon tryall to Choose him Pastour of the Church heer for the more Comfortable prformance of the minnestry with mr John Reiner the Teacher of the same; But there fell out some difference about baptising hee holding it ought onely to be by diping and puting the whole body vnder water and that sprinkleing was vnlawfull the Church yeilded that Imercion or diping was lawfull but in this Could Country not soe Convenient; But they Could not Nor durst not yeild to him in this that sprinkleing which all the Churches of Christ doe for the most prte att this day practice was vnlawfull and an humaine Invension as the same was prest; But they were willing to yield to him as farr as they Could and to the vtmost and were Contented to suffer him to practice as hee was prswaded; and when hee came to Minnester that ordinance hee might doe it to Any that did desire it in that way prouided hee Could peacably suffer mr Reyner and such as desired it to haue theires otherwise baptised by him by sprinkleing or powering on of water vpon them; soe as there might be Noe disturbance in the Church therabouts; But hee said hee could not yeild thervnto upon which the Church procured some other minnesters to dispute the point with him publickly as mr Ralph Partrich of duxburrow whoe did it sundry times; ably and sufficiently; as alsoe some other minnesters within this Gourment But hee was Not satisfyed; soe the Church sent to many other Churches to Craue theire healp and advice in this matter; and with his will and Consent sent them his Arguments written vnder his owne hand; they sent them to the Church of Boston in the bay of Massachusetts to be Comunicated with other Churches there alsoe they sent the same to the Churches of Conecticott and New hauen with sundry others; and Receiued very able and sufficient Answares as they Conceiued from them and theire Learned Minnesters; who all Concluded against him; But himselfe was not satisfyed therwith; theire Answars are to large heer to Relate; They Conceiued the Church had don what was meet in the thinge; soe mr Chauncye haueing bin att Plym: the Most prte of three yeers; hee Remoued himself to Scittuate where hee for sometime Remained a Minnester to the Church there; alsoe about these times Now the Cattle and other thinges began Greatly to fall from theire former Rates and prsons began to fall into more straights and Many being alreddy Gon from vs as is Noted before both to duxburrow Marshfeild, and other places and those of the Cheife sort as mr Winslow Capt: Standish and Mr Alden and Many other[s] and still some droping away dayly and some att this time, and many more vnsettled It did Greatly weaken the place and by Reason of the straightnes and barrenes of the place it sett the thoughts of Many vpon Remouall; &c.:


    Now followeth that which was matter of Great sadness and mourning vnto this Church about the sixteenth of375 Aprill in this yeer died theire Reuerend Elder376 our dear and loueing friend mr Wiliam Brewster377 A man that had don and suffered much for the Lord Jesus and the Gospells sake, and had borne his prte in weale and woe with this poor prsecuted Church aboue thirty six yeers in England holland and in this wildernes and don the Lord and them faithfull seruice in his place and Calling; and Notwithstanding the many troubles and sorrowes hee pased throw the lord vpheld him to a Great age hee was neare fourscore yeers of age (if not all out) when hee died hee had this blessing aded by the lord to all the Rest to die in his bed in peace amongst the middest of his frinds whoe mourned and wept ouer him; and minnestered what healp and Comfort they Could vnto him and hee againe Recomforted378 them379 whiles hee Could; his sicknes was not longe, vntill the last day therof; hee did not wholly keep his bed; his speech Continued vntill som what more then half a day and then fayled him; and about 9 or 10: of the Clock that euening hee died without any pange; att all a few houres before; hee drew his breath short; and some few minutes before his last hee drew his breath long as a man fallen into a sound sleep without any panges or Gaspings, and soe sweetly departed this life vnto a better,

    1644380 Aprill 16

    I would now demand of any what hee was the worse for any former sufferings what doe I say the worse Nay surely hee was the381 better and they now aded to his honor*382 [39]

    It is383

    Christian and beloued Reader I humbly Craue Libertie heer to Interpose a few lines in this vacant place of this book Concerning384 an other passage of Gods Prouidence as followeth; Not Ionge after the decease of our Reuerend Elder mr William Brewster And the Reuerent Mr John Reiner left allone in the minnestrey The Church saw Cause to adde vnto him;385 another Ruleing Elder and Pitched theire thoughts on Mr Thomas Cushman whoe was the son of that worthy servant of Christ Mr Robert Cushman of whom honorable mension is elswher made in this Book; the said Mr Cushman Junr: being by Generall Consent aproued elected and ordained to that worthy office and function for which hee was Competently fited and prepared by the Lord; and386 Longe after his election Itt appeered that there was Great Nessetie of this gracious healp; for our Teacher leaueing vs as is alsoe elswhere mensioned; troubles Came on apace Not to mension againe the troubles which were occationed by some of the Church of Barnstable which was blowne vp by John Cooke and others fore Named There arose a prverse sect Called Quakers whose tenetts and principles (if I may soe call them) are and may ezely be demonstrated to be heretticall and abominable; and then and att seuerall other times did strike att the very being (or att least the welbeing of the Church soe as) it was much Indangered But the Lord healped vs vnanimously to withstand these Incendiarys of mischiffe; soe as by the mutuall and faithfull healp of this our worthy and beloued Elder with the Concurrance of seuerall other of the bretheren; Itt plased the Lord to387 vphold vs in our Integrety and in a Constant withstanding and opposeing of those horred and damable tenetts; although wee were att this time as sheep without a minesteryall Shephard; and diuers of our ablest brethern fallen asleep in the Lord; to our Great losse and detriment; yee att such a time alsoe as this efficacy of delusion grew very preuelent to the pruerting and turning aside of diuers outsyde proffessors from the wayes of God; and wee desire this specialty of Gods good prouidence and protextion; may Neuer be forgotten but that the Lord may haue all the praise and Glory thereof; for how ezely might these woulues in sheep clotheing haue Ruined this poor fflock of Christ, if the Lord had not Interposed with his Almighty power and Goodnes; Improeing this our Good Elder as a speciall Instrument in this worthy worke both by teackeing the will of God euery Lords; day for a Considerable time both plainly pouerfully and profitable and seconding the same by a blamles life and Conversation; blessed be his holy Name foreuer and euer; In a word this blessed servant of Christ is a good man (as was388 said of Barnabas)389 & full of the holy Goast; expressed by both Commication390 and Conversation;391 and hath bin a good healp to this poor flock of Christ and being striken in yeers and noe doubt Reddy prepared for the Coming of his Lord; stands Redy for his Gracious Recompence of Reward which is layed vp for all those that loue his appeering;

    p. 37392

    Good Reader lett not the Reading of this digression hinder the serious Reading of what followes in the followeing pages Respecting our other beloued Elder Mr Brewster fore Named; (or what else is enserted in this booke) the blame of the misplaceing of this discours in this page I willingly owne take &393 to be my ouersight and weaknes of Memory; I pray you take Notice of the starrs placed the one att the foot of the foregoeing page and the other to the head of the following page; and they will bring you into youer way againe; and if394 euer this book be either Transcribed or printed I hope it wilbe Remembered to be enserted in it Right place; [40]

    * It395 is a manifest token saith the Apostle 2 thesalonians 1: 5: 6: 7: of the Righteouse Judgment of God that wee may be Counted worthy of the kingdom of God for which yee alsoe suffer seing it is a Righteouse thing with God to Recompence tribulation to them that trouble you; and to you whoe are troubled Rest with vs when the Lord Jesus shalbe Reveiled from heauen with his mighty angells; and 1 peter 4th: 14 If you be Reproched for the Name of Christ happy are yee for the sperit of God and of Glory Resteth vpon you;

    What tho hee wanted the Riches and pleasures of the world in his life and Pompiouse moniments att his funerall yett the memoriall of the Just shalbe Blessed when the Name of the wicked shall Rott; prou: 10: 7:

    I should say somthing of his life; if to say a little were not worse then to be silent But I Can not wholy forbear; tho happily more may be don heerafter; after hee had Attained some learning viz: the knowlidge of the lattine toungue and some Insight in the Greeke; and spent some smale time att Cambridge; and then being first seasoned with the seeds of Grace; and vertue hee went to the Court and serued that Religious and Godly Gentleman mr dauison diuers yeers when hee was Secretary of State whoe found him soe discreet and faithfull as hee trusted him aboue all other that were about him; and onely Imployed him in matters of Greatest Trust and Secrecye; hee esteemed him Rather as a son then a servant and for his wisdom and Godlines (in private) hee would Converse with him more like a famillyar then a Master; hee Attended his master when hee was sent in Ambassage by the Queen; into the Low Countryes (in the Earle of Lecesters time) as for other waighty affaires of State; soe to Receiue posession of the Cautionary townes;396 and in token and signe therof the kees of fflushing being deliuered to him in her Maties Name; hee kept them some time and Comitted them to his servant; whoe kept them vnder his pillow on which hee slept the first night; and att his Returne the states honored him with a Gould Chaine and his Master Comitted it to him and Comaunded him to weare it as they397 ariued in England as they Rode through the Country vntill they Came to the Court; hee afterwards Remained with him vntill his troubles when hee was put from his place about the death of the Queen of Scots and some Good time after doeing him many offices of service in the time of his troubles; afterwards hee went and liued in the Country in Good esteeme amongst his frinds and the Good Gentlmen of those prtes especially the Godly and Religious; hee398 did much Good in the Country where hee liued in promoting and furthering Religion; and not onely by his practice and example and prouoking and Incurraging of others; but by procuring of Good preachers to the places therabouts and drawing on of others to Assist and healp to399 forward in such a worke; hee himself most Comonly deepest in the Charge; and somtims aboue his Abillitie, and in this State hee Continued many yeers doeing the best Good hee Could; and walking according to the light hee saw vntill the Lord Reveiled further vnto him; and in the end by the tirany of the Bishopps against Godly preachers and people in silenceing the one and prsecuting the other; hee and many more of those times began to looke further into prticulars and to see into the vnlawfulnes of theire Callings and the burden of many Antichristian Corruptions; which both hee and they Indeauored to Cast of; as they alsoe did; as in the beginning of this treatis is to be seen;400 after they were Joyned together into Comunion; hee was a speciall stay and healp to them they ordinarily mett att his house on the lords day (wh was a manor of the Bishopps) and with Great loue hee entertained them when they Came makeing prouision for them to401 his Great Charge and Continewed soe to doe whiles they Could stay in England; and when they were to Remoue on out of the Countrey hee was one of the first in all adventures and forwardest in any hee was the Cheife of those that were taken att Boston in lincolnesheire and suffered the Greatest lose; and of the seven that were kept longest in prison and after boun[d] [41] bound ouer to the Assises After hee Came into holland hee suffered much hardshipp after hee had spent the most of his meanes haueing a Great Charge and Many Children; and in Regard of his former breeding and Course not soe fitt for many Imployments as others were, especially such as were toilsome and laboriouse yett hee euer bore his Condition with much Cheerfulnes and Contentation towards the latter prte of those 12 yeers spent in holland his outward Condition was mended and hee liued well and plentifully for hee fell into a way by Reason hee had the lattin toungue to teach many students whoe had a desire to Learne the English tongue to teach them English and by his Meathod they quicldey Attained it with great facillitie for hee drue Rules to learne it by after the lattine manor; and many Gentlemen both danes and Germaines Resorted to him as they had time from other studdies some of them being Great mens sons hee alsoe had meanes to sett vp printing (by the healp of some frinds and soe had Imployment enough and by Reason of many bookes which would not be allowed to be printed in England they might haue had more then they Could doe; But now Remoueing into this Country all these thinges were layed402 Aside againe and a new Course of liueing must be framed vnto In which hee was Noe way vnwilling to take his prte and to beare his burden with the Rest liueing Many times without bread or Corne many monthes together; haueing Many times Nothing but ffish and often wanting that alsoe; and drank Nothing but water for many yeers together yee vntill within fiue or six yeers of his death; and yett hee liued (by the blessing of God) in health vntill very old age and besides that hee would labour with his hands in the feilds as longe as hee was Able; yett when the Church had noe other Minnester hee taught twise euery sabbath and that both powerfully and profittably to the Great Contentment of the hearers and theire Comfortable edification yee many were brought to God by his Minnestry; hee did more in this behalfe in a yeer; then many that haue theire hundreds a yeer doe in all theire liues; for his prsonall Abillities hee was quallifyed aboue many; hee was wise and discreet and well spoken haueing a Graue deliberate vtterance; of a very Cheerfull speritt very sociable and pleasent amonst his frinds of an humble and modest mind of a403 peacable disposition vndervallueing him selfe and his owne abillities and somtimes ouervalluing others Innofensiue and Innocent in his life and Conversation which Gained him the loue of those without as well as those within; yett hee would tell them plainly of theire faults and euills both publickly and privately But in such a manor as vsually was well taken from him; hee was tender harted and Compassionate of such as were in Missery but especially of such as had bin of Good estate and Ranke and were fallen into want & pouertie either for Goodnes and Religions sake or by the Injury and oppression of others; hee would say of all men these deserued to be most pittied; and none did more offend and displease him then such as would haughtely and proudly Carry and lift vp themselues being Risen from Nothing; and haueing little else in them but a few fine Clothes or a little Riches more then others; In Teaching hee was very stiring and moueing the affections alsoe very plaine and distinct in what hee taught; by which means hee became the More proffitable to the hearers hee had a singulare Good Gift in prayer both publick and private in Riping vp the hart and Consience be fore God in the humble Confession of sin and beging the mercyes of God in Christ for the prdon therof hee alwayes thought it404 were better for Minnesters to pray oftener and devid theire prayers then to be longe and tediouse in the same except vpon sollemne and speciall occations as on dayes of humilliation and the like, his Reason was that the405 hart and speritts of all especially the weake Could hardly Continew and stand bent (as it were) for longe towards God as they ought to doe in that duty without fflaging and falling of; for the Gourment of the Church which was most proper to his office; hee was Carefull to preserue [42] preserue Good order in the same and to preserue puritie both in the doctrine and Comunion of the same and to suppresse any errour or Contention that might begin to Arise amongst them and accordly God Gaue good successe to his Indeauors heerin all his dayes and hee saw the fruite of his labours in that behalf but I must break off haueing thus touched a few heads406 of thinges407

    p. 6: 7:408

    I Can not but heer take occation not onely to mension but Greatly to Admire the marveilous prouidence of God that Notwithstanding409 the many Changes and hardshipps that this poor Church and people went through; and the many enimies they had and difficulties they mett withall that soe many of them should liue to very old age Itt was not onely this Reuerend mans Condition but many more of them did the like;410 some dieing about and before this time and many still liueing whoe attained to sixty yeers of age and to sixty fiue diuers to 70 and aboue; and some Neare 80 as hee did It must needs be more then ordinary and aboue Naturall Reason that it should be for it is found in experience that Change of aire famine or vnwholsome ffood much drinking of water sorrowes and troubles &c: all of them are enimies to health Causes of many deseacs Consumers of Naturall vigour and the bodyes of men and shortenors of life; and yett of all these thinges they had a large prte and suffered deeply in the same they went from England to holland where they found both worse aire and diett when411 they Came from thence Induring a longe Imprisonment as it were in the shipps att sea into New England and how it hath bin with them heer hath alreddy bin showen and what Crosses troubles feares wants and sorrowes they haue bin lyable vnto is easey to Conjecture soe as in some sort they may say with the Apostle 2 Cor: 11: 26 27 “They were in Journeyings often in prrills of waters in prrills of Robers in prrill[s] of theire owne Nation, in prrills amonge the heathen in prrills in the wildernes in prrills in the sea in prrills amongst ffalce bretheren in wearines and painfulnes in watching oftens in hunger and thirst in fasting oftens in Could and Nakednes.”

