The General Court Reconvenes

    704. To Sir Francis Bernard, 28 September 1770

    705. To Lord Hillsborough, 28 September 1770

    706. To Thomas Gage, 30 September 1770

    707. To John Pownall, 30 September 1770

    708. From Thomas Gage, 30 September 1770

    709. From Richard Jackson, [September 1770]

    710. To Thomas Whately, 3 October 1770

    The General Court reconvened on 26 September. During the preceding recess, Hutchinson did his best to encourage loyal government party members from the western parts of the province to attend, hoping to overturn the House’s steady refusal to proceed to business. Even while Hutchinson entertained hopes for a more productive session, rumors reached him that a new set of letters, written to Whitehall by royal appointees in the colonies, had somehow been copied in London and transmitted to Massachusetts. The publication during the previous year of a similar set of letters written by Francis Bernard undermined Bernard’s effectiveness. Under such circumstances, how could there be any candid communication with Whitehall by colonial officials? Similarly, Hutchinson had asked Andrew Oliver to make a record of the proceedings in the Massachusetts Council the day after the Massacre. Hutchinson sent Oliver’s account privately to Bernard, yet it had been published in London as part of A Fair Account of the Late Unhappy Disturbance at Boston in New England and now found its way back to Boston, where it was causing great umbrage among some of the councilors who had been mentioned by name, implying they had foreknowledge of a general uprising to drive the troops out of the town.

    704. To Sir Francis Bernard

    Boston 28 September 1770

    (No. 37)

    My Dear Sir, The Assembly met the 26th. I did not see them until the 27th least they should take the advantage of a thin House and come in to some sudden Resolves which the Boston Members still push for. They have appointed a committee which from the account I have of them will report against doing Business but a great part of the House grow sick of the lay and it is not so certain as it was the last Session that they will finally refuse. You wish both they and I may persevere. There is no danger on my part. Their principles are so absurd that they ought not upon any consideration to be conceded to, for by the same way of arguing they may take the whole powers of Government into their hands. The Council are now with me. Strange as it will seem to you Brattle declares in the strongest terms for the necessity of altering our conduct, wishes the Council had been all asleep when they voted their Addresses & Messages to me and has done more in several Counties where he travales to convince people of their error than any other man in the Province.1 Erving is with him, and openly disapproves of his grandsons conduct and upon hearing that he was superseded declared to the Secretary that he had brought it upon himself and that he had no business to join himself to the People who were in opposition to Government.2 B____n and P____s still go all lengths which the pale lean Cassius would have them.3 T____r is sowered by that deposition of the Secretarys which was published in England and it has hurt me every way.4 By the last Ship the Leaders of the party in Town have received a large number of Letters of Dalrymples Colden’s &c. and one or more of mine but I know not yet the Contents. They did not come from Bollan and they have employed some other person I think it most probable to be Sayer who was partner with Deberdt. I have no evidence of it but know that he is a Correspondent.5 Either they came from Copies that were laid before the House of Commons or they have corrupted some of the Clerks in the Offices. I cannot conceive of a third way of coming at them. I heard a Gentleman say he went into Docr. Coopers room and saw a large table spread with them.6 Pray endeavour that more care may be taken to prevent Copies of Letters coming among us. I have said something to Ld Hillsborough of the Temper the People were in and their opposition to Government which though strictly true and incumbent on me to mention yet if they must be laid before the House of Commons & from thence or by any other means come over here I have no security against the rage of the People.

    I wrote you last year desiring your opinion of the meaning of the Expression in the Warrant for 200£ per ann which relates to the commencement of it. The Commissioners suppose I was intitled to the first payment in Midsummer 1768. The Court made me no grant for my usual Salary as Cheif Justice after Janr 68 pretending I was from that time a pensioner. I should be obliged to you if you would look over my former Letters and write what you think proper for me to do. I have not yet received a penny but I intend as soon as the new Commission for that Board arrives to apply for part of the Sum due and leave the settlement until I hear from you.7

    My thoughts have been in such constant agitation from this Affair of the Castle ever since the receipt of your Letters that I am not fit to write upon the subject of the measures proposed by Parliament and I can do it to greater advantage when I have seen a little more of the Session of the General Court.8

