THE Annual Meeting of the Society was held at the Algonquin Club, No. 217 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, on Friday, 21 November 1953, at a quarter before seven o’clock in the evening, the President, Hon. Robert Walcott, in the chair.
With the consent of those present, the reading of the minutes of the last Stated Meeting was omitted.
Mr. William Hutchinson Pynchon Oliver, of Morristown, New Jersey, and Mr. Ray Nash, of Hanover, New Hampshire, were elected Corresponding Members of the Society.
The Annual Report of the Council was read by Mr. Walter Muir Whitehill.
Report of the Council
FOLLOWING the pattern of the past quarter century, the Society met four times during the year. At the Annual Meeting on 21 November 1952 the magnificence of the lobsters provided for those gentlemen who observed the Friday fast caused envious glances and searchings of soul among many of the members who attacked the traditional saddles of lamb. The speaker was Sir Richard Livingstone, sometime President of Corpus Christi College and Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University. The two winter meetings were held at the Club of Odd Volumes. On 18 December, our former Corresponding Secretary, the Reverend Charles E. Park returned after a long absence to read a paper entitled “Puritans and Quakers,” while on 26 February both Vice Presidents offered contributions, Mr. Gummere speaking on “Byrd and Sewall, Two Colonial Classicists” and Mr. Morison reading an account by the Abbe Casgrain of his visit to Boston in 1871, during which he was the guest of Francis Parkman. On 23 April the Society returned to its former custom of crossing the river to Cambridge, meeting at the Signet Society as guests of President Walcott. On this occasion, Professor Warren O. Ault read a paper entitled “The Court Roll of the Manor of Scrooby.” The Society elected the following members:
- Thomas Boylston Adams
- Robert Hammond Haynes
- Raleigh Ashlin Skelton
- Frederick George Emmison
- Everett Harold Hugo
Seven members have died during the year:
Alice Bache Gould, an Honorary Member since 1947, died on 25 July 1953, the feast of Santiago el Mayor, Patron of Spain, while crossing the drawbridge across the moat of the castle of Simancas in the twilight. The daughter of our first President, Benjamin Apthorp Gould, she spent four decades in Spanish archives establishing the identities of Columbus’s crew. A phenomenal scholar, with zest for attacking and skill in achieving the seemingly impossible, Miss Gould was more widely known in Spain than in her native Massachusetts. It was appropriate that she should have worn the cross of Isabel la Catolica; it was equally fitting that she should have been the only woman ever elected to this Society.
Douglas Southall Freeman, an Honorary Member since 1951, died on 13 June 1953. The incomparable biographer of the greatest Virginians and the worthy successor of their traditions, Dr. Freeman nevertheless delighted in claiming Cape Cod colonial origins.
Reverend Warner Foote Gookin, a Non-Resident Member since 1952, died on 2 March 1953. A priest of the Episcopal church, living in retirement on Martha’s Vineyard, he continued, in spite of failing health, to pursue studies of Gosnold and the early explorers of our coast.
William Greene Roelker, elected a Resident Member in 1938, transferred to Corresponding Membership in 1941, and to Non-Resident Membership in 1950, died on 29 May 1953. After twenty-five years in business, he turned to the graduate study of American history. His sudden death by accident cut short a useful second career as Director of the Rhode Island Historical Society.
Frederic Adrian Delano, a Corresponding Member since 1918, died on 28 March 1953 at the age of eighty-nine. President of three railroads, a colonel in the old war, and public servant under four presidents of the United States, he served as chairman of the National Resources Planning Commission during the presidency of his nephew, F. D. R.
John Marshall Phillips, a Corresponding Member since 1950, died on 7 May 1953. The foremost authority upon American silver, Mr. Phillips ably directed the Yale University Art Gallery. His early death saddens many scholars, who have lost not only a valued colleague but a dear friend.
Reginald Fitz, a Resident Member since 1934, died 27 May 1953. A distinguished member of the Faculty of Medicine of both Boston and Harvard Universities, medical historian, university marshal at Harvard for two decades, Dr. Fitz was a member of the Council of this Society at the time of his death. Few men have been so universally valued in this Society, as in their profession and in the whole community.
The Society has continued to act as co-publisher of the New England Quarterly, now in its twenty-sixth year. In commemoration of the Society’s sixtieth anniversary a Handbook, containing an historical sketch and complete lists of members, has been printed and distributed. The task of establishing the membership lists was begun by the Reverend Frederick Lewis Weis, and completed by the Editor.