    What was it that vpheld them; It was Gods visittation that vpheld their speritt[s] Job the 10th and 12 Thou hast Giuen mee life and Grace and thy visitation hath preserued my speritt hee that vpheld the apostle vpheld them they were prsecuted but not forsaken Cast downe but prrished not 2 Cor 4: 9: as vnknowne and yett knowne as dying and behold wee liue; as Chasted and yett not killed

    God it seemes would haue all men to behold and obserue such mersyes and workes of his Prouidence as these are towards his people that they in like Cases might b[e] Incurraged to depend vpon God in theire tryalls and alsoe to blesse his Name when “they see his Goodnes towards others; Man liues not by bread onely” dutrino: 8:3 It is not by Good and dainty fare by peace and Rest and harts ease in Injoying the Contentments and Good thinges of this world onely that preserues health and prolonges life God in such examples would haue the world see and behold that hee Can doe it without them; and if the world will shutt theire eyes and take noe Notice therof; yett hee would haue his people to see and Consider daniell Could be better likeing with pulse then others were with the kinges dainties Jacob tho hee went from one Nation to another people and passed through famine feares and412 many afflictions yett hee liued vntill old age and died sweetly and Rested in the lord; as many others of Gods servants haue don and still shall doe; through Gods Goodnes Notwithstanding all the Mallice of theire enimies when the Branch of the wicked shalbe Cutt of before his day Job 15: 32: And the bloody and413 deseitfull men shall not liue half theirs dayes: Psa: 55: 23:

    When the Church Came away out of holland they brought with them one deacon Mr Samuell ffuller whoe officiated in that office amongst them vntill his death hee was a Good man and full of the holy speritt; hee died before our Reuerend Elder before Named; And the Church saw Cause to Chose two others to that office: (viz:) Richard Masterson and Thomas Blossom two holy men; whoe were experienced saints; the said Richard Masterson haueing bin officious with prte of his estate for publick Good; and a man of Abillitie as a second steuen to defend the truth by sound argument Grounded on the scriptures of truth; and the other alsoe414 Competently accomplished with abillities in that behalfe these two blessed saints liued not longe after they were Cosen but Changed this life for a better within a little time one after another; [43]

    about the year 1626 if I mistake not

    Many haueing left this place (as is before noted) by Reason of the straightnes and barrenes of the same and theire finding of better accomodations elswhere more suitable to theire ends and minds; and sundry others still vpon euery415 occation desiring theire dismissons the Church began seriously to think whether it were not better Joyntly to Remoue to some other place then to be this weakened, and as it were Insensibly desolued many meetings and much Consultation was held therabouts; and diuers mens minds and oppinions some were still for staying together in this place (viz: wher Plymouth was then seated) alledging men might heer liue416 if they would be Content with theire Condition and that it was not for want or Nessesitie soe much that they Remoued as to Inrich them selues, others were Resolute vpon Remouall and soe signifyed that heer they Could not stay but if the Church did not Remoue they must417 In soe much as many were swayed Rather then there should be a desolution to Condecend to a Remouall, if a fitt place Could be found that might more Conveniently and Comfortably Receiue the whole with such accession of others as might Come to them for theire better strength and subsistence and some such like Cautions and limitations; soe as with the aforsaid prouisoes a Greater prte Consented to a Remouall to a place Called Nawsett which had bin superffishally viewed; and the Good will of the purchassers (To whom it belonged) obtained with some addition therto from the Court, But now they began to see theire418 errour that they had Giuen away alreddy the best and most Comodious places to others and Now wanted them; them selues for this place was about 50 miles from hence; and att an outside of the Country Remote from all societie; alsoe that it would proue soe straight as it would not be Competent to Receiue the body much less to be Capeable of Any addition or Increase soe as att least in a short time they should be worse there then they were Now heer these with sundry other like Considerations and Inconveniencies made them Chang theire Resolutions, but such as were before Resolued vpon Remouall tooke advantage of this Agreement and went on Notwithstanding Neither could the Rest hinder them they haueing made some begining; and thuse was this poor Church left like an Ancient Mother Growne old and forsaken of her Children (tho Not in theire affections) yett in Regard of theire bodily prsence and prsonall healpfulnes; her ancient members being most of them worn away by death; and these of latter times being like Children translated into other families; and shee like a widdow left onely to trust in God thuse shee that had made many Rich, became her selfe poor;


    The Principall of the Members that then Remoued was that honorable Gentleman mr Thomas Prence whoe went away with seuerall others of the Church who were very desirable and they became a body of themselues destinct from the Church of Plymouth, and settled att Nausett; by them Named Eastham; and in some succes of time being destitute of Minnestry419 there being two in office of minestry att Barnstable, they obtained Mr John Mayo the Reuerend Teacher of that420 Church; to Goe ouer to them, and hee became theire Teacher; afterwards; which is sad to Relate) some differences and Controuersies falling out amongst them, Mr Mayo left them and went to Boston; and was in office in the Minnestrey in the second Church of Boston wherof421 Reuerend Mr Mather is Teacher; but the said Mr Mayo Growing aged422 and vnable to Carry on his office hee Remoued into this Collonie; and liued neare Yarmouth and Not longe after, fell asleep in the lord; after these thinges mr Barnabas Chauncye was sollisetted to Goe ouer to healp them but hee being a weake man and Insuffient for such worke, soon left them, and seuerall of the members of theire Church, went away to New Garnsey; Neuer the lesse it pleased God to Raise them vp another one Mr Samuell Treate, a Godly able man; whoe hath and doth Carry on the worke of the lord amongst them; soe as they Remaine an exemplary fflock of Christ att this day; [44]

    the third Church which Came forth as it were out of our bowells

    By the vnderworkeings of some enimies to the Churches in New England the following Comission was procured of his Matie Charles the first Kinge of England &c: wherby the Reader may vnderstand, enimies haue bin att worke formerly to destroy that plante which was planted by the Lords Right in this Wildernes What the Reason was that it was not put in execution I Can not learne Mr Bradford is altogether silent Concerning it; surely it was the lords work in a speciall manor; and it is and ought to be Marueilous in our eyes and wee ought to Render praises to his holy Name for the same; I haue transcribed it into this book that after ages may Improue it as an experiment of Gods Goodnes to this poor Church att Plymouth whoe with the other Churches In New England was In as Great danger to share423 in drinking as deep of this bitter Cupp as any other; if the Lord had not preuented it; in a way to mee vnknowne;

    Charles By the Grace of God Kinge of England Scotland ffrance And Ireland defender of the ffaith &c:

    To the most Reuerend father in Christ our welbeloued and faithfull counceller Wiliam by divine Prouidence Archbishopp of Canterberry of all England primate metrepollitant; Thomas Lord Couentrey keeper of our Great seale of England; The most Reuerent father in Christ our welbeloued and most faithfull Counceller Richard By divine Prouidence Archbishop of Yorge Primate and Metrepolitan; our welbeloued and most ffaithfull Coussens and Councellers Richard Earle of Portland our high Treasurer of England; Henery Earle of Manchester keeper of our privye seal; Thomas Earle of Aroundell and Surrey Earle Marshall of England; Edward Earle of dorcett Chamberline of our deare Consort the Queen; and our beloued and faithfull Councellers ffrancis Lord Cottington Counceller424 and vnder Treasurer of our Exchequer; Sir Thomas Edmonds Knight Treasurer of our houshold Sir Henery Vane Knight Controuler of the same houshold Sir John Cooke Knight one of our privie Secretaryes and Sir ffrancis Windebank Knight another of our privie Secretaryes Greeting;

    Whereas very many of our Subjects and of our late fathers of beloued Memory our Sour Lord James Late King of England by means of Lycence Royall; not onely with desire of Inlarging the Teretoryes of our Empire but Cheifflv out of a Pious and Religious affection and desire of propagateing the Gospell of our Lord Jesus Christ with Industry and expences haue Caused to be planted Larger Collonies of the English Nation in diuers prtes of the425 World altogether vnmanured and void of Inhabitants or Occupied of the barborus people that haue noe knowlidge of diuine Worshipp; wee being willing to prouide a Remedy for the tranquillitie and quietnes of those people and being very Confident of youer faith and wisdom Justice and prouident Sercomspection haue Constituted you the aforsaid Archbishop of Canterbery Lord Keeper of the [45] of the Great seale of England the Arch Bishop of York &:426 And any fiue or more of you our Comissioners; and to you and any fiue or more of you, wee doe Giue and Comitt power for the Gourment and safety of the said Collonies drawne or which out of the English Nation into these prtes heerafter shalbe drawne To make lawes Constitutions and ordinances prtaining either to the publick State of these Collonies or the private proffitt of them; and Concerning the Lands Goods debts and succession in those prtes and how they shall demean them selues towards fforraigne Princes or theire people or how they shall beare them selues towards vs and our subjects as well in any fforraige prtes whatsoeuer, or on the seas in those prtes or in theire Returne sayleing home; or which may prtaine to the Clargey Gourment or to the Cure of soules amongst the people there liueing and exercyseing trade In those prtes; by designeing out Congreuent prtions ariseing in tithes oblations and other things there according to youer sound descretions in politicall and Ciuell Causes; And by haueing the advice of two or three bishopps for the Cettleing makeing and ordering of the busines for the designing of Nessesary Eclesiasticall and Clargye portions which you shall Cause to be Called and taken to you; and to make prouisions against the violation of those lawes Constitutions and ordinances by Imposing penalies and mults Imprisoment if there be Cause, and the quallitie of the offence doe Require it; by deprivation of member or life to be Inflicted, with power alsoe; (our Assent being had) to Remoue and displace the Gournors or Rulers of those Collonies for Causes which to you shall seem law full; and others in theire stead to Constitute; and to Require an acount of theire Rule & Gourment and whom you shall find Culpable; either by deprivation from theire place or by Imposition of a mult vpon the Goods of them in those prtes to be leuied; or Banishment from those prouinces in which they haue bin Gour: or otherwise to Casheir according to the qvantitie of the offence and to Constitute Judges and Majestrates Polliticall and Ciuill for Ciuill Causes; and vnder the power and forme which to you fiue or more of you shall seeme expedient; and Judges & Majestrates and dignities to Causes eclesiasticall; and vnder the power and forme which to you fiue or more of you with the Bishopps: Vizgerents prouided by the bishopp of Canterbery for the time being shall seem expedient; and to ordain Courts Pretorian and tribuniall as well Eclesiasticall as Ciuill; [46]427 as Ciuill, of Judgments to determine of the forme and manor of proceeding in the same and of appealling from them in matters and Causes as well Criminall as Ciuill prsonall Reall and mixed; and to theire seates of Justice what may be equall and well ordered; and what Crimes faults or excesses of Contracts or Injuries ought to belonge to the Eclesiastieall Court; and what to the Ciuill Court and seat of of Justice,

    Prouided Neuertheles that the lawes ordinances and Constitutions of this kind shall not be putt in execution before our Assent be had thervnto in writing vnder our signett signed att least and this Assent being had and the same publickly proclaimed in the prouinces in which they are to be executed; Wee will and Comand that those lawes ordinances and Constitutions more fully to obtaine strength and be obserued and shalbe Inviolable of all men whom they shall Concerne;

    Notwithstanding it shalbe for you or any flue or more of you as afore said428 altho those Lawes & Constitutions shalbe proclaimed429 with our Royall order to Change Revoak and abrogate them and other New ones in forme aforesaid from time to time frame and make as aforesaid and to New euills arising or New dangers to apply New Remedies, as is fiting soe often as to you it shall seeme expedient; furthermore you shall vnderstand that wee haue Constituted you and euery fiue or more or you the aforesaid Arch Bishop of Canterbery Thomas Lord Couentry keeper of the Great seale of England Richard Bishop of Yorke Richard Earle of Portland Henery Earle of Manchester Thomas Earle of Arundell & Surry Edward earle of dorcett, ffrancis Lord Cottington Sir Thomas Edwards Knight Sir henery Vane Knight Sir ffrancis Windebank Knight our Comissioners to heare and determine according to youer sound descretions all manor of Complaints either against those Collonies or theire Rulers or Gours att the Instance of the prtyes greiued or att theire accusation brought Concerning Injuries from hence or from thence between them and theire members to be moued and to Call the prties before you; and to the prties or to theire procurators from hence or from thence being heard and full Complements of Justice to bee exhibited; Giueing vnto you or any fiue or more of you power that if you shall find any of the Collonies aforsaid or any of the Cheife Rulers vpon the Jurisdictions of others by vnjust posession or vsurpation, or one against another makeing430 Greiuance or In Rebellion against vs or withdrawing from our alligience or our Comaundements Not obeying, Consultation first with vs in that Case had; To Cause those Collonies or the Rulers of them for the Causes aforesaid; or for other Just Causes either to Returne to England or to Comaund them to other places designed; euen as according to youer sound descretions it shall seeme to stand with equitie and Justice or Nessesitie; Morouer wee doe Giue vnto you or any fiue or more of you power and especiall Comaund ouer all the Charters Letters Pattents and Rescripts Royall of the Regions Prouinces Ilands or lands in fforraign prtes Graunted for Raiseing Collonies to Cause them to be brought before you and the same being Receiued if any thinge; Surruptitious or vnduely haue bine obtained or that by the same privilidges Liberties and prerogatiues hurtfull to vs or to our Crowne or to fforraigne Princes haue bine prejudicially suffered or Graunted; The same being better Made knowne vnto you fiue or more of you; To Comaund them according to the Lawes and Customes of England to be Revoked; and to doe such other thinges which to the proffitt and safe Gard of the aforsaid Collonies; and of our subjects Resedent in the same shalbe Nessesarie, And ther fore wee doe Comaund you that about the prmises att dayes and times which for these thinges you shall Make prouision That you be dilligent in Attendance as it becometh you Giueing in preceipt alsoe [47] Alsoe and fermly Injoyning wee doe Giue Comaund to all and singular Cheiff Rulers of Prouinces431 into which the Collonies aforsaid haue bine drawne and Concerning the Collonies them selues and Concerning others that haue bin Interested therin that they Giue attendance vpon you; and be observant and obeidient vnto youer warrants in those affaires as often as and euen as in our Name they shalbe Required att theire prrill; In Testimony wherof wee haue Caused these our letters be made Pattent; Witnes our seale Att Westminster the 28th day of Aprill Anno Dom̄ 1634

    By writt from the privy seale;


    In Anno 1635 Mr Edward Winslow went for England; and being occationed to Answare som Complaints made against the Country att the Councell bord more Cheifley Concerning theire Naighbors in the Bay then themselues heer the which hee did to Good effect and further procecuting such things432 as might tend to the Good of the whole as well them selues as others, about wronges and Incroachments that the french and other Strangers had made; hee preferred his petition respecting the premises to the Right honorable the Lords Comissioners for the Plantations in America; the Contents whereof I willingly omitt heerwith to Insert as being not soe suitable to our present purpose; but rather to take Notice of such prticulars as were occationed thereby prtenent to our prsent worke

    In order whervnto the Reader may take Notice that the Petition Mr Winslow prefered respecting the prmises; was accepted with most of theire lordshipps and hee was heard Sundry times by them; and appointed further to attend433 for an Answare from them especially haueing vpon Conference with them; Proposed a way how the prticulars hee petitioned for, might be effected without any Charge or trouble to the State &c