    I am [endeavouring] to obtain from the Court if they should go to business, some compensation for the men who are dismissed from the Castle by continuing their pay beyond their actual service but there are some few among them who are turned out of a comfortable living and know not how to provide for a future subsistence. Father Brock was carried away to Braintree heart broke and will not long need any support. Burbank I have mentioned to the General and as he is very clever in his business I hope he may have something under the Engineer equivalent to his former allowance. Wm Salisbury the Serjeant has 6 or 7 small children and tells me he does not know what will become of them if I can do nothing for them. I have mentioned his case to the General. I doubt whether he will do any thing for him. The Chaplain I think had as leive read Prayers out of a Book or say them by heart if he had any assurance of a support though it would be a pleasing thing to the people if he could go on in his old way. Then for Phillips it is excessive hard because he never would have married and subjected himself to the charge of a family if he had not thought he was secure for life. I know he has neither treated you nor me as he ought to have done but he really is an object of Compassion and I cannot help thinking that if you should represent the true state of his case to My Ld Hillsborough something would be done for him.9

    I am obliged to keep up my claim to an authority over the Castle notwithstanding the change of the Garrison, if it was for no other reason than to keep the people quiet. I am sensible be the Charter what it may, that King William could not divest his present Majesty of any part of his military powers and that through out his dominions he may delegate it to whome he pleases, but is there no impropriety to say the least in a Commission to govern a Fort part of a Territory which by a Charter and another Commission consequent upon this Charter is wholly under the Government of another person. I will inclose to you my last letter from General Gage which discovers his great prudence and I hope will keep every thing quiet.10

    I have not time to say any thing to you upon any other subject. I am with the greatest esteem & Regard Sir Your

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 27:6–8); in WSH’s hand; at foot of letter, “Gov. Ber’d.”

    705. To Lord Hillsborough

    Boston 28 Septemb. 1770

    (No. 26)

    My Lord, The Assembly met the 26th at Cambridge. I shall send you under this cover the Speech I made to them.1 They have not yet proceeded to Business. I think the Council in general are now disposed to it. So are many of the House. I am not certain what will be the final result.

    The Boston Representatives have received by the last Ship from England what they call another Budget of Letters, among the rest, I am informed, are one or more of Lt Govr Colden’s, several of Lieut. Colo. Dalrymple’s and one or more of mine.2 I suppose, but am not certain, that they must have been obtained from the Copies laid before the House of Commons. I humbly beg of your Lordship that some way may be found to prevent the letters from the Servants of the Crown being thus made publick. Government is greatly hurt by it and the King’s Servants are exposed to the Insults of the people. I have wrote nothing which I can not justify but, in these times, it is not safe to speak what, in ordinary times, would meet with no exception. I have the honour to be with the greatest respect My Lord Your Lordship’s most humble & obedient Servant

    Tho Hutchinson

    RC (National Archives UK, CO 5/759, ff. 287–88); at foot of letter, “The Right Honorable the Earl of Hillsborough”; docketed, “Boston 28th. Septr. 1770. Lieut. Govr. Hutchinson (No. 26) Rx 5th. Novr.”; notation, “C:41.” DupRC (National Archives UK, CO 5/894, f. 71); in WSH’s hand; at head of letter, “Duplicate”; at foot of letter, “Right Honorable the Earl of Hillsborough.” SC (National Archives UK, CO 5/768, ff. 168–69); docketed, “Lieut. Govr. Hutchinsons, Boston, 28th Septr. 1770 (No. 26.) Rx 5 November”; notation, “Inlcosure Lt Govr’s Speech to the Genl. Assembly on the 26th. Septr. 1770.” AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 27:9); in WSH’s hand. SC (Houghton Library, Sparks 10, 4:10). Contemporary printing: Remembrancer for the Year 1776, p. 158 (second paragraph only). Enclosure to RC: TH speech to the General Court, 27 September 1770 (printed; National Archives UK, CO 5/759, f. 289).