Two volumes of collections dealing with early Maine land grants and speculation will be distributed during the coming winter. This project sprang from the bequest to the Society by George Nixon Black, a Resident Member from 1894 until his death in 1928, of a group of papers of his great-grandfather, General David Cobb, who was the Maine agent for William Bingham of Philadelphia in the extensive maneuvers that opened that eastern district of Massachusetts to settlement. In the late thirties, our fellow member, Mr. Frederick S. Allis, Jr. of Phillips Academy, Andover, was commissioned to edit the Cobb papers for publication by the Society. Attacking the problem with praiseworthy thoroughness, Mr. Allis gained access to related papers in the offices of the Bingham Trust in Philadelphia, which greatly expanded the scope of his work. Service in the United States Naval Reserve during the war caused him to set the project aside for several years, but since returning to Andover he has continued to such purpose that in June 1952 a very substantial manuscript was sent to press. In September last, when some 400 galleys were corrected, and there seemed every reason to believe that the bound volumes would be in our members’ hands by the time of the Annual Meeting, Mr. Allis and Professor Moody discovered in the Library of Congress newly acquired microfilms of pertinent papers from the files of Baring Brothers, who were deeply involved in the Maine lands. As permission to publish this material, which admirably supplements the galleys already in type, was graciously given by Lord Ashburton, it seemed wise to delay an already extended project by a few more months.
The Treasurer submitted his Annual Report as follows:
Report of the Treasurer
In accordance with the requirements of the By-laws, the Treasurer submits his Annual Report for the year ending 14 November 1953.
|Statement of Assets and Funds, 14 November 1953|
Investments at Book Value:
Bonds (Market Value $136,827.81)
Stocks (Market Value $222,855.63)
Savings Bank Deposit
|Income Cash Receipts and Disbursements|
Balance, 14 November 1952
Sales of Publications
Total Receipts of Income
New England Quarterly
Handbook of the Colonial Society
Notices and Expenses of Meetings
Postage, Office Supplies and Miscellaneous
National Trust—Active Membership
Interest on Sarah Louise Edes Fund added to Principal
Interest on Albert Matthews Fund added to Principal
Total Disbursements of Income
Balance of Income, 14 November 1953
Mr. Willard G. Cogswell reported that the Auditing Committee had employed Messrs. Stewart, Watts and Bollong, Public Accountants and Auditors, to make an audit of the accounts and to examine the securities, and presented the report of that firm to the meeting.
The several reports were accepted and referred to the Committee on Publication.
On behalf of the committee appointed to nominate officers for the ensuing year the following list was presented; and a ballot having been taken, these gentlemen were unanimously elected:
- Robert Walcott
- Samuel Eliot Morison
- Richard Mott Gummere
- Robert Earle Moody
- David Britton Little
- James Melville Hunnewell
Member of the Council for Three Years
- Palfrey Perkins
Member of the Council for One Year
- Stephen Thomas Riley
After the meeting was dissolved, dinner was served. The guests of the Society were Sir Herbert Read, Colonel George L. Smith, Messrs. Isaiah Berlin, Christopher Hawkes, Ray Nash, and Hugh Whitney. The Reverend Henry Wilder Foote said grace.
After dinner Mr. Samuel Eliot Morison read the Mayflower Compact, Mr. David McCord read several of his poems, and Sir Herbert Read, Charles Eliot Norton Professor of Poetry at Harvard University, addressed the Society.
1 Printed in a pamphlet Will of Thomas Boylston, late of London, without place or date of publication, in the Boston Athenæum (B 455).
2 Thomas C. Amory, The Life of Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, Baronet (Boston, 1886), 96–110, gives an account of the Coffin schools and the text of a will establishing them that was subsequently revoked.
3 Charles H. Pope and Katharine Peabody Loring, Loring Genealogy (1917); the family’s corrected copy has been used for these data. Another branch of the Hingham family, the Joshua Lorings (for whom see the Dictionary of American Biography), were officers in the Royal Navy and loyalists.
4 So called because the earliest settler nearby, a kinsman of the Colonel Pride of Pride’s Purge, kept a yoke of oxen to pull traveling wagons out of a swampy place on the road. The post office there was still kept by an Elisha Pride at the turn of this century.
5 The small square house with mansard roof, which at the turn of the century belonged to Professor Charles Loring Jackson of Harvard, and now (1952) to a Jackson family trust.