    But this Crossed both Sir ffardinandoe Gorges and Capt. Masons and the Archbishopp of Canterberrys ends by them aimed att:434 for Sir ffardinandoe Gorges by the Archbishopps fauor, was to haue bin sent ouer Generall Gour into the Country and to haue had meanes from the State for that end and was now vpon dispatch and Conclusion of the busines; and the Archbishopps Purpose by this means and some hee should Imploy for that Purpose to be furnished with ePiscopall power to disturbe the peace of the Churches heer in New England, and to ouerthrow theire proceedings and further Grouth which was the thinge hee Aimed att; But it soe fell out by Gods Prouidence, That altho hee in the end Crosed this Petition from takeing any further effect in this Kind; yett by this as a Cheiffe Meanes the plott and whole busines &c Sir fardinandoe fell to the Ground and Came to Nothing; when Mr Winslow should have had his suite Graunted (as Indeed upon the Point it was) and should have bine Confeirmed the Archbisshop put a stopp vpon it; and mr Winslow thinking to Gett it freed went to the board againe But the Bishop Sir ffardinandoe and Capt. Mason had as it seems procured (Morton of whom mensioned is Made before, and his Abusiue Carriage) To Complaine To whose Complaints Mr Winslow Made answare to the Good Satisfaccion of the Auditers: viz Lords foremensioned whoe Checked the said Morton and rebuked him sharply; and alsoe435 blamed Sir fardinandoe Gorges and Mason for Countenanceing him; But the bishop had a further end and vse of his Presence for hee Now began to question Mr Winslow of Many things436 as of Teaching in the Church Publickely of which Morton Acused and Gave evidence that hee had seen and heard him to doe it;437

    of this Morton called Thomas Morton see more in New Englands Memoriall

    To which Mr Winslow Answared That somtime wanting a minnester hee did438 exercise his Gift to healp the edification of his bretheren when they wanted better meanes [48] which was not offtens,

    Then about Marriage which hee alsoe Confessed that haueing bine Called to place of Majestracy hee had sometimes married some, and further told thire Lordshipps, that Marriage was a Ciuill ordinance And hee found noe wher in the word of God, that it was tyed to minnestry, againe they were Nessesitated soe to doe; haueing for a longe time together att first noe minnester; besides; it was noe new thinge for hee had bin soe married himselfe in holland, by the Majestrate in theire Statehouse but in the end to be short, for these and such like thinges the Bishope by vehement Importunitie procured theire Lordshipps Consent to his Comittment; soe hee was Comitted to the ffleet and lay there 17 weekes (or thereabouts) before hee Could Gett a Releasment and this is the end of this Petition and this busines; onely the other designe was alsoe frusterated heerby with other things Concurring which was noe small blessinge to the Churches and people of God in New England,

    In Anno: 1637

    There arived one Samull Gorton att Boston and Came to Plymouth and vpon his first Comeing thether gaue hopes that hee would have proued a vsefull Instrument but soon after discouered himselfe to be a proud and pestilent seducer and deeply leauened with Blaspemous and familisticall opinions, and obserueing that some of his speritt were alreddy in the Country hee takes his oppertunity to sow some such seed att Plymouth wherby some were seduced in special one John Weekes and his wife whoe in some short time became very Atheists439 and were Cast out of the Church for theire abominable opinions; by which said damnable opinions seurall young folkes440 belonging to the Church had like to have been Carryed asside into the pathes of darknes, from Plymouth hee went to Rhod Island & his accomplices some of them, with him whoe were some of them Cast out for the said oppinions; wherof the Reader may haue a full Intelligence, as in the margeant you are directed

    Concerning Gorton see New Englands Memoriall folio 108 142/3.

    In some time (as I take it) after the aboue Named busines about Gorton; by Reason or occation of the before mensioned deuision and decention of the Church of Barnstable441 one of the Church of Plymmouth whoe was formerly a deacon therof; fell into the error of Anabaptistry442 and falling in with some of those that Carried on that Scismaticall deuison; att length was Called in qvestion by the Church; and Continewing in his obstanacye and seqvestration from the Church Comunion att times of sollemne worshipp was alsoe Cast out of the Church and soe Remaineth vntill this day;

    John p. 37443 Cooke

    This John Cooke although a Shallow man became a Cause of trouble and decension in our Church and Gaue Just occation of theire Casting of him out; soe that Sollomon words proued true in him that one Sinner destroyeth much Good444

    Not very longe after this, one Samuell hickes a member of the Church445 began to be vnsetled about seuerall of the ordinances of Jesus Christ; and qvestioned seuerall of them about baptising of Infants singing of Psalmes and seurall other prtitulars; which occationed the Calling of the Church together; and being destitute of any in Minnesteriall office they446 were Nessesitated to appoint seuerall of the ableest of the447 bretheren to Cleare vp the truth against the said qveryes; which Implyed opposition to the truth, and although as in the prouerbe it is ezier for a Child yea a foole to Cast Stones into a well then for a wise man to Gett them out;448 In which Respect it had ben better to haue qvelled and stiffled such qvestions Rather; then to haue disputed them;449 It being a Maxeme amonge logitians, that hee that denyes (and by like Reason) qvestions his principles is not worthy to be Reasoned with all, (as450 this unsettled man did) yett this occationed some good, for hereby the451 orthodox were put upon more strict enquiry452 into such grounds as the Lord in his holy word afords vs, for defence of his Sacred truthes and holy appointments, which I hope became proffitable in Rooting and Grounding them therin and although Notwithstanding there may appeer some weaknes in those answares that were made; yett the Lord was pleased to blesse them for the silenceing of such Cauills as did453 about those times arise from him and others; and to a more firmer establishment of454 many I hope in the present truth, and hopeing that some future Benifitt may Redound vnto surviueing Sainsts; if Noe otherwise yett that by the weaknes which Abler Christians may deserue in the prusall of those Answares they may be prouoked to Contribute theire healp as oppertunitie may present to more full and satisfactory Answares and therfore as followeth [49] haueing lately Receiued a Paper from our brother Samuell hickes Containing severall qveryes to the Number of455 14 in which hee Reqvireth a prticulare text of Scripture by vs to be produced for our practice wee haue Indeauored through the healp and Assistance of God, to Give our Grounds taken out of the Scriptures of truth Respecting the thinges by him mensioned as followeth

    1 Youer first Concerning Aposteles if you meane by Apostles such Apostles as the 12 Apostles of the lambe wee affeirme that there is Noe Ground to expect any such for these Reasons following

    1 Because those apostles of Christ were Called Imediately by the Lord Jesus and the name Given by him as appeers Luke the Sixt: 13; which by the way take Notice that it is presumption for any to assume that title; or for any to Call any soe but such as Christ hath soe Named; That such were Imediately Called will appeer by these Scriptures following 1 Gall: 1 mat: 10th: 2: mark 3:14:

    2 Reason taken from theire worke which was as Respecting other prticulars soe to beare witnes to the Resurrection of Christ Actes 1:22: as Christ appointed them actes 1:8: and yee shalbe witnesses vnto mee both in Jurusalem and in all Judea and Samaria and vnto the vtmost prtes of the earth; which agreeth with Actes 10: 39 and 40 41: 42; him God Raised vp the third day; and shewed him openly not to all the people but vnto witnesses Chosen before of God euen to vs whoe did eate and drinke with him after hee arose &c compare heerwith 1 Cor:9:1: and 15:18:

    3 Reason because they were Infallibly Assisted in declaring the mind of Christ soe as they Could not ere; and whatsoeuer they wrote or spake in the said prticulars were the Comaundements of the Lord Jesus Mathew 28: 20 1 Cor 11:23 and 14 Chap: 37 and whoseuer shall bringe any other Godpell hee shall Acursed Galla: 1:8: God alsoe bearing them wittnesses both with signes and wonders and Gifts of the holy speritt heb: 2:4: And as Concerning the 4th to the ephesians and the 12 &c though wee say that the Apostles are seased in theire prsons yett not in theire doctrines; To be short wee Conceaue of456 That text thus that all the457 Minnestryes are fruites of Christs assention; and doe still Continew for the prfecting of the saints Pastours and Teachers being prte of that Minnestry in the Church hath and doth still Injoy all the minnestryes Christ hath appointed for it which suiteth with458 Jude the 1 the faith once delivered to the saints and Jude 17: the prmises duely Considered there is Noe Nessesitie to expect any such459 for the foundation of the Christian Church is laid alreddy by the mr Builders 1 Cor: 3: 10: 11: heb: 6:1:

    Qur 2 What forme of460 Couenant the people of God made when they owned the truth in the primetiue times

    Answar That the Churches in the New Testament were Constitued by Couenant appeers in that the prmitiue Christians walked in holy fellowship together with Admonition and exclusion as occation Required which Nessesarily presuposeth a Couenant according to actes the461 second462 42: Acts the 9:26:

    2 how can two walk together except they be Agreed Amos 3:3:

    3 The destinction of Churches soe as the Church of Corenth was not the Church of ephesus and soe of the Rest; and the members of one Church were Not the Members of another Collo:4:12: Rom. 16:1: and vnto this agree that which wee haue Ps. 50:2: 2 Cron: 15:12:

    Query 3 Whether463 singing of Psalmes in a booke be a worshiping of God in speritt and truth seeing the Apostle saith singing in the speritt praying in the speritt 1 Cor: 14:15

    Answare Wee Answare that it is a Worshiping of God in speritt and truth Rightly to singe Psalmes: viz: Scripture Psalmes;

    1 Because the Matter of them is Sperituall appointed to be sunge as being Indited by the speritt of God and Named Psalmes himes and sperituall songes Ephe 5:19 Collo:3:16: [50]

    2 for the manor Respecting the Internall affection It is with Grace in our harts making mellodie to the Lord in our harts Ephe: 5:19: Collos: third 16:

    3 It is sperituall worshipp because it is Comaunded of God 2 Cron:29:30:

    4 Query if I may worshipp God in sperit & truth singing out a booke why may I Not worship God in praying out of a booke

    Answ: 1 by the way take Notice that wee Conceiue it to be a Great Contempt Cast upon the Scriptures of Truth to parraleel singing of Psalmes which are a prte of the holy Scriptures Indited by the holy Speritt of God with Invented formes of prayers printed in bookes made by wee know not464 whoe

    2. The proportion of this youer Consequence or Inference hold not; of praying and singing Respecting the externall action; for in prayer wee speake to God but in singing wee speake465 to466 ourselues and one another by Admonishing our selues and one another Collosi 3:16:

    If to singe be to pray; then euery one that singeth prayeth which Can not be respecting the externall acte of one467 or the other; for if one should be asked whoe cometh from a Congregation in468 Sperituall exercise what are they about; if hee should Answare they are praying, when they are singing would hee469 not be Judged by all to speake falsely; wee say respecting the externall acte onely; and soe by like Reason to say470 they are singing when they are praying; which were not soe Rediculus if to singe were to pray as the objecters; Asertion seemeth to Infer;

    3 The proportion holds not; in Respect of the externall actions of singing and praying because the Psalmes all of them are matter of Instruction; yee many of them471 are not in the Least deliuered prayer wise as Psalms 78:49:45: and Many others;

    5 qvery about Singing wherein a Scripture is Reqvired to proue a mixed Multitude singing doe worship God in speritt and truth seeing that it is said that the prayers of the wicked are abomination to the Lord;

    Answ: Wee say that that the Churches of Christ472 are Intire in theire worshipp, and actes of Sperituall473 worshipe may be prformed in A mixed Multitude Exod 15:1: Comp with exedo 12:38: and exodu: 14: last: 1 Cor: 14:23:24:25; And wee know not that the prsence of any such as you Name doth or Can defile the worship of God more in singing than in saying Amen to the prayer of the faithfull; or any other prte of sperituall worship such as are prophane are noe more prohibited from prforming actes of worshipp, by that Scripture you alledge then to Give ouer theire lawfull Callings because the plowing of the wicked is sin;

    2 Wee find in the holy Scriptures an Insightment vnto all to singe praises to God as Psalmes 100:1: and 117, and wher God Insights wee see Noe Reason to prohibite; Besides wee doe not qvestian but that many of those that are. Not in Actuall Comunion in Church order may and doe prforme many actes of sperituall worship, acceptable to God through Jesus Christ;

    6 Query about the Churches power to ordain theire owne officers;

    Answ: Wee Answare the Church hath eqvall power to ordaine as

    well as to elect theire owne officers election and ordaination are Joined together acts 14:23: what the Apostles did it is plaine they did it not without the Churches but with them; the Church elected the Apostles might acte with them in election as the Church acted with them in ordaination;

    2 It is in the Churches power to elect theire officers acts the sixt soe alsoe to ordaine being both encluded in that power Christ hath Giuen to his Church; otherwise election would be Rendered alto Gether fruitles and to noe purpose because election is presedent to ordaination and474 ordination noe other than a designation of the prson elected to his office;

    7 To the Next about ordination whether ordination be a bare Impty thing yee or Noe; wee Cannot but Maruell that our brother should make such a qvery; are any of Christs Institutions empty thinges ordination is noe475 empty thinge; yett laying on of hands in this Case noe such thinge that Confers476 Gifts to places and Callings vnto any; further then such an one being Rightly according to God Called and ordained in such a way as Christ hath appointed by prayer &c there may be expected a blessing of God vpon his owne appointment; [51]

    2 wee answare that Gifts and qvallifacations suitable to minnestrs477 of the Gospell befiting theire worke Can not be Confered by ordination because they are to be known before election478 to haue Gifts fitt for it and ordination; 1 tim: 3: 1 titus 7:

    Qvry 7 A Scripture to prove the baptising of Infants

    Answ: Wee Answare that Infants of beleiueing parents are to be baptised is Cleared by the Tenure of Gods Couenant made with the faithfull and theire seed as appeers Genesis 17th; which Couenant made with Abraham was the Couenant of Grace and of the Gospell Gall: 3:17479 and that this was the Couenant of the Gospell Appeers plainely because the seale of it: viz: Cercomsission is expressly Called the seale of the Righteousnes that is by faith Rom: 4:11 the promise is; that beleiuers; Now as the Infants of the Jewes were Capable subjects of Cercomsission in theire Infancy soe the Infants of beleiueing parents are fitt subjects for baptisme; which is the seale of the Righteousnes which is by faith the promise is to beleiuers and theire seed and to as many as the lord our God shall Call Actes the 2:39 Esai 65:23: 1 Cor:7th: 14: else were youer Children vnclean but now are they holy Rom: 11:16; if the Root be holy soe are the brances besides seuerall other places that proue480 the Churches both of Jewes and Gentiles*481 ephesi 3: 6: ephe: 2:16: John 10:16:482 wee demaund of those that Scruple this truth; lett them if they483 Can Giue vs one hint out of the Scriptures of Gods excluding such out of his Couenant as were once Included within the same; and if not how then dare any vndertake to doe it without Comission from God; Wee are Not wholly Ignorant that much hath bin spoken and written by many about this prticular which Giues vs to thinke that it is not so much want of Light as of Loue to the truth that occations this query att this time;

    * to be one body & prtakers of like Gospell privilidges

    8 Query A text to proue an officer of a pticular Congration to adminnester the seale of Baptisme

    Answ you might as well haue taken the other seale; for the Reason stands as well to Scruple484 the one as the other;