    706. To Thomas Gage

    Boston 30 September 1770

    Sir, I have the honour of your letters of the 23d & 24th. I intend to see Capt Montresor to morrow and hope to make provision for Mr. Burbanks who I am very sure will be faithful to his Trust. If I can bring the Assembly to do business I have no expectation of prevailing upon them to keep the former Garrison in pay. When I committed the Custody and Government of the Castle to Colonel Dalrymple I acquainted him with the circumstances of the Stores viz Ammunition & other stores of War for which the Castle has been a general repository and desired that nothing might be expended until I could write to you and your Answer. It is with difficulty I can persuade people that the whole is not gone out of my power. I did not care to appoint any person store keeper without your approbation. I have frequent occasion to send for powder for publick uses and may have for other stores and it would have a good effect if a person appointed by me was always on the spot, to have the care of the stores and to deliver them at any time upon my Warrant, but nevertheless subject to the Orders of the Commanding Officer of the garrison to deliver the stores for the use thereof upon any emergency; or extraordinary occasion. This is the best expedient I can think of to ease peoples minds and cannot be any prejudice to the Kings service and if the place should ever be garrisoned again by the Province it will remove all pretence for a charge of waste or embezzlement which, I suspect, there are some will be ready enough to make. I am not sure of any allowance from the Court for such an Officer, but as it appears to me a very necessary measure for His Majestys Service I would run risque of his pay & do not doubt I should receive some directions for obtaining it upon a representation to the Ministry. I have the honour to be, Sir Your most humble and most obedient Servant

    Tho Hutchinson

    RC (Clements Library, Thomas Gage Papers); at foot of letter, “His Excellency General Gage.” AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 27:10–11); in WSH’s hand. Contemporary printing: Boston Gazette, 5 February 1776.

    707. To John Pownall

    Boston 30 Septemb 1770

    My Dear Sir, I thank you. for the two favours I have receiv’d of the 6th & 16 of July since I last wrote to you.1 It will be happy for the Colonies if the Nation can unite in measures for preserving the Authority of Parliament. The dependance of the Opposers of that Authority has been upon a division of Councels in England and they still in some measure buoy themselves up with such hopes.

    The change of the Garrison at Castle William has been effected, tho’ in a sudden yet, in the most prudent manner I could devise. I have done nothing which looks like giving up the Superior command, under the King, of that Fortress but have avoided a Controversy about it and am very happy in doing business with General Gage who is so well disposed to maintain harmony between the several departments of Government.

    I am not certain that the Assembly will do business at Cambridge. I rather think they will. The Council except a few are in favour of it and very friendly to me though there is some abatement of their friendship since the deposition of the Secretary taken by my order relative to the Affair of the Troops has been published. These publications & the sufference of the Letters to the Ministry of which a fresh parcel was sent by the last Ship to be made publick do infinite disservice.2 If they go on every body will be afraid to write their Sentiments upon publick Affairs. I am informed that yesterday the House passed a vote to call in all their absent Members before Wednesday next and have agreed to make that day a day of prayer for the two Houses to seek the Lord &c. I do not blame them for desiring & praying for divine Guidance but there is too great appearance of making Religion a stalking horse and I rather think they have expressed themselves in this form of words because it is the Language of 41 in the last Century in England.3 Although we have many people out of the House who are Enthusiasts & believe they are contending for the cause of God yet I know none such among the Leaders of the House. Possibly it may have a good effect and a change of conduct may be said to be an answer of prayer.

    My attention to the Kings Orders for changing the Garrison at the Castle and to the Consequences of them among the People and the Business of the General Court have so employed my thoughts that I am not able to write you upon the Subject of your Letter of the 16th. I shall, besides, be better able to do it when I am more certain what the General Court will do upon the late advices which they have received from England, in the mean time I remain with the most sincere Regard & esteem Dear Sir Your most faithful humble Servant,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 27:9–10); at foot of letter, “Jno Pownall Esq.”

    708. From Thomas Gage

    New York Sept 30th 1770

    Sir, It gives me much Satisfaction that all matters relative to Castle William have been carried on so greatly to your own Ideas, and Wishes, and hope you will not be disappointed in the Prospect of a more favorable Sessions than the last, on the Meeting of your Assembly. A Packet arrived on the 27th but I have received no Orders concerning your Province, there are thoughts of fortifying Newfoundland, and various Reports are unready1 of the Intentions of Government respecting this Country. I believe however we are acquainted with all that is determined upon for the present, and we must wait the meeting of Parliament before any further Orders will be transmitted to us. I am, with very great Regard, Sir, &c

    AC (Clements Library, Thomas Gage Papers); at foot of letter, “[Lt] Governor Hutchinson. Boston.”

    709. From Richard Jackson

    [September 1770]

    Dear Sir, I have two of your Letters by me unanswered one of the 3d of May another of the 5th June to which I wish to say a Word though I am told I run the Risk of being too late for the Vessel.1 I am concerned my Name was mentioned at the Council Board, on the Subject of the Place of the Assembly meeting, because it is difficult to explain the thoughts of another on such a Subject, with all the attendant Qualifications that belong to them & more so when they pass through the Information of a 3d Person, I am free to say that I think, where there is accomodation in another town, to the Satisfaction of the States of a Province they had better meet in some other, than in the great Town of Trade. I thought so in the Dispute at Jamaica, but I have no other Reason to determine the Question in the Massachusetts, but that I have great Confidence in your Opinion.