6 Theophilus Parsons, Memoir of C. G. Loring in Proc. Mass. Hist. Soc, xi (1869–1870), 282. Miss Katharine Loring told me the story that the farmer who sold the land to Mr. Paine was so conscience-stricken by the price that he asked and received, that he threw in a yoke of white oxen after the bargain was concluded.
7 Letter of 25 March 1952, and letter of Charles A. Read, 12 February 1952, who adds, “Gus had no fear during the storm and kept his head at all times.” But he had not yet acquired his later culinary skill, and they had nothing to eat out and home except baked beans, bread and strawberry jam.
8 Lest yachting purists object that North Haven dinghys were only 14 feet long, I insist that mine, the Leda, was by exception a 16-footer, having been especially built for a grandson of Bishop Doane.
9 An amusing episode was that of the Frick estate. Henry Frick, the Pittsburgh steel tycoon, wanted shore-front at Beverly, on which to build a palace. No shore land was then (c. 1904) for sale. A local realtor sold him a lot without waterfront, cut off from Plum Cove beach by the Loring property, on the ground that the Lorings were an impoverished old family who would be only too glad to sell out. The Lorings courteously offered Mr. Frick the privilege of a bathing house on their beach and the right to run a pipe down for salt water; but that was not what Mr. Frick wanted. The realtor then suggested that, since Bartletts Island was the apple of Mr. Loring’s eye, Mr. Frick authorize him to buy up the rest of the island, after which they could make a deal for the Plum Cove beach. Mr. Frick did then buy up the rest of Bartletts, greatly to the delight of the natives; but when it came to making a deal, Mr. Loring laughed and said he’d sell his part of Bartletts to Mr. Frick, but not a foot of the beach at Pride’s.
10 R. E. Bowen to S. E. M., Galveston, 20 February 1952.
11 Printed in The New England Quarterly, xxvii (1954), 53–74.
12 “Brian Harrison, Mariner, and Elizabeth Harris, widow of William Harris, Mariner, late of St. Marys, White Chapel, 18 Feb. 1620.” Chester’s Marriage Registers, edit. Joseph Foster.
13 “3 Dec. 1626. Peter Whare and Mary Bourne.” Marriage Reg. of St. John’s, Wapping.
14 “22 July 1628. Peter Whare.” Burial Reg. of St. John’s, Wapping.
15 “22 Sept. 1630. Mary, wife of Peter Whare.” Burial Reg. of St. John’s, Wapping.
16 “6 Dec. 1618, Ruth, dau. of Robert Bourne and Mary.” Baptismal Reg. of St. John’s.
17 “14 Nov. 1620, John, son of Robert Bourne & Mary.” Wapping.
18 There are no Trinity House records prior to 1660, and this date is taken from a reference in the State Papers.
19 Except that Parnell Gray married William Parker, a merchant in London: “5 Aug. 1622, William Parker of St. Peter’s, Cornhill, London, and Parnell Gray of this hamlet, singlewoman (Mar. Reg. of St. John’s, Waffing).” He died before 1626, and she married, secondly, I. Nowell, merchant, a prominent settler in Massachusetts, who went out in Governor Winthrop’s fleet in 1630, and settled at Charlestown.
20 His name appears in a list of the Younger Brethren of Trinity House, dated 1628, which is amongst the State Papers in the Public Record Office. The family of Bence were prominent in the affairs of Aldeborough for several generations.
21 Squire was a family name and had formerly been spelt Squeir.
22 Except to add that his second daughter, Judith, baptized at Wapping 14 September 1624, married Stephen Winthrop (born March, 1619), son of Governor John Winthrop of Massachusetts.
23 “24 June 1635, Thomas Coytmore and Martha Rainborowe, both of this hamlet.” Mar. Reg. of St. John’s, Wapping.
24 “A daughter, Elizabeth, baptised 3 Feb. 1622, was buried at Wapping on 21 Sept. 1625”.
25 Limehouse at this time being a part of the extensive Parish of Stepney.
26 Although the Mayflower was said to have been the ship of Plymouth Pilgrims, eight years before. (Winthrop’s Journal), J. K. Hosmer, 1908.
27 The Stepney Parish Registers contain some dozens of entries concerning the Graves family, nearly all of whom are described as Shipwrights or Mariners.