    That a minnester of a Congregation is to Adminnester the seales of the Couenant prticularly Baptismee; wee proue because it is to be dispenced by the minnestry that Christ hath Giuen to his Church mat: 28: last Apostles and evangelists were Christs minnestry and they baptise I Cor 1:14:: 16: Acts 8th thirtenth and: 38: prticular officers as Pastours and Teachers are Christs minnestry and therfore it is theire worke to baptise; Christs minnesters are to Baptise but Pastours and Teachers are Christs Minnesters Ephe 4:11 Therfore Pastours & Teachers are to Baptise

    2 it is the worke of Pastours and Teachers Minnesterially to feed the fflock is proued acts 20:28: now feeding Consisteth Not onely in preaching the word though principally but alsoe in Adminnestring the seales of the Couenant of Grace and otherwise alsoe; it being a Reall feeding to the Soule to haue the seale of Baptisme aplyed to it in such a way and by such a minnestry as Christ appoints: viz: Pastours and Teachers;

    9 Query; A Scripture for a man to take a text of Scripture for Carrying on the whole exercise;

    Answ Wee propose that text of our Sauiour his takeing the book of the Prophett Eaiah luke 4:17:18 Acts, and actes the second and actes 13: from the 16 &c 20th & acts the 7th if the questian hath Reference to such as exercise Not by office; wee answare for our prtes that wee Can scarce Gett one to healp att a time and it is Not likely; that two or three wilbe ordinarily prouided; but to Remove the scruple Respecting ourselues wholy out of doubt; if such as Scruple the Carrying on of an exercise by one if they be pleased to speak to edification on such a time as one or more may speak after; wee suppose, that none wilbe Greiued att it; [52]

    Quri 10 Wher wee haue a Scripture to proue that the world should be compelled to maintaine the Churches officers

    Ans. It is not knowne to be the Churches Judgment; and wee are sure it Neuer was theire Practice; and for vs to meddle in that which doth not Concerne vs wee should heerby declare our selues to be busy in that which is Needles as from vs;

    Query 11 A Scriptures that the officer of the Church should Stand vp to pronounce a blessing and whether Christ be Not the onely blesser of his People;

    Wee Answare by destinckson

    1 That Christ is the onely efficient and absolute blesser of his People wee willingly owne and that for that end hee was sent Actes the 3:26 being a prte of the office of Christ his preisthood to blesse vs by turning euery one of vs from our Iniquities;

    2 Wee owne a prophetticall pronounceation of blessing Gen 27 Gen: 49 dutrinomy 33: which wee Affeirme is seased and ended; with such times as in which such prophetts and Patriarkes liued as declared such blessings by way of prediction;

    3 More prticularly to the Case in hand wee affeirme there is a declaratiue blessing Implying and Carrying alonge with it a prayer for a blessing of God vpon the people according to 2 Cor: 13:14: Compared with heb: 13: 20: in which places with many others the Apostles declare wish vnto and pray for a blessing to the saints vnto whom they wrote theire Sacred Epistales; and vsually Closed them with the same exemplary to the Minnestry of the Gospell for the Closing and finishing; of theire Religiouse exercises;

    4 But more prticularly and expresse to the Case is that famous Presedent wee haue Numbers the sixt 24:25:26: where by divine Institution; the Preists the sones of Aron Called the Minnesters of the Lord Joell the second; and 17th are Comaunded to blesse in a treble declaration therof; wherin is couched a deuine Mistery of the holy trenity suitable to what wee haue 2 Cor: 13: last: the Grace of our Lord485 Jesus Christ the loue of God and the Comunion of the holy speritt; further lett the fornamed Numb:6:23: be seriously Considered in the expressions on this wise yee shall blesse the Children of Israeli saying vnto them; which vndoubtedly must be att theire holy Convocations; when Congregated in the Name of the Lord; for Religious worship for how Could the Preists blesse them and say vnto them; vnlesse Congregated486 together and what time more Convenient then att the Periode of Religiose exercises; when God hath mett with his people and blessed them there for the minnesters of Christ to487 pronounce488 them blessed and they shalbe blessed;

    But if objection should be made that this was Cerimoniall and tipifyed Christ the high Preist of his Church whoe blessed his People as aforsaid wee Answare that although the Preists of old were tipes of Christ and in sundry of theire adminnestrations Tipicall yett they were Really the minnesters of God in theire times as hath bin proued; alsoe in diuers prticulares exemplary in theire practices to the minnesters of the Gospell; there being489 Many thinges in Comon to be practised as Comon to them both; in Adminestrations490 as minnesters of God as Prayer preaching of the word and soe alsoe that manor of blesing of which wee haue bin treating

    Lastly incase the minnesters of Christ should be prohibited to pronounce and declare and pray for a blessing on the people of God in such sort; this were to straighten the times of the Gospell; and the fulnes of the blessings491 therof; and to make them Inferior to the times of the law in this Respect; vnder which the blessings of the Gospell were vaild492 vnder darke shaddowes; [53]

    Query 12 A Scripture for any to sett vp a vissible Church and ordinances without a minnestry sent from God to fitt them and Call them to that worke;

    Answar that none May soe doe is a truth in A true sence viz that none may sett vp a Church worship or ordinances vnlesse seing themselues fited prepared and Called by the doctrines of the Propetts and Apostles whoe were extreordinarily Inspired from on high and Comissionated to teach the saints whatsoeuer Christ the Lord has appointed them Matt 28 is a manifest truth and for any to practice otherwise then by direction of those493 Master Builders were high presumption; But if wee haue Moses and the prophetts Christ and his Apostles theire doctrines and directions to be our Guides in the premises which wee judge to a most sure way for vs to Attend; Rather then to expect men extreordinarily Inspired or any such as may or doe pretend to be Indowed with Apostollicall Gifts and Revelations being wee haue soe sure a word of prophesie to Guid vs in such work; whervnto if wee take heed wee shall vndoubtedly doe well; wee might add that for many ages the saints have not wanted diuers exelent Instruments of which many might be Named whoe vndoubtedly were Raised vp of God and; and directed by his word and speritt and haue bin preciouse Lights in Goeing before the saints in such worke although not pretending to and boasting of Apostollicall Gifts and Reuelations;

    To the Question about the Sabbath as followeth

    That wee keep it by Comaundement of men wee detest as that which is abominable and our soules hate; to keep the seauenth prte of time wee owne that it is according to Gods Comaund; and whether you Call it the sabbath the first day of the weeke or the Lords day wee owne them as suitable tearmes according to Scripture

    Respecting the time in qvestian; That the Lords day or first day of the weeke is a Rest to be observed and kept by the saints vnder the Gospell; by diuine Institution; wee shalbe able to proue by primitiue Pateren taken out of the New Testiment as you desire And first for the variouse denominations of the time which is threefold; Wee find in first of Cor: 16:2: Called the first day of the weeke; and actes the 20th–7th: Called the Lords day 1 Reue 10th) Called a Sabbath Mat: 24:20: in this Last Called a sabbath; which must Needs be the same with the Lords day and first day of the week the Churches meeting day and day of Rest and not the Jewes sabbath viz: the seauenth day; for the ffleight heer foretold by Christ was Longe after the Gospell494 ordinances were established and that this was spoken to Christians Not to Jewes (as Jewes) but to his desiples verse the third for hee taught them att that time495 as Coming vnto him secretly; and it was a warning vnto them to be prepared before hand; and therfore to pray that theire fflight might not be in the winter nor on the sabbath day; for they must expect to be put to ffleight496 and otherwise euilly Intreated for the Name of Christ as verse the third: 4:9:25: and 26 with luke the 22:12:

    2 in that our Sauiour saith pray yee makes it plaine that hee speakes of Christians

    3 The time of his Sermon in which this warning and exhortation was Giuen: viz: it being Neare to his suffering att which time it is altogether vnlikely that he would prouide for the establishment of the Jewish Cerrimonyes * which ere longe were to be abollishment; it being one of the most waighty prticulars which Christ spake of which there were many that hee vttered a little before his suffering and therfore exhorts them to pray that theire ffleight might not be in the winter nor in the sabbath day as that which would be Most sad to be soe disturbed; when497 and att such time as appointed for theire Religious exercyses they should be Constrained to ffly;

    * on the sabbath obserued by the Jewes

    Now to proue this first day and our Lords day: viz:498 our Christian Sabbath to be off499 Gods Institution wee must first doe it by the Great workes of Christ Concerning Mans Redemption; for as God when hee had ffinished his Great [54] work of Creation in six dayes Rested the seauenth and sanctifyed it as to be a Sabbath; soe in Allusion heervnto it is that the auther to the heb:4:10: saith that Christ Rested from his worke: viz: of our Redempsion as God did from his;

    2 That day Christ by his Resurrection from the dead is declared to be the head of his Church yee the Cheiffe stone of the Corner; salm 118:22:23: It being the day the lord hath made verse 24:

    3 The frequent Assemblyes of the saints for Religiouse exercises on the500 first day of the week as actes 20th: 7: 1 Cor: 12:2: Reuel: 1:10: Pathmosse did noe more501 denote a prticulare and knowne Iland and John a Certain and knowne prson then did the lords day a Certaine and Knowne day especially vnto Christians to whom the Apostle wrote; for if it had the Name of the day from the vision then appeering to him and of the speciall manifestation of Gods mind and of Gods Coming in vnto him on that behalf; how should the seauen Churches of Asia Clearly distinguish of the time according to Johns Intension by telling them hee was Rauished in speritt on the lords day these prticulars Considered wee Conclude that the Lords day soe called Rev: 1:12 is the same with the first day of the week being the day the Lord hath made and appointed to be obserued by vs Christians;

    This day wee proue was kept and obserued by the Apostles of Christ and Imployed in a speciall prte of theire Masters busines; Now whatsoeur they Receiued by way of Comision from) the Lord they haue deliuered vnto vs and wee bound to obserue but the Apostle Paule 1 Cor: 16:2 by Apostollycall Comaund Injoynes the Contribution for the poor saints in Siria euen as hee apointed in other Churches to be on that day therfore &c:

    If this prticular Respecting Contribution must be obserued by Apostollicall Comaund much more the time for that and all other publicke and Religious exerises ought to be by Apostollicall Comaund obserued as502 is appointed in the fore quoted503 place; 1 Cor: 16:2:

    Wee proue this day to be obserued Sabbattically by Apostolicall Comaund504 because that it was Neuer lawfull nor in the power of any Church or people to sett apart a day to bind all505 mens Consiences to the obseruation therof which; if not Graunted Respecting the Lords day wee ezely see what will follow if that day be att our Christian libertie as some say then it will follow that it being att the libertie of a Church to make Choics of the first day for theire sollome Meetinges; and if any other societie will mak Choise of the fift sixt or seauenth: which they may by like libertie that the former made Choise of the first;

    And hence it will follow that a societie acteing to this506 supposed libertie, that which is euery ones libertie the Generall Can not take from the prticulars, Therfore if one two fiue or more think it Not Good to keep such a day theire Consiences are not bound they may vse another day if it suits beter with them and theire occations and soe it is ezely descerned That if wee had Not a time by Gods Appointment that this pretended libertie of a day to be Arbetrary att Mens Choise for Religious worshipp will Neuer satisfye a Consiensous Christian that is Grounded on the Scriptures of truth;

    But besides this vnauoidable Confusion of Leaueing such time Arbetrary to the will of man to bind Consience to the obseruance of it soe as the seauenth day of old and the first day of the weeke Now is more then God allowed to any people In keeping of the first day or any other by vertue of our owne appointment Meerly is superstition and Papisticall and Parralell: with the feast that Jeraboam in the eight month and the fifteenth day therof kept of which wee Read 1 kinges 12:32:33: which was lik that which was obserued in Judah which hee is Charged to hau deuised it of his owne hart; thus men may keep a day which is Really the Lords day but if they obserue it as Arbetrary att theire owne507 wills it may be but a deuise of theire owne harts; [55]

    Wee Read of dayes in Scripture appointed to be obserued by the Comaund; of God; And wee Read of dayes on some accompt wee ought to keep by Christian libertie as wee haue oppertunitie such a Good day Esra 9:17:18:19 soe answarable amongst Christians now when God Calles to sollem humilliation and thanksgiueing the same may and ought to be kept: euen such dayes when Called therto508 yett those are not holy dayes It is popery for men to putt soe much vpon the day Butt that time wee Call509 the Lords day or sabbath it is a holy day sett apart by God and that makes it holy Now to Cleare vp our meaning heerin take Notice of these three prticulars

    This will shew a vast difference betwixt observeing a day by Gods Comaund and such as are agreed on by Christians either in whole or Prte;

    1 deputation

    2 dedication

    3 sanctification

    first wee may depute such a time or such a place to spend an houre or two to heare a Sermon and yett this time place or &c: is not made holy by it it is deputed but Not made holy Now a Creature is Not made holy meerly by being made vse of att an holy exercyse; as suppose I Goe to Read the holy Scripture I make vse of a Candle to Read it by I doe not Make the Candle holy by it because I make vse of it; if the makeing vse of a Creature in a holy duty did make the Creature holy then it would follow Generally in all dutyes I make vse of the light and aire when I am Reading and speaking holy things in publick Assemblyes I doe not make them holy soe I make vse of this houre to preach in though I make vse of in a holy duty I make it noe further holy then510 a man doth his spectacles hee vseth to Read the Scriptures by; Now deputation is puting a part of such a time for such a worke; and thus farr Goe they whoe obserue a day by theire libertie

    2condly dedication that is when I Giue a thinge out of my owne proper for a Piouse vse that I can not make vse therof againe for an other end as when a man hath Giuen soe much of his estate to such or such pious vses hee hath devoted it to such an end and soe that hee Can not make vse of it (without sin) to another end;511 wee doe not soe by setting a part a time for preaching soe as wee can not without sin make vse of it to another end; and soe if a people sett apart a time for humilliation; it may fall out that the time may be sett apart for thanksgiueing if Gods prouidence Change512 and that without sin and soe for preaching wee may alter the time from twelue to three;513 and soe further if wee Attend noe514 houre that day to heare a Sermon if occations Calls men515 otherwaies; but if wee haue dedicated or Giuen out of our owne power It Can not be Changed by vs; this is beyond the other yett Not sanctifying

    Now Sanctifycation is when any Creature or time is soe sett apart for holy thinges as it must not be vsed in Any thinge but that which is holy; and though the same holy actions be don att516 another time they shall not be517 accoumpted soe holy as att this time This is proper sanctification; and the setting appart of any day thus518 that is such a day as God Giues mee to make vse of for my occations if I shall sett it apart for such a busines and put more holines in the actions then prformed then the same actions pformed att an other time I sanctify time to my selfe; but thus wee Can not doe without sin:

    Now these two thinges are in our Lords day of Gods appointment [56] and Indeed in all thinges that are accompted holy by God

    1 It is a sin to make vse of that any otherwise then God hath appointed it

    2 The actions done then are more acceptable then if the same thinges had bin done att another time yee wee shall find it soe spoken Concerning the day of Attonment which was a day appointed of God if they had fasted vpon another day it was Not soe acceptable because that day was Gods appointment;519 By this you may see that wee put a vast difference between a day of Gods appointment and what man appoints; and soe for the Change of the day from the seauenth to the first Changable by the law Giuer whoe was Lord of the sabbath; The Christian primitiue patteren by Comaund from Christ and his holy Apostles the Master builders of his Church whom following in this and other prtes of our Christian profession wee shall haue wherwith to satisfy our Consiences being prswaded that as it is onely in the power of God and his son Christ to appoint what day hee will to be obserued as a sabbath soe it is too much boldnes in any man to say either to Christ in Comaunding or to any Christian in practiceing wherfore doest thou thus;

    And soe I haue Issued Matters Relateing to these Queries and Answares; this poor vnsettled man fell yett further and further, and att last became a qvaker; and about the Indian warr time hee died.