    I am more concerned that some mistake seems to have happened respecting your Commission, you had formerly requested me to take it out for you. By a Letter of the 8th of September /69 you desire me to suspend taking any step in that Affair without further Order.2 As I did not suppose this intended to be kept secret from Sir Francis I thought I had communicated the contents of this Letter to him, but though he seems to have wrott sumthing like this to you, & shewed me a Letter from you that seems at first sight a little inconsistent with your Letter to me, he did not appear to call to mind that I had shewn him your Letter, of the 8th Sepr. I hope therefore I did not. My concern arises from the fear you have employed Mr. Palmer to pay the expences of the Commission, under an Apprehension that I was unwilling to take that part on myself.3 If Sir Francis had discovered any disinclination in me to apply for your Commission, I am sure it arose only from that Letter, though it is likely I did not shew it to him.

    I will some time or other freely tell you my Sentiments on the Disposition of Parliament and the People of this Country, in regard to American Affairs, in answer to a Paragraph of one of your former Letters.4 For the present, I will only say that Parliament of itself can do nothing if there is not a disposition to support Government in America itself. I am sure Parliament cannot do it, even with the Assistance of the executive Power of Great Britain. But I hope there is such a Disposition, & your Acceptance of the Chief Post is to me a very pleasing Symptom. I am convinced you see rays of Light that encourage you & therefore encourage me. I am Dear Sir Yours sincerely

    Richard Jackson

    RC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 27:15–17); docketed, “without date Recd beginning of Oct 1770.” Contemporary printing: Boston Gazette, 8 January 1776. The Gazette introduced the letter with the following note: “Mr. Hutchinson has wrote upon the back of it—Mr. Jackson, without a date, receiv’d the beginning of October.”

    710. To Thomas Whately

    Boston 3 October 1770

    Dear Sir, Your favour of the 28th of May was long in its passage to me not coming to my hands until about ten days ago.1 I think I had a Letter then on its way to you. The 9th of last month I rec’d his Majestys Orders to withdraw the Garrison in the pay of the Province from Castle William and to cause that Fortress to be garrisoned by his Majestys Regular Forces. To prevent all objections to what, at all events, I knew I must do I did it without delay and before I suffered my Orders to transpire prefering a sudden effort of resentment and rage, which I had reason to apprehend, to plots or schemes for obstructing the measure. As no just exception can be taken to the Kings directions in what manner the military power which he has delegated shall be exercised I dont see how a mark of resentment against the menaces so often made of maintaining unconstitutional Tenets by force could be better shewn and it seems intended as a preparatory to further measures with which I am not yet fully acquainted and rather think you will have a voice in determining in Parliament.

    The nonimportation affair I think is now over except so far as relates to Teas. I wish that had been joined with the other Articles in the last repealing Act or that it may be still done and the same duty remain in England for it is plain to me that N York who led the way in excepting that article only did not do it because of the duty but because it gives them a better pretence for bringing it from Holland and obtaining the general voice of the People for doing it, and the other Colonies following none will be imported from England. As other Articles will remain subject to duty I do not see that the Authority of Parliament is given up by taking off the duty from this more than from nails Glass &c. and if it should be thought to be so some other Article not as easily imported from a foreign state may be subjected to Duty instead of it.

    My Assembly have exposed themselves and the Province they represent by their frivolous Arguments in favour of holding the General Court at Boston. After they had once claimed a right of judging when the prerogative should be exercised by refusing to submit to it, unless when it shall appear to them to be for the Publick Good; it was not possible for me to concede to them for, upon the same reason I must have given up every other part of the prerogative. Levelling principles have had such spread that the principal men of the Province for understanding and Estate have been excluded both from the Council and House, and a few artful persons have governed all the rest. I have avoided disputing with them upon so plain a point so long as I could and until I found the People had taken up an Opinion that their Representatives were right because the Lt. Govr had not given them a full answer. I was obliged therefore to state their Exceptions and to Answer them in a Speech to the two Houses in July which I did not expect to have any immediate effect with them, but giving them a short recess and meeting them again last week, I find them much altered and I think the voice of their Constituents in general is that they should do business at Cambridge and I suppose they soon will proceed to it. Previous to it they have agreed to employ to morrow as a day of prayer for the two Houses to seek divine Direction. This too often, is done, to excite people to bad measures or to confirm them after they have been excited. I would hope now, which is the least of two Evils, that it is done to change from bad to good with a better grace. In either case Religion is made a stalking horse.