28 William Adams (d. 1620), the first European to land in Japan (1600), records that at the age of twelve he began his seafaring life, being apprenticed to Nicholas Diggins, of Limehouse, with whom he remained for twelve years.
29 The parish Register of St. Nicholas, Deptford, records that he commanded a ship against the Spanish Armada in 1588, and was a brother of Sir John Hawkins.
30 The length of both is given as 116 feet, but the beam of the Speaker 34–5 as against 35 feet for the Fairfax. Their tonnage is shown as 727 and 745 respectively. Their armament varied from time to time from 50 to 62 guns.
31 Assistance had been built with the Fairfax, at Deptford; her dimensions were 102 feet by 31 feet, and tonnage 521. When first commissioned she carried 36 guns, and had a crew of 150. Her armament subsequently varied between 40 and 50 guns. She long survived and was rebuilt in 1699.
32 Some of the records and regalia were returned to Scotland a few years later, others were lost at sea after the Restoration.
33 It would appear that Penn was in command of the Triumph in Bourne’s squadron and serving under him in the engagement of the 19th, as the order of the Council of State of the same day was received by Blake, then lying in the Downs, who, on the 21st sent Penn his warrant to “wear a flag on the foretop of the ship Triumph under your charge.”
34 This refers to Captain William Badiley, of whom further mention will be made. His brother, Captain Richard Badiley, was then in command of a squadron in the Mediterranean.
35 In the original recommendation from the Admiralty Committee the space for the first of the three names was left blank, for the Council of State to fill in. Although Willoughby was named, he had, in fact, already been appointed (10 October. Cal. State Papers Dom. 1652).
36 A sailing barge.
37 The letter does not mention that Bartholomew Bourne, later referred to, who was lieutenant in the Assistance, had been killed in the same action.
38 Raveled=Tangled, confused or involved; having no basis or foundation.
40 In one of the lists of ships and their commanders, in The First Dutch War (Navy Record Society), he is incorrectly entered as William Graves, but elsewhere as Thomas, or just Captain Graves. In the index he appears as William, query Thomas.
41 Colchester and Romford are on the main road from Harwich to London; the main road to the eastern counties crossed the River Lea at Bow Bridge.
42 Rolling Ground=at the entrance to Harwich Harbor, formerly much used as an anchorage.
43 Flute=A type of vessel variously described as a storeship, naval transport, or partially armed vessel; probably the kind frequently used as privateers. A buss was a two- or three-masted vessel of varying size, used especially in the Dutch herring fishery.
44 Referred to as a cousin, in the will of his brother, John Bourne.
45 A protection against impressment for service in the state’s ships.
46 Possibly the site of the present New Crane Wharf, Wapping.
47 Hoseley Bay—Hollesley Bay, between Woodbridge Haven and Orfordness; it was much used as a man-of-war anchorage for upwards of a hundred years, and long afterwards by colliers sheltering from northerly winds.
48 In May, 1660, George Fox, a founder of the Society of Friends, visited Harwich and there was so much disturbance caused by his preaching that the mayor and justice committed him and his local supporter, Robert Grassingham, to prison. They were taken to London and detained as prisoners until after the House rose at the end of August.
49 Alexander Bence, sometime M.P. for Aldeborough, a prominent merchant and a supporter of the Parliamentary cause. He was afterwards Master of the Trinity House, in 1659–1660, and continued his membership of the House after the Restoration, and until his death in 1662.
50 Piscataqua, near Portsmouth Harbor, New Hampshire.
52 There is a list of the Elder and Young Brethren of the Trinity House in the year 1628 amongst the State Papers in the Public Record Office.
53 Appleton’s Cyclopedia of American Biography, and copied into the Dictionary of American Biography.
54 Herbert Pelham went to New England in 1635, and later had a plantation near Sudbury, Mass. In October, 1643, he was chosen Treasurer of Harvard College, but later returned to England, where he died in July, 1673.
55 “Ordinary”—formerly a meal regularly provided at a fixed price in a tavern or eating-house; also applied to a tavern where meals were provided at a fixed price, or to a dining room in such a building. In Virginia, in the eighteenth century, it referred to a tavern or inn of any kind.
56 The first mention of the Pewter Platter is in the year 1531.
57 He was, however, in Grimsby Roads, in the Assistance on 18 June, and requesting the services of a pilot to take him up to Hull for provisions. (First Order Book of the Trinity House, Hull. Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1942.)