    I may not omitt to520 Insert somthing in this place before I draw towards a Conclusion Concerning that worthy servant of Jesus Christ mr John521 Reyner somtimes Teacher of this Church haueing touched somthing Concerning him before

    hee serued Christ in the office of Teacher about eighten yeers being Assisted therin by mr Tho: Cushman Elder in Great faithfulnes and with much Industry being largely Indowed with Gifts suitable to soe worthy a worke; and might haue Continewed522 much longer therin to the Glory of Christ and Comfort of the saints had not sin and Sathans mallice hindered The vnhappy difference that fell out in the Church of Barnstable had such an ill Influence into the Church of Plymouth as that it; Together with the vnsettlednes of the Church and Going away of diuers of this Church yee of the eminentest of them was a meanes of vnsettlement to this holy man of God and althoe much blame may bee Layed to the people about his Removall yett himselfe Can not be wholy excused But the breach was soe Great by the leaueing of the Church as it is to be feared will neuer be made vp againe especially Considering the Insensible ffraun523 att that time on those whoe were Concerned therin; both in Respect of sin that caused it, and in Respect of our losse of him which ought to haue bin more layed to hart then it524 was; hee left Plymouth in the month of Nouember 1654: and went to Boston where hee Continewed that winter and Came the springe following in a way of visitt and would haue bin ezely prswaded to Come againe if the people would haue Condecended to a proposition525 made by him; But they then haueing aprise had526 not a hart but aded to former sin by theire Neglect of this tender of Mercye527 being diuers of them Tainted with the then epidemicall deseas of som prte of the Country about that time; viz a slight esteem of an able minnestry; the Summer following hee was Invited to douer on Pascattaqva River and thither went and was Called to minnesteriall office there wherin hee Continewed vntil his death; hee was an able faithfull laboriouse preacher of the Gospell; and a wise orderer of the affaires of the Church hee was singularly Indowed with a Gift and propence vpon his speritt to traine vp children in a Cattikettical way in the Grounds of Christian Religion; soe that by losse of him Ignorance Inseued in the Towne of Plymouth amongst the; voulgare and alsoe much lysensiousnes and prophanes amongst528 the younger sort, in a word this worthy leader was Richly accomplished with such Gifts and qvallifications as were befiting his place being wise faithfull Graue sober a louer of Good men Not Greedy of the matters of the world Armed with much faith patience529 and meeknes mixed with Currage for the cause of God; hee finished his Course att douer aforsaid and was there honorably buried in the month of Aprill in530 the yeer531 1669: Whoe is; that ffaithfull and wise Steward whom his Lord when hee Cometh shall find soe doeing; Mat:24:46: [57]

    Before I passe on to Contract matters ymeadiatly Relateing to the Church of Christ att Plymouth, lett mee Craue leaue a little to digresse; and breifley to memorise somthing Concerning that worthy Church of Christ att Bridgwater whoe in a second Respect alsoe sprange out of the Church of Plymouth being first of duxburrow; and seated themselues att about 20 miles from thence att the place where they now are and doe Carry on in a way of peace holines and Good Gospell order soe as is exemplary to the saints and Churches Round about them being Garnished with Comly ornaments of able Graue and faithfull officers and liuely holy and well Improued members haueing for theire Pastour Mr James Keith who Came by the wise disposing hand of God out of Scotland532 whom the said Church Chose to be theire Pastour being acompanied533 with a fellow healper in the Eldershipp named mr Wiliam Brett a Gaue and Godly man; and haueing A goodman and one that hath approued himself faithfull in the office of a deacon; Named John Willis; whoe Notwithstanding some Interuption that befell them some smale time before the pening heerof yett goe on in peace and with Comfort; with some mixture of sadnes as fearing the effect of theire beloued Pastour forenamed; his being in weaknes of body; wherby hee is disabled in his publick adminnestrations for prsent;

    of Bridgwater

    But to Return where wee left on the othersyde, with the departure of Good mr Rayner by death

    Soon after whose departure to douer and noe hopes of his Returne to take place amongst; this poor forlorne fflock of Christ Groning vnder the want of Gospell ordinances wee made many tryalls for a supply Improueing therin the healpe of the Reuernd Elders of the churches of Christ in the Massachusetts Bay; and by diuers sollisitations att sundry times534 seuerll Messengers were sent to them and the said Church Craueing theire best healp for a supply; but Could not obtaine any healp Notwithstanding theire said Indeauers which535 alsoe were accompanied with fasting and prayer frequently; Continueing in this Condition for the space of about nine yeers; yett it is to be Remembred with thankefullnes vnto the lord both by vs surviveing and others of this Race that may536 surviue that the lord did not wholly desert his Church but vpheld them in a Constant way of537 publick worship euery lords day soe as to my Remembrance there did not one sabbath pas without two publick meetings in which the word of God was dispenced either by some of the Naighboring Minnesters; or and that more frequently and Constantly by538 our beloued Elder mr Thomas Cushman and some other brethern; the prenciple wherof were our then Surviueing and much honored Gour: mr Wiliam Bradford and his son in law Captaine Thomas Southworth a man Rarely Indowed both in Sacred and Ciuill Respects; and haueing Named him; and haueing alsoe spoken formerly Competently of the worth of that worthy servant of Christ forenamed: viz: mr Wiliam Bradford539 I shall stepp aside a little to Informe the Reader in the worth of this blessed saint whoe ended his life in the yeer 1669 after a longe time of540 affliction vnder which hee Carryed with much patience and Cherefullnes; hee was largly Indowed with a qvick apprehension and Good expression and of a Cherfull fram of speritt and loueing vnto all with humillitie and familliaritie as occation was towards all sorts of prsons but principally loued the saints; but more especially those that were most eminent in Grace; and Reuerenced and delighted in a Godly able minnestry hee had Attained to a Great Measure of vnderstanding in the Mistery of Jesus Christ of ffaith in him and liueing vp vnto him; and the Lord was pleased a little before his death to speake much peace to his soule in assureance of his loue through Christ Jesus; hee delighted in Cenceritie and was of an vnbiased Justice in all his actinges especially as to Majestraticall Respects; hee was not eger to seeke Great thinges for himself; hee was Instrumentall to both Court Church and Towne in which Respects all will dearly want him; haueing a Good abillitie to teach publickly hee was frequently Improued on that service; and the last time hee was att the publicke meeting on the lords day; hee exercised out of the 18th of Genesis 19:541 and finished his Course with much peace and Joy in beleiueing on the 8th of december 1669 [58]

    See New Englands Memoriall page 145 146: &c:


    But to Returne;

    It pleased the Lord to mix much Mercye with542 our affliction in the time of our vacancye of Minnestry not onely to healp vs to Carry on the worship of God but to healp vs alsoe to Conflict with some Considerable opposition; not onely from those whoe were of our owne before Named but in that time alsoe the prnisious sect of those Called Quakers arose whoe seuerall times Came to our Towne; and had speech with seuerall of vs and endeauored to broach theire Cursed oppinions amongst vs; yett soe Graciously it pleased our Good God to dispose that although wee were destitute of any officially, to oppose these Gainsaiers yett of his Grace, soe to healp vs by his holy speritt to vnderstand and Improue his Good word; that none of vs were leauened with theire fixions or fantacyes; noe not soe much as any of our Towne (saue one family) which I desire may frequently be Remembred with humble thanksgiueing vnto the Lord by our selues and by others of the saints in our behalfe;

    But as before expressed It pleased the Lord in that time of our soe Great and sperituall wants to hold vp our harts in an earnest desire of Minnestry and to put forth in Answarable Indeauors to procure the same; and wee had some answare and obtained some healp somtimes in preaching the word amongst vs prtely by one Mr James Williams; whoe was an able Gospell preacher; wee had hopes att his first Coming of his Continuance amonst vs; but hee soon left vs and went for England; In like manor mr Wiliam Brinsmead a well accomplished servant of Christ Came to vs and was with vs one winter but att last saw Cause alsoe to leaue vs; and soe as yett wee Remained as sheep without a Shepard vntill att Length It pleased the Lord to send amonst vs mr John Cotton the son of mr John Cotton that famouth Gospell Preacher; somtimes Teacher of the first Church of Christ att Boston; the said mr Cotton Junir was a man of stronge prtes and Good Abillities to preach the word of God; whoe after some time spent amongst vs was Chosen our Pastour and hath Continewed in that place amonst vs for the space of ten yeers and vpwards att the writing heerof; from whom wee haue Receiued many very proffitable truthes; and whoe ought to be the subject of our prayers that the Lord would Inspire him more and more with his holy speritt soe as hee may be an Instrument of his praise that soe by soundnes of doctrine and Cenceritie of Conversation hee may be Inabled Instrumentally to saue his owne soule and the soules of those that haue or may heare him;

    Robert ffinney and Ephraim Morton deacons

    And now lett the Reader take Notice. that the lord hath built this Church and preserued it543 in Gospell order and holy proffession of his truth this threescore and twelue yeers; twelue yeers in holland and threescore yeers in New England and hath Carryed it through many daingers sorrowes prsecutions and oppositions; soe as it Remaines althoe (much Inferiour to its first544 begining) yett a church of Jesus Christ; haueing many Names in it whoe haue Not defiled theire Garments whoe Noe doubt butt will walk with Christ in white Rayment for they are worthy Reuelati 3:4: yee the Lord In former times hath made it an Insightment and directory vnto others both in this Collonie and other Collonies in this land blessed be his holy name for the same The Consideration wherof Induceth mee to leaue a few words of exhortation first to such of the Riseing Generation as are Related to the Church that they would make Good theire leaders Ground by followeing theire stepps in the wayes of Christ in an holy and vnblamable life and Conversation and to Indeauor to walke in all the wayes and ordinances of God without Reproffe [59]

    luke 1:6:

    And the Rather lett this exhortation be Considered because soe many of the Rising Generation walk off from God and Neglect the Couenant which theire fathers made with him545 there seemes to be such a declinsion from the wayes of God appeering as wee Read of Judges 2:10: speaking of Israell; “and soe all the Generation was Gathered vnto theire fathers; and another Generation arosse after them which neither knew the lord; nor the workes which hee had don for Israell” &c:

    2 Forasmuch as there seemes to appeer such a darke Cloud546 ouer the Christian world;547 which prtends a day of trouble and prsecution for the Name of Christ; that soe wee would walk in following the lord fully in an Constant holy and vnblamable proffession of his Gospell; keeping the word of his Patience that soe wee may be kept from the hour of temptation which is probably Coming vpon all the world Reue: 3:10: And soe Induring to the end wee may be saued: 24:548 mat: 13:

    Now vnto him that hath built and prserued this Church and all the Churches in this Land and through out the world; though in troblesom times whoe549 is the man that is Called the branch; whoe hath doth and will build550 the Temple of the Lord and hee shall beare the Glory

    Zach: 6: 12: 13

    Daniel: 9:24 25

    Now vnto him be Glory in the Church throuout all Ages world without end Amen

    My earnest Request to those that shall Succeed both the Elders and Bretheren of this Church that they would be Carefull to Comitt to writing such future passages of Gods dispensations, as shall in the visissitude of his Good Prouidence Come to pas in succeeding times of and Conserning eclesiasticall Considerations in speciall that soe theire May be a succession of Renewed and various occations of praiseing God and the following Generations may haue the vse and benifitt of the; same the Good Lord be551 pleased to speritt one or other of his servants for this soe Good a worke

    Lett the Reader take Notice that att the writing of this smale history there are fourscore Churches in Gospell order in New England Magar the Mallice of men and diuells; soe Greatly is the honor of the King of kinges our Lord Jesus advanced by the Multitude of his subjects552 in New England & wee doubt not but there are Many Blessed saints in the Land which are fitt to be layed and placed in the Lords building the Lord adde vnto his Churches from day to day such as shalbe Saued; [60553] [61]

    Godly and Consiencious Reader

    Itt is a Great part of the happines of heauen that the saints in Celestiall Glory are and shalbe all of one mind; and it is Not vnprobably Gathered by the Learned that when the Lord shalbe one and his Name one; there shalbe a Joynt Concurrence of the saints, in and about the matters of God; in the mean time it is Noe smale Greiffe to euery modest Moderate minded Christian; to see such discord amongst the best of saints, wheras if the Ground of the difference were somtimes well Scaned, it would appeer to be more in Cercomstance then in substance; more Nominall or Respecting Names or abusiue Names Giuen; then in substantial Reallities; Reuerend mr Manton in his Sermon before the honorable house of Comons; saith the diuill geteth Great advantages by Names amongst vs554 Christia[ns] as Lutherans Caluenists Presbeterians Independants Inventing (saith hee) either such as may555 tend to Contempt or derision as of old Christians of Late puritans; or to tumult and deuision as those Names amongst vs, vnder which the Members of Christ sadly Gather in to bodyes and prties Lett mee adde heervnto; That the mischiffe of this alsoe appeered when light sprange out of darknes of Popery; Then the Godly were forced to sustaine the Name of Puritanes and the Nicke Name of Brownests soe as many of the Godly in our Nation Lay in obscuritie vnder Contempt of those Names; and afterwards as Light appeered Notwithstanding became one in the profession & practice of the truth, Respecting the Kingly office of Christ wherin they seemingly differed; but a little before; both in New England and in old England But yett soe as som estrangednes Remaines amongst those although that in the maine and substance of things they are of one mind and with onenes of hart and mouth doe serue the Lord; and doe agree in and about the matters of the Kingdome of Christ on earth; yee and I doubt not but som such of them as were of556 the eminentest on both sydes whoe are now departed this life doe agree and haue sweet Comunion with each other in theire more Nobleer prte in Glory; I haue lately mett with a plaine Well Composed and vsefull dialogue; Pened by that honored Pateren of Piety Willam Bradford Esqr: late Gour of the Jurisdiction of New Plymouth Collonie which occationally treats som thing of this Mater together with and In defence of such as I may without Just offence tearme martires of Jesus; and In defence of the Cause they suffered for; it being noe other in effect but what our Church and the Churches of Christ557 in New England doe both professe and practice I will not defend558 Neither doth hee all the words that might fall from those blessed soules in defence of the truth whoe suffered soe bitterly as they did from such as ere while; if I mistake Not, were forced to ffly into Germany for the Cause of God in Queen Maryes dayes and Returned againe in the happy Raigne of Queen Elizabeth and turned Prelates and bitter prsecutors, this thinge Considered,559 and other thinges; alsoe if some passages that fell from them560 might haue bin spared; yett in Many thinges wee all offend, and oppression will make a wise man madd saith Sollomon such Cercomstantiall weaknes will not vnsaint a Christian; Nor Render him noe Martire; if his Cause be Good, as you will find it to be by the Pruseing of this dialogue I doubt not; but lett it speake for it self; Gentle Reader I hope thou wilt obtaine a Cleare Resolution about diuers things whereof Posibly thou wert In doubt of formerly Respecting the prmises; In the Transcribing wherof I haue taken the best Care I Could to preuent offence and to procure acceptance if any561 good Comes therof lett God haue all the praise [62]

    Zache: 14:9

    these differences were prtely blowne vp amongst these Christians by the Names of Brownest and Puritans

    mr henery Barrow mr John Greenwood mr John Penery [m]r Wiliam denis Coppin:562 and Elias563 and seuerall others that suffered much tho not put to death