    I think it must puzzle the wisest heads in the Kingdom to restore America to a state of Government & Order. I should think myself happy in a few hours free conversation with you upon the subject. In general I can say that the wound may be skinned over but can never be healed until it be laid open to the Bone. Parliament must give up its claim to a Supreme authority over the Colonies or the Colonies must cease from asserting a Supreme Legislative within themselves. Until these points are settled we shall be alway liable upon every slight occasion to fresh disorder.

    I am very much obliged to you for your favorable opinion and for your kind wishes of success to my Administration. I foresaw the Burden & feared that it was too great for me. I hope for more ease at least for a season and that some intemperate Spirits who have been the cause of this Colonys making so conspicuous a figure and taking so great a share in the disorders of America are losing their influence but I may be mistaken. I am Dear Sir Your most Obedient humble

    Tho Hutchinson

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 27:11–12, 21); in WSH’s hand; at foot of letter, “Thomas Whately Esq to be left at Mr William Whately, Banker Lombard Street, London.”

    711. From Lord Hillsborough

    Whitehall October 3 1770



    Sir, Since my Letters to you of the 4th of August, Duplicates of which were transmitted to you by Mr. Pownall on the 5th of Septer. I have received and laid before the King your Dispatches Ns. 19, 20, 21 & 22.1 The great Candour & Moderation, with which you stated the Situation of the Colony in your Speech to the Assembly on the 25th. July, and the manner in which you urged to them the Propriety of Proceeding to the Dispatch of public Business, are very much to be commended, and with Men really disposed to promote the public Welfare could not have failed of producing the Effect you hoped for. It is however but too apparent, from the Violence and Indecency of their Answer, that they have other Objects in view and really mean to promote Distress to the Mother-Country at the Expence of the Interests of their Constituents.

    If neither the Authority of Parliament, nor the Decision of the Privy-Council, in matters relative to the Government and Constitution of that Colony, are to be admitted, those Ideas of their becoming independent, which have been treated as chimerical, will indeed be realized; and it is become highly proper that no more time should be lost in Deliberation upon those Measures that are essentially necessary to prevent such an Independence taking Effect; and I am persuaded that all those who wish well to the Community & who do not mean to concur in the dangerous Designs of a few desperate Men, will see the Necessity of such a further Explanation and Reform, of the Constitution of the Massachusets Bay as shall have the effect to restore the Dignity of the King’s Government and the Authority of the supreme Legislature.2 In the mean time it is certainly adviseable, to avoid as much as possible entering into Arguments with them on the ground of such Pretentions as are held forth in their Answer to your Speech; but some Reply to that Answer was clearly unavoidable, and the Prudence & Spirit with which that Reply is drawn are equally approved by the King.

    As no Steps have yet been taken in respect to the Arrangements mentioned to you in my Letter of the 14th April last, there will be the less difficulty in complying with what you suggest in your Letter 22 in Consequence of Mr. Roger’s Death, which is the more to be lamented if it should be occasioned, as you seem to think, by the illiberal and violent Attacks made upon him in refusing to concur in those measures which have been so disgraceful to the Town of Boston.3

    AC (National Archives UK, CO 5/759, ff. 263–64); at head of letter, “Lt. Govr. Hutchinson.” AC (National Archives UK, CO 5/765, ff. 184–86); at head of letter, “Lieut. Govr. Hutchinson.” SC (Houghton Library, Sparks 43, 1:127); at head of letter, “Lord Hillsborough to Lieut Govr: Hutchinson Whitehall Octr: 3rd: 1770”; excerpt beginning “The great Candour & Moderation . . .” through “. . . approved by the King.”

    712. From Sir Francis Bernard

    Hampstead, Oct 4. 1770

    No. 41

    Dear Sir, I am obliged to trouble you about an Affair which, tho a trifling Matter in itself, is as I understand to be made a Subject of Abuse of me and as I am told is intended for the London Papers. I therefore desire that you will interfere so far as to fix the Truth of the Case.