58 Renamed after the Restoration the Royal James, and burned by the Dutch in 1667 during the Second Dutch War.
59 In a printed list of inscriptions on the tombs in Bunhill Fields Burial Ground compiled for the Report of the Committee to the Court of Common Council in 1866. However, in the Burial Ground—heavily bombed in the Second Great War—no monument any longer marks the burial place of the Bourne family.
60 Epsom, Co. Surrey.
61 Chester’s London Marriage Licences.
62 In December, 1662, his name was mentioned (as a safe man) in connection with a plot to kill the King.
63 E.g., W. P. Trent, American Literature (New York, 1903).
64 G. M. Trevelyan, Illustrated. English Social History, 11 (1950); T. J. Wertenbaker, Patrician and Plebeian in Virginia (Charlottesville, 1910); S. E. Morison, The Puritan Pronaos (New York, 1936).
65 Diary, III. 31.
66 See J. S. Bassett, The Writings of Colonel William Byrd (New York, 1901). R. C. Beatty, William Byrd of Westover (Boston, 1932). The Secret Diary of William Byrd of Westover (1709–1712), edited by L. B. Wright and Marion Tinling (Richmond, 1941). Another Secret Diary (1739–1741), edited by Woodfin and Tinling (Richmond, 1942). Since this paper was given Dr. Wright and Miss Tinling have edited Byrd’s The London Diary (1717–1721) and Other Writings (New York, 1958). Letters of William Byrd, II, in Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, October, 1901–January, 1902.
Diary of Samuel Sewall, three volumes, in Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society—Fifth Series, v, vi, and vii. Sewall’s Letter-Book, ibid., Sixth Series, I and II. See also J. L. Sibley, Biographical Sketches of Graduates of Harvard University (Cambridge, 1881), II. 345–364.
See also, for both Byrd and Sewall, articles in the Dictionary of American Biography.
67 T. J. Wertenbaker, Virginia under the Stuarts (Princeton, 1914), 73. Livy, I. 54 (The Tarquins and Gabii); Herodotus, v. 92 (Thrasybulus to Periander). Zoltán Haraszti, John Adams and the Prophets of Progress (Cambridge, 1952), 178.
68 Wertenbaker, Torch-Bearer of the Revolution (Oxford University Press, 1940), 40, 60, 180, etc. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, passim.
69 Martha W. Hiden, “Latin in Colonial Virginia,” The Classical Weekly, XXII (1928), no. 6, 41–45.
70 Edited by L. B. Wright (Chapel Hill, 1947). See pages 54, 98, 159, 180, 189, 229, 271, 292, 310.
71 Howard M. Jones, “The Literature of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century,” Memoirs of American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1946. See also L. B. Wright, “The Classical Tradition in Colonial Virginia,” Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, xxxiii (1939), 85–97.
72 Of Plymouth Plantation 1620–1647, edited by S. E. Morison (New York, 1952). See especially pages 18, 23, 61 (Seneca, Epistle 53), 110, 120, 144, 206, 325.
73 Byrd, Secret Diary, 171; ibid., 414, 409. Sewall, Diary, II. 42 and 55.
74 Juvenal, Satires, vi. 165.
75 Sewall, Diary, II. 37; III. 379. See also, for a rebuke to an overindulgent minister, ibid., II. 267 (6 Nov. 1709).
76 Saltus Saliaris, named from the Salii, the leaping priests of Mars.
77 Horace, Epistles, I. 1, 74. For these items, see Diary, II. 305; Letter-Book, I. 323; I. 110; I. 150.
78 Diary, I. 21; I. 12; I. 25, etc.
79 Lètter-Book II. 104 (1 Feb. 1720).
80 Metamorphoses, iv. 428.
81 Diary, II. 96. “The last to leave his post in the heavens,” Metamorphoses, II. 115.
82 Letter-Book, I. 17, written at Newbury, then his home, quoting the beginning of Ovid’s Tristia. (This work is translated by A. L. Wheeler, in the Loeb Classical Library.)
83 Letter-Book, I. 372. Metamorphoses, xv. 158–159 (translated by F. J. Miller, in the Loeb Classical Library).
84 Tristia, II. 279–280.
85 Letter-Book, II. 35 (4 Oct. 1714); Horace, Odes, I. 4, 13. For the same phrase, see ibid., II. 86–87 (2 Jan.1718).
86 Letter-Book, I. 263; Terence, Andria, III. 3, 23.
87 Diary, II. 242 (15 Nov. 1708); Vergil, Aeneid, III. 56.
88 Ibid., II. 191 (4 July 1707); Vergil, Eclogues, III. 111.
89 Diary, II. 136 (24 Aug. 1705). Partially reminiscent of Horace, Ars Poetica, 394 and the building of Thebes by Amphion. Solymae is Jerusalem. The Latin word is usually treated as a neuter plural with singular meaning.