    A Dialogue564

    or the sume of a Conference between som younge men borne in New England and sundery Ancient men that came out of holland and old England Anno dom̄ 1648

    Gentlemen you were pleased to appoint vs this time to Confer with you and to propound such questians as might Giue vs satisfaction in some thinges wherin wee Are Ignorant or att least further light to som thinges that are more obscure vnto vs our first Request therfore is to know youer minds Concerning the true and simple Meaning of those of the separation as they are tearmed; when they say the Church of England is noe Church or noe true Church;

    Young men

    ffor Answare heervnto first you must know that they speak of it as it then was vnder the hirarcicicall prelacye which since haue bin put downe by the State, and not as it is Now vnsettled;

    Ancient men

    2 They noe where say that wee Remember that they are noe Church; att Least they are not soe to be vnderstood; for they often say the Contrary;

    3 When they say it is noe true Church of Christ they doe not att all mean as they are the elect of God or a prte of the Catholique Church or of the misticall body of Christ or visible Christians professing faith and holines (as most men vnderstand the Church) for which purpose hear what mr Robinson in his Apollogye565 page 58: if by the Church saith hee) be vnderstood the Catholique dispersed vpon the face of the whole earth; wee doe willingly acknowlidg that a singulare prte therof and the same visible and Conspicuous is to be found in the land; and with it doe professe and practice what in vs lyes Comunion in all things in themselues Lawfull and don in Right order;

    41y Therfore they meane it is not a true Church as it is a Nationall Church Combined together of all in the land promisiquously vnd the hirarchicall Gourment of archbisshopps theire Courts and Canons soe farr differing from the primetiue patteren; in the Gospell

    Wherin doe they differ then from the Judgment or practice of our churches heer in New England;

    Young men

    Truly for matter of practice Nothing att all that is in any thinge materiall these being Rather more strict and Ridged in some proceedings about admission of Members and things of such Nature then the other; and for matter of Judgment it is more (as wee Conceiue in words and tearmes then matter of any Great substance; for the Churches and Cheiffe of the minnesters heer hold that the Nationall Church soe Constituted and Gourned as before is said, is not allowable566 according to the prmitiue order of the Gospell; but that there are some Parrish Assemblyes that are true Churches by vertue of an Implissed Couenant amongst them selues in which Regard the Church of England may be held and Called a true Church;

    Ansient men

    Answare Wher any such are euident (wee suppose the other will not disagree about an Implised Couenant if they mean by an Implissed Couenant that which hath the substance of a Couenant in it some way descernable though it be Not soe formall or orderly as it should be But such an Implised as is Noe way explised is Noe better then a popish Impliced faith (as some of vs Conceiue) and a meer fixion or as that which should be a Marriage Couenant; which is noe way explissed [63]

    Wherin standeth the difference between the Ridged Brownists and Separatist and others as wee obserue our Minnesters in theire writings and Sermons to distinguish them;

    Young men

    The Name of Brownists is but a Nicke Name as Puritant and hugonite &c: and therfore; they doe Not amise to decline the odivm of it in what they may but by the Ridgednes of Separation they doe not soe much meane the difference for our Churches heer in New England doe the same thinge vnder the Name of Sessetion from the Corruptions found amongst them as the other did vnder the Name or tearme of separation from them; onely this declines the odivm the better; see Reuerend mr Cottons Answare567 to mr Bayley page the 14;

    Ancient men

    As that some which were tearmed Separatists out of some mistake and heate of Zeale forbore Comunion in lawfull thinges with568 other Godly prsons as prayer and hearing of the word as may be seen in what that worthy man Mr Robinson hath published in dislike therof;

    Wee are well satisfyed in what you haue said but they differ alsoe about Sinods

    Young men

    It is true wee doe not know that euer they had any sollomne Sinodicall Assembly and the Reason may be that those in England liueing dispersed and Could not meet in theire ordinary meetings without danger much lesse in569 Synods neither in holland where they might haue more libertie were they of any Considerable Number being but those two Churches That of Amsterdam and that of Leyden; yett some of vs know that the Church sent Messengers to those of Amsterdam; att the Request of some of the Cheiffe of them both Elders and bretheren,* *When in theire desentions they had deposed mr Ainsworth and some other both of theire elders & bretheren mr Robins: being the Cheiffe of the messengers sent which had that good effect as that they Revoaked the said deposition and Confessed theire Rashnes and errour and liued together in peace some good time after570 but when the Churches want Neither peace Nor light to exercise the power571 which the Lord hath Giuen them Christ doth not direct them to Gather into Synods for Chassicall meetings for Remoueing of knowne offences either in doctrine Nor manors; but onely sendeth to the Pastours or presbiters of each Church to Reforme within themselues what is Amongst them Reuelation Chapt: 2cond and Chapi 3: a Plaine Patteren saith mr Cotton in his Answare to mr Bayley page 95 in Case of publick offences tollerated in Naighbour Churches; Not forth with to Gather into a Synod (for Classicall meeting for Redresse therof but by letters and messengers to Admonish one another of what is behooffull vnlesse vpon such admonishion they Refusse to harken to the wholsom Councell of theire bretheren; and of this matter mr Robinson thus Writeth in his book Justi: page 200:572 The officers of one or many Churches may meet together to discusse and Consider of matters for the Good of the Church or Churches; and soe be Called a Church Synod; or the like soe they Infringe Noe order of Christ or libertie of the bretheren; not differing heerin from mr Dauenport and the principall of our Minnesters;

    Ancient men

    Butt they seem to differ about the exercise of Prophesye that is that men out of office haueing Gifts may vpon occasion edify the Church publickly and oppenly and applying the Scriptures which seemes to be a New practice;

    Young men

    1 It doeth but seem soe as many thinges else doe that haue by vserpation growne out of vse, But that it hath bine an ancient practice of the people of God besides the Grounds of Scripture wee will Giue an Instance or two; Wee find in the Ancient Eclesiasticall history of Eusebious libr: 6 Chap 19 how demetrius Bishop of Allexandrya; being pricked with Envie against origin573 Complaineth in his Letters that there was Neuer such a practice heard of nor noe presedent to be found that lay men in prsence of Bishopps haue taught in the Church; But is thus Answared by the Bishopp of Jerusalem, [64] Jurusalem and the Bishopp of Cesaria; wee Know not say they why hee Reporteth a manifest vntruth when as there may be found such as in open assemblyes haue taught the people; yee when as there were prsent Learned men that Could profitt the people and moreouer holy bishopps whoe att that time exhorted them574 to preach; for example att Laranda Euelptas was Requested of Neon att Iconiam Paulinnus was Requested by Celsus of Synada theodorus was Requested by Atticus; whoe wer Godly Bretheren &c:

    Ancient men

    see doctor ffulke575 alsoe on Romans the eleuenth In Answare to the Remists

    Engraved for The Colonial Society of Massachusetts

    2 The second Instance is out of Speeds Cloud of witnesses page 71 saith hee Rambam or Maymon Records that in the Sinnagogues 1 onely a Leuitt must offer Sacrifice 2condly but any in Israeli might expound the Law, thirdly the exponder must be an eminent man and must haue leaue from the master of the Sinagoge; and soe Concluds576 that Christ Luke the 4th: 16: Taught as any of Israell might haue don as well as the Leuites and the like did Paul & Barnabas Acts 13:15:

    If any out of weaknes haue abused Att any time theire Libertie it is theire prsonall fayleing577 as somtimes weake Minnesters may theire office and yett the ordinance Good and lawfull *

    *3 And the Cheife of our minnesters in New England agree therin see mr Cottons Answare to Bayley page the 27:2 part Though Neither all (saith hee) nor most of the brethern of a Church haue ordinarily Receiued a Gift of publick Prophesyeing, or Preaching; yett in defect of publick Minnestry, It is Not an vnheard of Nouelty that God should Inlarge private men with publick Gifts and to despence them to edifycation for wee Read that when the Church att Jerusalem were all Scattered abroad except the Apostles; yett they that were scattered went euery where preaching the word; Actes 8:5:& 11:19:20:21578

    Mr Robinson alsoe in his Apollogye page 50: Chap: 8: to take of the aspersion Charged on them as if all the members of a Church were to Prophesye publickly: Answares it comes within the Compas but of a few of the Multitude happily two or three in a Church soe to doe; and touching579 prophesying saith hee wee think the very same that the Synod att Emden held 1571 and decreed in these words; first in all Churches whether springing vp or Growing to some Ripnes lett the order of Phrophesying be obserued according to Paules Institution580

    2 Into the fellowshipp of this work are to be admitted Not onely the minnesters but the Teacher581 as alsoe of the deacons yee alsoe of the Multitude which are willing to Confer theire Gift Receiued of God to the Comon vtillitie of the Church but soe as they first be allowed by the Judgment of the minnesters & others soe wee beleiue and practice with the Belgick Churches &c: see more in the emediatte following page582

    Wee Can not but Maruell that in soe few yeers theire should be soe Great a Change That they whoe583 were soe hotly prsecuted by the prelates but alsoe opposed by the better sort of Minnesters not onely mr Gifford mr Barnard and and other such like but many of the most eminent both for Learning and Godlynes and yett Now Not onely these famous men and Churches in New England soe fully to Close with them in practice but all the Godly prtye in the Land to Stand for the same way vnder the New name of Independants put vpon them;

    Younge men

    It is the Lords doeing and it ought to be Marueilous in our eyes and the Rather because Mr Barnard in his booke584 made theire smale Encrease in a few yeers one and the Cheiffe Argument against the way it selfe To which Mr Robinson Answared that Religion is not alwayes sowne and Reaped in one age; and that John husse and Jerome of Prague finished theire Course a hundred yeers before Luther; and Wickliffee as Longe before them and yett Neither the one Nor the585 other with like succes as Luther; and yett saith hee Many are alreddy Gathered into the kingdom of Christ; and the Nearnes of many more throughout the whole land for the Regions are white vnto the haruest and doe promise within lesse then an hundred yeer; if our sines and theires make vs not vnworthy of his Mercye a very plentuous haruest586 Justi folio (62) as if hee had Prophesied of these times yee some of vs haue oftens heard him say that euen those minesters and other Godly prsons that did then most sharply oppose them; if they might Come to be from vnder the Bishopps and liue in a place of Rest and peace whear they might Comfortably subsist they would practice the same thinges which they now did; and truely many of vs haue seen this aboundantly verifyed; Not onely in these latter times but formerly doctor Amesse was estranged from and opposed Mr Robinson and yett afterwards there was loueing Complyance and Neare agreement between them; and which is more strange mr Johnson himself whoe was afterwards Pastour of the Church of God att Amsterdam; was a preacher to the Companie of English of the Staple att Middlebery at Zealand and had Great and sertaine maintainance587 allowed him by them and was highly Respected of them and soe Zealous against this way [65] way as that mr Barrowes and mr588 Greenwoods Refutation of Gifford589 was privately in Printing in this Cittey hee Not onely was a Meanes to discouer it but was made the Ambassadors Instrument to Intercept them att the presse and see them burnt, the which Charge hee did soe well prforme as hee lett them Goe on vntill they were wholly ffinished; and then surprised the whole Impression Not suffering any to escape; and then by the Majestrates Authoritie Caused them all to be openly burnt himselfe standing by vntill they were all Consumed to Ashes onely hee took vp two of them; one to keep in his owne Studdy that hee might see theire errours and the other to bestow on a speciall ffrind for the like vse; But Marke the Sequell; when hee had don this worke; hee went home and being sett downe in his Studdy; hee began to turne ouer some pages of this book; and Superficially to Read some thinges heer and there as his fancy led him; att length hee mett with somthing that began to work vpon his sperit which soe wrought with him as drew him to this Resolution seriously to Read590 ouer the whole book the which hee did once and againe, In the end hee was soe taken and his Consience591 was troubled soe as hee could haue Noe Rest in him self vntill hee Crosed the seas and Came to London to Confer with the Authers whoe592 were then in prison and shortly after executed; after which Conferrence; hee was soe satisfyed and Confeirmed in the truth as hee Neuer Returned to his place any more at Middleburrow but adjoyned himself to theire societie att London and was afterwards Comitted to prison and then banished; and In Conclusion Comeing to Liue att Amsterdam hee Caused the same bookes which hee had bin an Instrument to burne to be New printed and sett out att his owne Charge; and some of vs heer prsent Testify this to be a593 true Relation which was heard from his owne Mouth before many witnesses;

    Ancient men

    200l pr anum

    Wee haue seen a book of mr Robert Bayleys594 a Scotchman wherin hee seemeth to take Notice of the spreading of the truth vnder the Notion of error and Casts all the disgraces hee Can on it and Rankes it with others the foulest errors of the time and Indeauors to shew how like a small Sparke it Reviued out of the ashes and was brought from Leyden ouer the seas into New England and there Nurrished with much silence vntill it spread to other places in the Countrey595 and by eminent hands from thence into old England

    Young men

    As wee dare say mr Bayley Intends noe honor to the prsons by what hee sayes either to those heer or from whence they Came soe are they farr from seekeing any to themselues but Rather are ashamed that theire weake wakeing596 hath brought noe more Glory to God; and if in any thinge God hath made any of them Instruments for the Good of his people; in any measure they desire hee onely may haue the Glory and whereas Mr Bayley affeirmeth that howeuer it was in a few yeers the most whoe settled in the land did agree to modle themselues after mr Robinsons597 Patteren;

    Ancient men

    Wee agree with Reuerend Mr Cotton that “there was Noe agreement by any sollemne or Comon Consultation but that it is true they did, as if they had agreed by the same speritt of truth and vnity sett vp by the healp of Christ; The same modle of Churches one like another; and if they of Plymouth haue helped any of the first Comers in theire Theory by hearing598 and descerning theire practices, therin the Scriptures, fulfilled that the Kingdom of heauen is like vnto Leauen which a woman took and hid in three measures of meale vntill all was Leauened mat: 13:3” Answare to mr Bayley Page 17 [66]

    Wee desire to know how many haue bin put to death for this Cause and what manor of prsons they were and what occations were taken against them by bringing them to theire end

    Young men

    Wee know Certainly of six that were publickly executed besides such as died in prisons

    Ancient men

    • Mr henery Barrow
    • These suffered at Tyburne
    • Mr Greenwood
    • Mr Penery att St Thomas a Waterings by London
    • Mr Wilƚam599 dennis att Thetford in Norffolke

    Two others att Saint Edmonds in Suffolke whose Names were Coppin600 and Elias601 These two last mensioned were Condemned by Crewell Judge Popham Whose Countenance and Carriage was very Rough and seuere toward them with many sharp menasses but God Gaue them Curriage to bear it and to make this Answare;

    My Lord youer face wee feare not

    And for youer threats wee Care not

    And to Come to youer Read seruice wee dare not

    these two last named were put to death for dispersing of books

    ffor mr dennis hee was a Godly man and faithfull in his place but what occation was taken against him wee know not more then the Comon cause;

    ffor mr Penery how vnjustly hee was Charged him self hath made manifest to the world in his bookes and that declaration which hee made a little before his suffering all which are extant in print, with some of his Godly letters

    As ffor mr Barrow and mr Greenwood it alsoe appeers by theire owne writings how those Satutes formerly made against the Papists were wrested602 against them and they Condemned thervpon; as may be seen by theire examinations

    But these were Ridged Brownist and lye vnder much Aspersion and theire Names much blemished and beclouded Not onely by enimies but euen by Godly and very Reuerend men;

    Young men

    They Can noe more Justly be Called Brownests then the desiples might haue bin Called Judasitts *