    When I entered upon the Government I subscribed for the building of the Church at Cambridge 10 Guineas as being as I then understood full as much I was expected to give.1 I afterwards attended the Dedication of the Church & put a Guinea in the Plate which I also understood was well accepted at that time. At the same time I had by me a silver Ewer & Chalice, which I intended to keep by me as occasional Plate for the Communion in Case I should be placed any where where it might be wanted. This Plate I offered to lend to the Church for a time to save them the immediate Expence of buying; & I never had an Intention at the time I sent the Plate or at any since to give it to the Church: if I had had such Intention, I should not have given the ten Guineas. For as that Sum was enough for me to give, the plate which cost above 20 Guineas as would have been more than enough without the Money. I mention this to clear up my own Intention.

    When I left the Country I directed my Agent to call upon the Church for the Plate. At first he was told that it was a Gift to the Church; but that being denied, & Col. Phips giving his testimony that it was a Loan only.2 It has been intimated to my Agent that if he demanded the Plate it will occasion a Publication against me in the London Papers and an Action will be brought against me for the Use of a Pew in the Church. The Foundation for such an Action is this. In the Spring 1768 I was desirous of attending Cambridge Church in the Summer, my own Church tho nearer to me by a mile being inconvenient from its standing in the midst of Boston. The Governor’s Pew in Cambridge Church having been demolished, Col. Oliver shewed me a Pew in the Side Isle which was at Liberty & he said it might be fitted up for me if I pleased.3 I declined the fitting it up, as my use of it was very uncertain, I then expecting to have Leave to come home, which I really did receive Soon after. I sat in that Pew six or eight or possibly more times that Summer: Lady Bernard was there one or two times but not liking the Pew and finding the Church too airy for her Health declined coming again: & I beleive I never was in the Church in the Year 1769. So that what they please to charge for my Use of this Pew will be paid. I may be mistaken in the time of assigning this Pew to me: it might be at the End of the Summer 1767. But I beleive that all the Use I had of the Pew might be brought within one year.

    This being the State of the Case, I desire that you will speak with Col. Oliver Col. Phips & Mr. Lee, the last of which has inadvertently given Occasion for this Dispute.4 If they Suffer this to be made a Subject of Abuse of me, the Reproach will ultimately fall on the Church, for the Members of which in general I have allways profest a Regard: & am sorry to see them so misled in this Business. I am &c.,

    SC (Houghton Library, Sparks 4, 8:122–24); at foot of letter, “The Honble Govr. Hutchinson.”

    713. From Sir Francis Bernard

    Hampstead, Octr. 6th 1770

    No. 42


    Dear Sir, I had just time by the Paoli to acknowledge the Receipt of your Letters 28–32 I now come to answer them.1

    I wrote to you some ago that your Commission would stand still till Lord Hillsborough returned from Ireland; and that your Salary would not be affected by it.2 It is now put in hand again, but as the public Officers are most out of town, it will scarce be got ready to go by Mr. Hallowell, who is returning a Commissioner of the Customs & carries an Appointment of his Brother to be Comptroller.3 In Regard to the other Commissions; Lord H has told me that you had proposed that the Lieut. Governor’s Commission might lie dormant for a time: but you did not consider that herein you counteract the Intention of the Administration upon which your own Promotion has been in part founded, that is to reward those who have served & suffered for Government, and to let those Rewards appear together that they may have the most forcible Effects. I don’t know that Mr. Olivers Income will be increased by his being appointed Lieut. Governor upon the Terms proposed. But surely such an Appointment with a Salary of 300 a year will greatly contribute to his honor and Ease, & as it will undoubtedly be considered as an Advancement, it will also reflect Honor upon the Government. Besides if the Salary for Mr. Oliver as Lieut. Govr. is not assigned now it probably never will; & the Office will forever lose this Support, which otherwise, thro’ Mr. Oliver, it will probably have. And you will agree with me that if this Office shall continue to require Residence as I dont see but it will, it ought to have a Support;

    As for Mr. Flucker he has for some time been considered as a Creditor of the Crown,4 and it was owing to Circumstances accidental as well as favorable, that Mr. Rogers got on the List before Mr. Flucker; and his Unfitness upon Account of the Strokes he had received were so loudly talked of that I should have been put to great Difficulty if I had been required to give my Opinion of the fitness of the Appointment. And now he is removed by the Hand of God, it would be a great Disappointment in the Cause of Government if Mr. F should not be put in his Place. And as Administration is, I know, desirous of giving all possible Proofs of their Attention to the Services of the Friends of Government in your Province; it would be a great Omission to neglect this Opportunity of rewarding Mr. Flucker. I have therefore allready supported my own Recommendation with those of yours & Mr. Olivers, & shall urge it again at the next Opportunity. I shall very readily join with you in your Opinion of the Integrity and Abilities of your Brother whenever there shall be an Occasion to propose them.5