90 Diary, I. 238. Did S. mean Chapter IV, verses 5, 6, and 7?
91 See N. H. Chamberlain, Samuel Sewall and the World he lived in (Boston, 1897), 188. Diary, II. 58 (II June 1702).
92 Free speech was evidently tolerated; for Gee became college librarian in 1721; and Sewall later offered prayer at his funeral. Diary, III. 258. See C. K. Shipton, Sibley’s Harvard Graduates, vi. 176.
93 Letter-Book, I. 90 (26 Oct. 1688).
94 Ibid., I. 163. The correct form for a Master’s thesis.
95 Diary, I. 450, 475 (27 Mar. 1697 and 16 Mar. 1698). The full title was Phaenomena Quaedam Apocalyptica ad Aspectum Novi Orbis Configurata, or, Some Few Lines Towards a Description of the New Heaven as it makes to Those Who Stand upon the New Earth.
96 Letter-Book, I. 193 (3 Mar. 1698). This refers to the famous case of Caecilianus, who was made Bishop of Carthage in opposition to the Donatists. He was backed by the Synod of Arles, a.d. 314.
97 Letter-Book, I. 196–199 (12 April 1698).
98 Diary, II. 19 (10 July 1700). The authorities were adamant: Mather must give up either his Boston pulpit or his college presidency.
99 W. K. Boyd, William Byrd’s Histories of the Dividing Line (Raleigh, N. C., 1929). The third version, finished in 1738, was first published at Petersburg, Virginia, in 1841. Incidentally, it might be noted that the final version contains almost entirely classical allusions; there are a few exceptions, such as the horse of Hudibras (p. 119), and the Paradise of Mahomet (p. 143).
100 From Lucian (a special favorite of Byrd’s), On The Syrian Goddess, 8. The river Adonis, flowing from Libanus, at Byblos turns by sympathetic magic a red color in pity for the wounding and death of Adonis, although an old inhabitant told Lucian that it was soil blown by the wind at a certain season. This river is also mentioned by Strabo, 755. It may be the modern river Nahr-Ibrahim.
101 For the location of these passages in the Dividing Line, see J. S. Bassett, op. cit., 47, 60, 49, 43, 53, 31, 67, 96, 106, 134, 120, 130, 161, 160, 247, 37, 334, 177, 207, 219, 183, 230, 254, etc.
102 Secret Diary, 10 Nov. 1709.
103 Book 41, ch. 21.
104 Other works of Sewall include The Selling of Joseph (against the slave trade), and certain brief communications dealing with Indian problems, paper money, doctrinal matters, and support of political independence for Massachusetts. Byrd maintained an extensive correspondence with the British Government authorities and, in addition to his reports on his explorations, wrote memoranda on the natural history of Virginia which furnished material of interest to possible settlers.
105 From the Satyricon, III. (Page 229, Loeb Classical Library, translated by M. Heseltine.)
106 See H. Rackham, Pliny the Elder, Natural History, x. 43 (III. 345, Loeb Classical Library). For all these passages from Byrd’s notebooks, see Another Secret Diary, Part II. 191–475. Here we find allusions to Homer, Lucian, Herodian, Sallust, Apollonius, Athenaeus, and many others, offhand as usual and not documented. It is impossible in most cases to determine the time and place of the particular letter or “character.”
107 Another Secret Diary, 332. (The δαιμών of Socrates).
108 Epigrams, I. 16.
109 Another Secret Diary, 386, translated by Professor W. H. Harris, of the University of Richmond.
110 To Zenobia, Another Secret Diary, 261, 283.
111 Letter-Book, I. 293 (24 Feb. 1704).
112 Diary, II. 311 (16 May 1711).
113 Diary, II. 369 (20 Dec. 1712). For Larnell’s pathetic story, see C. K. Shipton, Sibley’s Harvard Graduates, vi.
114 Letter-Book, I. 245 (18 Oct. 1700).
115 Letter-Book, II. 178.
116 For example, E. Eggleston, The Beginners of a Nation (1896); Edward Arber, The Story of the Pilgrim Fathers, 1606–1623 A.D., as told by Themselves, Their Friends, and Their Enemies (London, 1897); H. M. and M. Dexter, The England and Holland of the Pilgrims (Boston, 1905); J. A. Goodwin, The Pilgrim Republic (1920); C. E. Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers (1930).