    Ancient men

    *ffor they did as much abhor Brownes Apostacye and prophane Course and his603 defection as the disiples and other Christians did Judas Treachery

    And for theire Ridged and Roughnes of Speritt as some of them especially mr Barrows is Taxed it may be Considered they were very Ridgedly and Roughly dealt with not onely by604 the Lords enimies and theire enimies but by some Godly prsons of those times differing in opinnions from them which makes some of vs Call to mind what one doctor Tayler hath written in a late booke in these Stirring times “such an eminent man (saith hee) hath had the Good happ to be Reputed orthodox by Posteritie and to Condemne such a man or such an oppinion; and yett him selfe to haue erred in as Considerable matters but meeting with better Naighbours in his life time and a more Charritable Posteritie after his death; hath his memory preserued in honor and the others Name suffers without Cause;” of which hee Giues Instances in his book Intitled the libertie of Prophesying Page 33 & following; [67]

    Wee Refer you to mr Robinson answare605 to mr Barnard where hee Charges him with Blesphemy Railing Scoffing606 &c “ffor mr Barrow saith mr Robinson; as I say with mr Ainsworth that I will Not Justify all the words of another man nor yett my owne soe say I alsoe with mr Smith that because I know not by what prticular motion of the speritt hee607 was Guided to write those Phraises I dare not Censure him as you doe especially Considering with what fiery Zeale the Lord hath furnished such his servants att all times as hee hath stered vp for speciall Reformation; lett the example of Luther alone suffice who into what tearmes his zeale Carryed him his writings testify and yett both in him and mr Barrow there might be with true sperituall Zeale ffleshly Indignation Intermixed” Answare to m Barnard folio 84 And further in Paged 86 hee saith that “such harsh Tearmes wherwith hee Entertaines such prsons & thinges in the Church as Carry with them608 most appeerance of holines, they are to be Interpreted according to his meaning with609 this distinction that mr Barrow speaks not of these prsons and thinges simply but in Respect soe and soe Considered, and soe Noe one tearme Giuen by mr Barrow but May att the least be tollerated;”

    But diuers Reuerend men haue expressed Concerning this matter that God is not wont to make Choice of men Infamous for Grosse sinnes and vices before theire Callinge to make them any Instruments of Reformation610 after theire Calling and proceeds to declare that mr Barrow was a Great Gamster and a dicer when hee liued in Court, and Giting much by play would bost of611 losse spending it with Curtezences &ci

    Young men

    Truely with due Respect to such Reuerend men be it spoken those things might well haue bin spared from puting in print especially soe longe after his death when not onely hee but all his frinds arc taken out of the world that might vindecate his Name that hee was tainted with vices att the Court before his Conversion and Calling it is Not very strange and if hee had liued and died in that Condition; It is like hee might haue Gon out of the world without any publick brand on his Name and haue pased for a tollerable Christian and Member of the Church; hee had hurt enough don him whiles hee liued by euill and Crewell enimies; why should Godly men by prejudicated to him after his death in his Name was not the Apostle Paule a prsecuter of Gods saints vnto death and doth Not the same Apostle612 speakeing of Scandulas and Laciuious prsons say and such were some of you but you are washed but yee are sanctifyed, but yee are Justifyed in the Name of the lord Jesus and by the speritt of our God 1 Cor. 6:11:

    Ancient men

    And if histories deceiue vs not was Not Ciprian a Magition before his Conversion and Augustine a Manachean; and when it was said vnto him in the voyce hee heard tolle & lege hee was directed to that place of Scripture not in Gotteny nor613 drunkenes Nor in Chambering and wantones nor in striffe and envying but put on the Lord Jesus Christ and take noe thought of the fflesh to fulfill the lusts of it Rom: 13:13: by which it may seem that if God doe not make Choise of such men as haue bin Infamous for Grosse vices before theire Calling; yett somtimes hee is wont to doe it and is free to Chose614 whome hee pleaseth for Notable Instruments for his owne worke; as for other thinges that haue bin spoken of him and mr Greenwood and mr Penery wee leaue them as they are; But some of vs haue Reason to think there are some mistakes in the Relations of those thinges; onely wee shall adde other publick Testimonies Concerning them from witnesses of very worthy Creditt which are alsoe in print,

    from mr Phillipps a famous and Godly Preacher haueing heard and seen mr Barrow his holy speeches and preparations for death said Barrow Barrow my soule be [68] be with thyne; The same Auther alsoe Reports that Queen Elizabeth asked Learned doctor Reynalds what hee thought of those two men mr Barrow and Mr Greenwood; and hee answered her Matie that it could Not availe any thinge to shew his Judgment Concerning them seeing they were put to death, and being loth to speake his mind further her Matie Charged him vpon his allegience to speak whervpon hee answared that hee was prswaded if they had liued they would haue bin two as worthy Instruments for the Church of God as hath bin Raised vp in this age &c: her Matie sighed and said no more But after that Ryding to a Parke by the place where they were executed and being willing to take further Information Concerning them) demaunded of the Right honorable Earle of Comberland) that was prsent when they suffered what end they made hee answared a very Godly end and prayed for youer Matie and the State &c: wee may alsoe adde what some of vs haue heard by Credible Information; that the Queen demanded of the Archbishopp what hee thought of them in his Consience hee Answared hee thought they were the servants of God; But dangerous to the State; alas said shee shall wee put the servants of God to death, and this was the true Cause why noe more of them were put to death in her dayes;

    did any of you know mr Barrow if wee may be soe bold to aske for wee would willingly know what his life and Conversation because some wee prseiue haue him in presious esteem; and others Can scarce name him without some Note of oblique and dislike;

    Young men

    Wee haue Not seen his prson but some of vs haue bin well acquainted with those that knew him familliarly both before and after his Conversion and one of vs hath had Conference with one that was his domestick servant and tended vpon him both before and some while after the same; hee was a Gentleman of good worth and a fflorishing Courtier in his time and as appeers in his owne Answares to the archbishopp and doctor Cousens that hee was somtime a Student att Cambridge and the Inns of Court and accomplished with strong prtes;

    Ancient men

    Wee haue heard his Conversation to be on this wise, walking in London one Lords day with one of his Companions, hee heard a preacher att his Sermon very Loud as they passed by the Church vpon which mr Barrow said vnto his Consort Lett vs Goe in and heare what this man saith that is thus earnest Tush saith the other what shall wee goe to hear a man talk &c: But in hee went and sate downe; and the minnester was vehement615 in Reproueing sin and sharply applyed the Judgments of God against the same; and it should seem touched him to the quick in such thinges as hee was Gilty off soe as God sett it home to his soule and began to worke his Repentance and Conversion therby, for hee was soe striken as hee Could not be quiett vntill by Conference with Godly men and further hearing of the word with dilligent Reading and meditation

    God brought peace to his soule and Consience after much humilliation of hart and Reformation of life; soe as hee left the Court; and Retired him selfe to a private life some time in the Country and somtime in the Cittey Giueing him selfe to studdy and Reading of the Scriptures and other Good workes very dilligently and being mist att Court by his Consorts and acquaintance it was quickly bruited abroad That Barrow was turned Puritan; what his Course was after wards his writings shew as alsoe his sufferings and Conference with men of all sorts doe declare vntill his life was taken from him;

    And thus much wee Can further affeirme from those that well knew him that hee was very Comfortable to the poor and those in distresse in theire sufferings, and when hee saw hee must die hee Gaue a stocke for the Relieffe of the poor of the Church; which was a Good [69] healp to them in theire banished Condition afterwards; yee and that which some will hardly beleiue hee did much prswade them to peace and Composed many differences that were Growne amongst them whiles hee liued, and would haue it is Like preuented more that after fell out; if hee had Continewed;

    Wee thanke you for youer paines wee hope it will extend further then our satisfaction wee Can not but maruell that such a man should be by soe many aspersed;

    Young men

    It is Not mueh to be Maruelled att for hee was most plaine in discouering the Crewellty fraud and hipocresy of the enimies of the truth and serching into the Corruptions of the time which made him abhored of them; and pradventure somthinge to harsh against the haltinges of diuers of the preachers and professors that hee had to deale with in those times whoe out of feare or weaknes did not come soe Close vp to the truth in theire practice as theire doctrines and Grounds seemed to hold forth; which makes vs Remember; what was the Answare of Erasmus to the duke of616 Saxony when hee asked his opinnion whether617 Luther had erred hee answared his opinnions were Good but wished hee would moderate his style which stired him vp the more Enimies; noe doubt;

    Ancient men

    Wee find in the writings of some such whoe were very eminent in theire times for piety and Learning; that those of the Separation found more fauor in our Natiue Country then those whoe are Reproched by the Name of puritans and after much discourse therabouts; Come to this Conclusion; That Noe Comparison will hold from the separatists to them in theire sufferings but a618 Minori619) and then they Goe on and say; what a Compulsary Banishment haue bin put vpon those blessed and Glorious Lights mr Cartwright mr Parker docter Ames &c

    Young men

    Engraved for The Colonial Society of Massachusetts

    ffarr be it from620 any of vs to detract from or to extenuate the Sufferings of any621 of the servants of God; much lesse; from those worthyes fore Named, or any others afterwards mensioned; yett vnder fauor wee Craue prdon if wee Can not Consent to the Judgment of such eminent ones for pietie and Learning aboue hinted;

    Ancient men

    Wee doubt not but doe ezely Graunt that the sufferings of those Reproached by the Name of Puritans were Great especially some of them & were better knowne to those pious and Learned first aboue Intimated, then the sufferings of those that are Reproached by the Name of Brownests, and Separatists; But wee shall Giue you some Instances, and leaue it to you and some others to Consider off;

    1 Though Noe more were publickly executed yett sundry more were Condemned and brought to the Galloes and Assended the Ladder Not knowing but they should die and haue bin Repreiued and after banished some of which wee haue knowne and oftens622 spoken with;

    2 others haue not onely bin fforced into voulentary Banishment by Great Numbers to avoid further Crewelty but diuers after Longe and sore Imprisoment haue bin fforced to abjure the land by oath neuer to Returne without Leaue in Anno623 1604 four prsons att once were fforced to doe soe att a publick sessions in London624 or else vpon Refusall they were to be hanged; this theire abjuration was625 done on the Statute of the 35 of Queen Elizabeth, some of these wee haue alsoe Knowne

    3 Wee find mension in a printed book of 17 or eighteen that haue died in seuerall prisons in London626 in six yeers time before the year627 1592 besides what haue bin in other prtes of the Land and since that time perishing by Could hunger or Noisomnes of the prison; [70]

    4 In the same yeer wee find a lamentable Petition now in print of sixty prsors Comited vnbailable to seuerall prsons in London as New Gate the Gatehouse Clink &c: being made Close prisoners allowing them Neither Meate drink nor Lodging; nor suffering any whose harts the Lord would stir vp for theire Releiffe; to haue any accesse vnto them; soe as they Complaine that Noe ffellons Traitors nor murderers in the Land; were thus dealt with, and soe after many other Greiuious Complaints Conclude with these words, “wee628 Craue for all of vs but the libertie either to die openly or to liue openly in the Land of our Natiuity if wee deserue death It beseemeth the Matie of Justice not to see vs Closly murdered yee starued to death with hunger & Could and stiffeled in Lothsome dungeans; if wee be Guiltles wee Craue but the benifitt of our Inocensse viz: That wee may haue peace to serue our God and our Prince in the place of the sepulchers of our fathers;”

    And what Numbers since those whoe haue bin Put vnto629 Compulsorie Banishment and other hard sufferings as losse of Goods frinds and long and hard Imprissonments vnder which many haue died It is soe well knowne that it would make vp a vollume to Reherse them and would not onely equallice but farr exceed; the Number of those Godly Called Puritans that haue suffered suppose they were but few of them Minnesters that suffered as aboue expressed yett theire sorrowes might be as Great and theire wants more; and theire souls as much afflicted because more Contemned and Neglected of men; but some haue said they were excomunicated and that was noe Great matter; as excomunications went in those dayes; soe were these not onely while they were liueing but some of them many times after they were dead and as some of the other were Imprisoned soe were more of these; but it is further said all of them were depriued of theire minnestry and soe were these of theire Liuelihood and maintainance although they had noe offices to losse;

    But these Remained still in the land and were succured and sheltered by Good people in a Competent wise the most of them and sundry of them liued as well as may ezely be proued if not better then as if they had Injoyed theire benifices wheras the other were; a Great Number of them forced to ffly into fforraigne Lands for shelter or else might haue perrished in prisons; and there poor Creatures Indured many of them such hard shipps (as is well knowne to some of vs as makes our harts still ake to Remember;

    Wee some of vs knew mr Parker doctor Ames and mr Jacob in holland when they sojourned for a time in Leyden and all three for a time boarded together and had theire victualls dressed by some of our acquaintance and then they liued Comfortable and then they were prouided for as became theire prsons; and after mr Jacob Returned; and mr Parker was att Amsterdam; wher hee printed some of his bookes and mr Ames disposed of himselfe to other places It was Not worse with him and some of vs well know how it fared then with many630 precious Christians in diuers times and places, To speake the truth, the professors in England though many of them suffered much att the hands of the prelates yett they had a Great advantage of the Separatists for the separatists had not onely the Prelates and theire faction to Incomter with and what hard631 measure they mett with att theire hands aboue the other doth sufficiently appeer by what is before declared. But alsoe they must Indure the ffrownes and many times the sharp Invictiues of the forward minnesters against them, both in publicke & private and what Influences they had vpon the sperritts of the people is well enough knowne alsoe by Reason heerof the Minnesters in fforraigne Countryes did looke awry att them when they would Giue healp and Countenance to the other;

    Indeed it seemes they haue somtimes suffered much hardnes in the Low Countryes if that be true that is Reported of such a man as mr Ainsworth that hee should liue for some time with 9632 pence a weeke; To which is Replyed by another That if people suffered him to Liue on 9 pence a weeke with Rootes boyled either the people were growne extream low in estate or the Groweth of theire Godlines was Come to a very low ebbe [71]

    Young men

    The truth is theire Condition for the most prte (was for some time) very low and hard it was with them as if it should be Related would hardly be beleiued and noe Maruell for many of them had lien Longe in prisons and then were banished into Newfoundland; where they were abused and att Last Came into the Lowcountryes and wanting mony trades frinds or acquaintances and Languages to633 healp themselues how Could it be otherwise The Report of mr Ainsworth634 was Neare those times when hee was Newly Come out of Ireland with others poore and being a single younge man and very Studious was Content with a little and yett to take of the Aspersion from the people in that prticulare635 The Cheiffe and true Reason therof is Mistaken for hee was a very Modest & bashfull man and Concealed his wants from others vntill some suspected how it was with him; and prest him to see how it was and after it was knowne such as were able mended his Condition and when hee was Married afterwards hee and his family were Comfortable636 prouided for; But wee haue said enough of these thinges; they had few frinds to Comfort them nor any Arme of fflesh to support them and if in some things they were to Ridged they are Rather to be pittied Considering theire times and sufferings then to be blasted with Reproach to posteritie;

    Ancient men

    Was that Browne that fell away and637 Made Apostacye the first Inventor and beginer of this waye