    I shall leave the Account of settling the Board to Mr. Hallowell, who will bring the latest Advices: nothing is done as yet; it is full late now; they don’t consider the Winters of America. I shall bear many in my mind Goldthwaite Letter: I have a great deal to say about Penobscot. But there are Matters of so great Importance upon the Carpet now that the lesser Matters must wait. I delivered your Letter to Sir Edward Hawke to Mr. Stephens & desired he would give me an Opportunity to see Sir Edward.6 I will give your Recommendation fair Play: I have already applied for the Office for my Son & have considered myself as refused. But if Sir Edward has any Thoughts of giving it to my Son I shall accept of it; if he proposes to give it to Mr. Cotton I shall not oppose it. I have considered it as not of Importance enough to wear my Interest about. I am &c.,


    SC (Houghton Library, Sparks 4, 8:126–28); at foot of letter, “The Honble Govr Hutchinson.”

    714. From Andrew Oliver

    Saturday 6 Octor 1770.

    Dear Sir, I expected to see Mr. Paxton at Colonel Hatch’s after dinner for which reason I deferred my Journey to the Castle, and have this Forenoon luckily met with Capn. Caldwell, who was coming to my house to acquaint me that he perfectly remembers the exceptionable part of my deposition, and that Colo Dalrymple remembers it likewise, and are both ready to attend when it shall be thought proper in order to give their testimony.1

    I think it would be best for the affair to be put off till the Council have determined what to do with the Testimonies now before them; otherwise I should have thought of Monday as a day when Mr. Tyler & the other Gentn. would be at liberty to attend the business.

    I shall hope you will be present whenever it is, and that you will therefore appoint the time.

    I hear that the House after rejecting the report of the Comittee, appointed a Comee. to prepare an answer to your Message & to protest or remonstrate, but against what I did not learn.2 I am Dear Sir Your most aff humble Servant,

    Andrew Oliver

    RC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 25:439); at foot of letter, “Honle. T. Hutchinson Esq. (Best Milton Manufacture)”; addressed, “To the honle Thomas Hutchinson Esq Lieut. Governor &c Milton.”

    715. From Sir Francis Bernard

    Hampstead, Octr 7. 1770

    No. 43

    Dear Sir, It is generally understood here that the Combinations in America are at an End: the rest of the Colonies must follow the example of New York however they pretend to abhor it. The last Advices from Boston say that the Merchants there were upon the Point of declaring for Importation: & it is high time for there is 350.000 pounds worth of Goods all ready gone from hence to New York. If this is so there is no Occasion for Commissioners as you mention; besides if Commissioners were to treat with the Colonies, such a Submission would only widen the Breach: they would quarrel upon first Principles & go no farther than asserting and denying the Authority of Parliament.1 The Declaration at Cambridge has nothing new in it, but the extraordinary Circumstances of time Place & the Speaker.2 It may be of some Use: if it is, care will be taken that no Names shall be used, and there shall be no Room to guess at the Reporter.

    I think you have conducted your Dispute with the Assembly in a masterly Manner & have fairly routed them. Their Publication of the Papers I thought would have been of Use here: but they are too voluminous; nobody reads them & they have never been republished here. And indeed their last Answer is so flagitious that it makes all the rest Useless: this will [be] read in Parliament and I think must rouse them.3 It will be very suitable to what is intended to be done to reform your Government.

    I am very sorry to hear you say that the Assembly can’t be held at Cambridge in Winter. I held an Assembly there in the severest Part of the Winter, and we were very comfortable in every thing but setting fire to the College: and that turned out for good. I mentioned to my Lord H your Desire to have a discretionary Power to call them at Boston: He answered shortly “by no means untill they have acknowledged the Governor’s Power to call them where he pleases”; and said he would write to you so. I think there is another thing wanting which ought to precede the calling the Assembly at Boston: which is strengthening the Government & reforming the Magistracy that you may be sure to be able to controll the Mob. At present if the Faction should fail in the House, they would raise their Forces without & terrify those whom they could not persuade. When we see so respectable a Body as the Merchants of Boston with all their Friends and dependents about them drove involuntary into Distress & Ruin, by the fear of a Mob can we expect more firmness in a Set of Country farmers without anyone to support them? I do verily beleive if the Majority of the Assembly were disposed to get rid of the Tyranny of the Faction they would not dare to attempt it at Boston but would venture it at Cambridge. So that if this Revolution so wanted to the Province should take Place it must be by means of the Assemblys being kept out of Boston, untill the Authority of Government is restored there. This will not be done this Winter, tho’ I hope it will before the next.

    As your Conduct has been approved of, so you may depend upon it it will be justified in a proper Manner; not by complimentary Letters, by which I was supported under the most unequal Struggle that ever Man laboured with for 4 years together, but by actual Appointments, by an adequate Salary; by additional Powers & by other Ways & Means which if I had had 2 years ago I should not have been here now. Every thing that you could wish to support your Government is intended to be done. If Administration fails in this this Session I will never ask you to expect Releif again. I am &c.,

    SC (Houghton Library, Sparks 4, 8:129–31); at foot of letter, “The Honble Govr Hutchinson.”

    716. From Sir Francis Bernard

    Hampstead, Octr 8th [1770]

    No. 44

    Dear Sir, I wrote to you in my Letter No. 42, that I would give your Recommendation of Mr. Cotton fair play, & for that Purpose tho I intended to remind Sr. E Hawke of my former Application on behalf of my Son, 20 Months ago, to which I had received no Answer; yet I had your Letter delivered to Sir Edward, referring the Determination to a State of the Case which I desired Leave to make to him.1

    I accordingly saw him this day: he said he was very desirous of obliging you whom he considered as an old Acquaintance & was under Difficulty upon Account of my prior Application; I therefore read to him your Letter & showed that it was not your Intention to defeat my Application for my Son; & I added that my Connection with you was of such a Sort that if you was present, you would give all your Interest in favor of my Son; that my Son was one of 9 Children & the first of 4 Sons unprovided for (which is true notwithstanding the reversionary Interest he has lately obtained in a Place.)2 I added that Mr. Cotton was deserving of the favor of Government, and he should have my hearty Assistance to procure it by such Ways as should occur. He said that as it appeared from your Letter that you did not desire to counteract my Application on the behalf of my Son, he would give him the Place. But he particularly desired that I would let you know, that he had a strong Recollection of the friendly Intercourse he had with you at Boston, & should be glad of every Opportunity that occurred to shew his Regard to you. He partcularly expressed a Pleasure that your Commission was now proceeding to a Completion. I must add that as I shall be the Cause of Mr Cottons Disappointment at present, I shall think myself obliged to give my utmost Attention to procure and I must remind you of giving him the whole of the office he now has, which I hope will soon be in Your Power, & which will be due no less as a Reward & than as a Punishment.3 I am &c.,

    SC (Houghton Library, Sparks 4, 8:131–32); at foot of letter, “The Honble Govr Hutchinson.”

    717. From Thomas Gage

    New York October 8th 1770

    Sir, By last Post, I wrote to Colonel Dalrymple, concerning the Provincial Stores and Storekeeper, and am happy to find by your Letter of 30th Ultimo, that we are of the same opinion respecting those Points.1 I told the Colonel that the Person who had charge of the Stores before, ought still to have the care of them, and that I did not doubt the Province would pay him for his trouble, if the Province refused I hoped the King would pay him upon a proper representation. That none of those Stores shou’d be made use of by the Troops, and none issued but by your Orders, on Firing Days, or for other Purposes. That the delivery of the Stores from one Person to another, and perhaps the redelivery of them some Months hence, would naturaly occasion Trouble and possibly much Confusion, all which would be saved by retaining the former Storekeeper. I desired an Inventory of the Stores, that it might be seen whether there was a Sufficiency in Case the Fort should be in Danger, and to furnish a Supply if any should be wanted. I have just received the Inventory, and perceive there is a Quantity of Stores Sufficient for a Fort, three times the Size of Castle William.

    I find the General Court is met, and I sincerely hope you will not have the same Trouble and disagreeable Altercations, as in their last Sessions. I am with great Regard and Esteem, Sir, &c, &c, &c Your Most Obedient humble Servant

    SC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 27:18–19); in WSH’s hand; at foot of letter, “Honble: Lieut. Govr. Hutchinson.” AC (Clements Library, Thomas Gage Papers); at foot of letter, “[Lt. Govr:] Hutchinson.”