    Young men

    Noe verily for as one answares this questian very well in a printed book almost forty yeers agoe; that the prophetts apostles and euangelests haue in theire Authentick writings layed downe the Ground therof; and vpon that Ground is theire building Reared vp and surely settled morouer many of the Martires both former and latter haue Maintained it as is to be seen in the acts and Monuments of the Church; alsoe in the dayes of Queen Elizabeth there was a Separated Church wherof mr ffitts was Pastour; and another before that in the time of Queen Mary of which mr Rough was Pastour or Teacher and Cudbert Simson a deacon whoe exercised amongst themselues as other ordinances soe Church sensures as excomunication &c: and professed and practised that Cause before mr Browne wrote for it; But hee being one that afterwards wrote for it They that first hatched the Name of Puritans638 and bestowed it on the Godly professors that desired Reformation they likewise out of the same store house would Needs bestow this New Liuery vpon others that Neuer would owne it, Nor had Reason soe to doe mr Cotton likewise in his639 in his Answare to Mr Bayley page four; shewes how in the yeer640 1567641 there were an hundred prsons whoe Refused the Comon littergye and the Congregations attending thervnto and vsed prayers and preaching and the642 Sacrements amongst them selues wherof 14 or: 15: were sent to prison of whom the Cheiffest was mr Smith mr Nixon James Ireland Robert hawkens Thomas Bowland643 and Richard Morecrofft; and these pleaded their Separation before the Lord Mayor Bishop Sands and other Comissioners644 on June 20 1567 about 80 yeers agon being Many yeers before Brown* [72]

    Ancient men

    * diuers other Instance might be Giuen;

    But if wee mistake Not mr Browne is accoumpted by some of Good Note to be the Inventor of that way which is Called Brownisme from whom the sect took it[s] Name more ouer it is said by such of Note as aforsaid; That it is not Gods vsual Man[or] of dealing to leaue any of the first publishers or Restorers of any truth of his to such fearfull Apostacye

    Young men

    Posibly this spech might arise from a Comon Receiued opinion But Reuerend mr Cotton in his Answare to mr Bayley, saith the Backslideing of Browne from that way of Separation is a Just Reason why the Separatists may disclaime denomination from him and Refuse to be Called Brownest after his Name, and to speake with Reason (saith hee) if any be Justly to be Called Brownes[t] it is645 onely such as Revoult from separation to formallitie and from thence to Prophanes Page: 5: *646

    Ancient men

    *To which wee may adde that it is very Injurious to Call those after his Name whos[e] prson they Neuer knew and whose writings (few if any of them) euer saw and whose errors and Backeslideings they haue Constantly borne witnes against and what truthes they haue Receiued haue bin from the Light of Gods Sacred word Convey[ed] by other Godly Instruments vnto them though Browne may sometime haue professed some of the same thinges and Now fallen from the same as Many others haue done

    Seing wee haue presumed thus farr to enquire into these ancienter times (of you) and of the sufferings of the aforsaid prsons wee would likewise Intreat you; tho neuer soe breiffly to tell vs somthing of the prsons and Carriages of other emine[nt] men about those times or Imediately after as mr ffrancis Johnson mr henery Ainswor[th] mr John Smith mr John Robinson mr Richard Clifton;

    Young men

    heer are some in the Companie that knew them all familliarly whom wee shall desire to satisfy youer Request;

    Ancient men

    Those answared; wee shall doe it most willingly; for wee Can not but honour the memor[y] of the men for the Good that Not onely many others but wee our selues haue Receiued by them and theire Minnestry for wee haue heard them all and liued vnder the minnestry of diuers of them for some yeers wee shall therfore speake of them in order breifly;

    Mr Johnson of whom somthing was spoken before; was Pastour of the Church of God att Amsterdam; a very Graue man hee was and an able Teacher; and was the most sollemme in all his adminnestrations that wee haue seen any and especially in dispenceing the seales of the Couenant both baptismee and the Lords supper; and a Good disputant hee was wee heard mr Smith vpon occation say that hee was prswaded noe men liueing were able to maintaine a Cause against those two men; meaning mr Johnson and mr Ainsworth if they h[ad] not the truth on theire side; hee by Reason of many desentions that fell out in the Church and the subtilty of one of the Elders of the same) Came after Many yeer[s] to alter his Judgment about the Gourment of the Church and his practice thervpon which Caused a deuision amongst them but hee liued not many yeers after and died att Amsterdam after his Returne from Emden;

    But hee is much spoken against for excomunicateing his brother and his owne father and maintaineing his wifes Cause whoe was by his brother and others Reproued for her pride in Aparrell;

    Young men

    himself hath often made his owne defence; and others for him the Ancient Church did oftens after longe patience towards them and much paines taken with them [73] them excomunicated them for theire vnreasonable and endles opposition and such thinges as did accompanie the same, and such was the Justice therof as hee could not but Consent therto; In our time; his wife was a Graue Matron and very modest both in her apparell and all her demenior; Reddy to any Good worke in her place and healpfull to many especially the poor; and an ornament to his calling Shee was a younge widdow when hee Married her and had bin a marchants wife by whom hee had a Good estate and was a Godly woman and because shee wore such apparrell as shee had bin formerly vsed, too; which were Neither excessive nor Imodist, for theire Cheiffest exceptions were against her wearing of some whalbone in the bodies & sleiues of her Gowne Corked shooes and other such like thinges as the Citizens of her Ranke then vsed to were; and although for offence sake shee and hee647 were willing to Reforme the ffashions of them soe farr as might be without spoyling of theire Garments yett it would not Content them, except they Came full vp to theire sise such was the strictnes or Ridgednes (as now the tearme Goes of some in those times as wee Can by experience and of our owne knowlidge shew in other Instances wee shall for breiuity sake onely shew one;

    Ancient men

    Wee were in the Companie of a Godly man that had bin a longe time prisoner att Norwich (for this Cause) and was by Judge Cooke sett att libertie648 after Goeing into the Country hee viseted his ffrinds; and Returning that way againe to Goe into the low Countries by shipp att yarmouth and soe desired some of vs to turne in with him to the house of an ancient woman in the Citty whoe had bin very kind and healpfull to him in his sufferings shee knowing his voyce made him very welcome and those with him; but after some time of theire entertainment being Reddy to depart shee Came vp to him and felt of his band for her eyes were dim with age and prseiuing it was somthing stiffened with starch; shee was much displeased and Reproued him very sharply, fearing God would not prosper his Journey; yett the man was a plaine Country man Clad in Gray Russed without either welt or Gaurd (as the prouerbe is) and the band hee wore scarce worth thripence made of theire owne home spining; and hee was Godly and humble as hee was plaine what would such professors if they were Now liueing say to the excesse of our times;

    Mr Henery Ainsworth

    A man of a Thousand was Teacher of this Church of Amsterdam att the same time when mr Johnson was Pastour; two worthy men they were and of exelent prtes; hee Continewed Constant in his Judgment and practice vnto his end in those thinges about the Church Gourment from which mr Johnson swarued and fell; hee euer maintained Good Correspondence with mr Robinson att Leyden and would Consult with him in all matters of waight both in theire differences and afterwards; A very learned man hee was and a Close student which much Impaired his health wee haue heard some eminent in the knowlidge of the Tounges of the vniversitie of Leyden say that they thought hee had not his better for the hebrew toungve649 in the vniversitie Nor scarce in Europa hee was a man very Modest Amiable and sociable in his ordinary Course and Carriage of an Inocent and vnblamable life and Conversation of a meeke speritt and a Calme temper void of Pasion and Not ezely [74] and not ezely prouoked and yett hee would be somthing Smarte in his650 style to his opposers in his publicke writings; att which wee that haue seen his Constant Carriage both in publicke desputes; and the Mannageing of all Church affaires and such like occurrances haue somtimes Marueled; hee had an exelent Gift of teaching and opening the Scriptures and thinges did fflow from him with that ffacillitie plaines and sweetnes as did much affect the hearers; hee was powerfull and profound in doctrine although his voyce was not stronge; and had this exelencye aboue many that hee was most Reddy and pregnant in the Scriptures as if the booke of God had bin written in his hart; being as Reddy in his quotations; without tosing and turning his booke as if they had lyen open before his eyes and Celdome mising a word in the Citeing of any place; Teaching not onely the word and doctrine of God but in the words of God; and for the most prte in a Continewed Phraise and words of Scripture; hee vsed Great dexteritie and was Reddy in Comparing Scripture with Scripture with one an other; In a word the times and place in which hee liued were not worthy of651 such a man;

    but wee find that hee is taxed in a book writt by George Johnson with apostacye and to be a man pleaser &c

    Young men

    whoe Can escape the Scorge of tongues Christ himself Could not doe it when hee was heer vpon earth although there was noe Guile found in his mouth; Nor Moses although hee was the Meekest man in the earth; for man pleasing they that taxe him because hee Concurred against theire violent and endles decentions about the former matters and for his appostacye this was all the Matter when hee was a younge Man before hee Came out of England hee att the prswation of some of his Godly frinds went once or twise to heare a Godly Minnester preach and this was the Great matter of Apostacye for which652 those violent men thought him worthy to be deposed from his place and for which they thus Charge him; and truly heerin they may worthyly beare the Name of Ridged &c:

    Ancient men

    Mr John Smith

    Was an eminent Man653 in his time and a Good preacher and of other good prtes but his Inconstancy and vnstable Judgment and being soe suddainly Carryed away with thinges did soone ouer throw him; yett wee haue some of vs heard him vse this speech (truely said hee) wee being Now Come into a place of libertie are in Great danger if wee look not654 well to our wayes, for wee are like men sett vpon the Iyce and therfore may ezely slyde and fall; But in this example it appeers it is an ezier matter to Giue Good Councell then to follow it; to foresee danger then to preuent it which made the prophett to say o Lord the way of a man is Not in himself Neither is it in man to walk; and to direct his stepps Jeremiah 10: 23: hee was sometimes Pastour to a Companie of honest & Godly men which Came with him out of England and pitched att Amsterdam hee first fell into some errours about the Scriptures, and soe into some opposition with mr Johnson whoe had bine his tutor and the Church there; but hee was Convinced of them by the paines and faithfulnes of mr Johnson and mr Ainsworth and Revoaked them but afterwards was drawne away by some of the655 duch Annabaptists whoe finding him to be a good Scoller and vnsettled they ezely misled656 the most of his people and other of them Scattered away hee liued Not many yeers after but died there of a Consumption to which hee was Inclined before hee Came out of England; his and his peoples Condition may be an object of pitty for after times; [75]

    Mr John Robinson

    Was Pastour of that famous Church of Leyden in holland a man not ezely to be parraleeled for all things whose singular vertues; wee shall not take vpon vs heer to describe neither Need wee for they soe well are knowne both by frinds and enimises, as hee was a man learned and of a solled Judgment and of a quick and sharp witt; soe was hee alsoe of a tender Consience and very Cinceire in all his wayes a hater of hipocresie and desimulation and would be very plaine with his best frinds hee was very Curteous affible and sociable in his Conversation and towards his owne people especially; hee was an accute and exact disputant very quick and Reddy, and had much bickering with the Arminnians whoe stood more in feare of him then any of the vniversitie hee was Neuer satisfyed in himself vntill hee had serched any Cause or argument hee had to deale in thoroughly and to the botome; and wee haue heard him somtimes say to his familliars that many times both in writing and disputation hee knew hee had sufficiently answared657 others but many times not himself and was euer desirous of any light and the more able Learned and holy the prsons were the more hee desired to Confer and Reason with them; hee was very658 profittable in his minnestry and Comfortable to his people hee was much beloued of them and as loueing was hee vnto them; and Intirely sought theire good for soule and body; In a word hee was much esteemed and Reuerenced of all that knew him and his abillities both of frinds and strangers; but wee Resolued to be breife in this matter; leaueing you to better and more Large Information heerin from others

    Mr Richard Clifton

    Was a Graue and fatherly old man when hee Came first into holland haueing a Great white beard and pitty it was that such a Reuerend old man should be forced to leaue his Country and att those yeers to Goe into exile but it was his Lott and hee bore it patiently much good had hee done in the Country where hee liued and Converted many to God by his faithfull and painfull minnestry both in preaching and Cattechising sound and orthodox hee alwaies was and soe Continewed to his end; hee belonged to the Church att Leyden but being setled att Amsterdam and thus aged hee was loth to Remoue any more; and soe when they Remoued hee was dismised to them there and there Remained vntill hee died; thus wee haue breifly satisfyed youer desire;

    Wee are very thankefull to you for youer paines wee prseiue God Raiseth vp exelent Instruments in all ages to Carry on his owne worke and the best of men haue theire fayleings somtimes as wee see in these our times and that there is noe new thinge vnder the sun; but before wee end this mater we desire you would say somthing of those two Churches that were soe longe in exile of whose Guids wee haue alreddy heard:

    Young men

    Truly there were in them many worthy men and if you had seen them in theire bewty and order as wee haue don, you would haue bin much affected therwith wee dare say; Att Amsterdam; before theire deuision and breach they were about three hundred Comunicants and they had for theire Pastour and Teacher those two eminent men before named and in our time four Graue men for Ruleing elders and three able and Godly men for deacons, one ancient widdow for a deacones whoe did them seruice many yeers though shee was sixty yeers of age when shee was Chosen shee honored her place and was an ornament to the Congregation shee vsually sate in a Convenient place in the Congregation; with a little birchen Rode in her hand; and kept little Children in Great awe from disturbing the Congregation shee did frequently visitt the sicke and weake especially weomen and as there was need Called out maids and younge weomen to watch and doe them other healpes [76] as theire Nessesitie did Require and if they were poor shee would Gather Releiffe for them of those that were able; or acquaint the deacons and shee was obeyed as a mother in Israell and an officer of Christ659

    Ancient men

    And for the Church of Leyden they were some times not much fewer in Number nor att all Inferior in able men though they had not soe many officers as the other for they had but one Ruling elder with theire Pastour, a man well approued and of Great Integritie alsoe they had three able men for deacons; and that which was a Crowne vnto them they liued together in loue and peace all theire dayes without any Considerable differences or any disturbance that Grew therby but such as was easely healed in loue; and soe they Continewed vntil with mutuall Consent they Remoued into New England; and what theire Condition hath bine since some of you that are of theire Children doe see and Can tell many worthy and able men there were in both places whoe liued and died in obscuritie in Respect of the world as priuate Christians yett were they precious in the eyes of the Lord and alsoe in the eyes of such as knew them whose vertues wee wish such of you as are theire Children doe follow and Imitate

    If wee may not be to tedious wee would Request to know one thinge More It is Comonly said that those of the separation hold none to be true Churches but theire owne and Condemne all the Churches in the world besides which lyeth as a fowle blott vpon them yee euen by some heer in New England except they Can Remoue it;

    Young men

    It is a manifest Slaunder laid vpon them; for they hold all the Reformed Churches to be true Churches and euen the most Ridged of them haue euer don soe as appeers by theire apollogyes and other writings and wee our selues some of vs know of much entercomunion that diuers haue held with them Recipprocally not onely with the duch and french but euen with the scotch whoe are not of the best mould yee and with the Lutherens alsoe; and wee beleiue they haue Gon as farr heerin; both in Judgment and practice as any of the Churches in New England doe or Can doe to deale faithfully and beare witnes against theire Corruptions; haueing thus farr satisfyed all youer demaunds wee shall heer break of this Conference for this time desireing the Lord to make you to Grow660 vp in Grace and wisdom and the true feare of God that in all faithfulnes and humillitie you may serue him in youer Generations

    Ancient men

    Gentlemen wee humbly thank you for youer paines with vs and Respect vnto vs, and doe further Craue that vpon any fitt occations wee may haue accesse vnto you for any further Information and heerwith also humbly take our leaue;

    Young men