117 The Dexters, op. cit., p. 236, n. 1, knew of its existence but made no use of it. Rev. John Raine, The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Blyth (Westminster, 1860), translated the record of the April session of 1621 for inclusion in his book, 125–126. His translation is not accurate at all points (there is even a mistake in the date) and some of his explanatory notes are misleading.
118 To those whose interest in the Scrooby country is genealogical it will be well to say at once that not one of the family names on the passenger lists of the Mayflower, Fortune, Anne and Little James is to be found in the first volume (1621–1630) of the court roll of Scrooby manor, where an even hundred different names are recorded. Tracing the ancestry of the Pilgrim Fathers has always been beset with difficulties. These have been attributed to the circumstance that most of the Pilgrims were “plain farmers,” and came from “the cottages, not from the manor houses of England.” Scholars have long been of the opinion that very few of the early settlers of Plymouth Colony came from the Scrooby area, and the complete absence of Pilgrim names from the rolls of the manor court supports this view. “A considerable examination of parish records in the neighborhood of Scrooby has proved singularly barren of results,” Dexter, op. cit., 379.
119 “Genesis of the Massachusetts Town,” 2 Proc. Mass. Hist. Soc., vii. 250.
120 A History of the United States, I. 426.
121 C. M. Andrews, The Colonial Period of American History, I. 256.
122 Dictionary of American Biography, art. by R. G. Usher.
123 Dexter, op. cit., 216–218. The medieval documentation on Scrooby is not very extensive, despite the length of the account in Dexter. For example, there is no extent of the manor, of any period. The Dexters do seem to have missed a reference to Scrooby in the Hundred Rolls, Rot. Hund., II. 26.
124 LeNeve, The Lives and Character . . . of all the Protestant Bishops of the Church of England since the Reformation (London, 1720), Pt. II, 61.
125 Dexter, op. cit., 231, n. I, where the lease is quoted in full.
126 Cal. State Papers Domestic, 1603–1610, 33.
127 E.g. Sheppard, Court Keeper’s Guide, chap. 7, par. 3. Cited by E. P. Cheyney, A History of England, I. 397.
128 Statutes at Large, II. 339–340. James 1 c. 5.
129 S. and B. Webb, English Local Government from the Revolution to the Municipal Corporation Act, I (The Manor and the Borough), 124.
130 Channing, 2 Proc. Mass. Hist. Soc, vii. 262.
131 The record for 1621–1630 covers twenty-nine sheets of paper, 18 x 12, written on both sides. The book has no cover and the first page is faded and torn. Seven other paper books are for 1659–1676, 1676–1715, 1742–1773, 1774–1817, 1818–1850, 1851–1892, and 1892–1927, respectively.
Ranskill was a village of about 1, 300 acres, whose tenants did suit of court at Scrooby, nearby.
132 The names of William Hyde and William Bradley have been crossed out.
133 A line is drawn through this name.
134 A line is drawn through this name.
135 To save space the names of the constable, chief pledges, ale-tasters and jurors are omitted; also, the essoins of free tenants, residents, and customary tenants. The presentments of the jurors follow.
136 Omissions as above.
137 There were but two items of interest at this view.
138 It is not usual for a jury to be impaneled at a manor court. Their presentments were entered upon the roll in English.
139 All entries are omitted except the presentments of the jury.
140 Omissions as above.
141 Omissions as above.
142 “and dikes” is crossed out.
143 See the bibliography in S. and B. Webb, op. cit., i. 26, n. 1.
144 H. B. Simpson, “The Office of Constable,” Eng. Hist. Rev., x. 627.
145 For a list of the pertinent statutes see W. S. Holdsworth, A History of English Law, IV. 125, n. 1.
146 Ibid., IV. 125 and n. 5. Cheyney quotes a form of oath that had become current c. 1600. This lists the constable’s duties quite fully. Op. cit., II. 404. The General Court of the Mass. Bay Colony defined the duties of a constable in 1634 and still more fully in 1658, the latter statement extending to 26 descriptive clauses.
147 For an interesting example of a constable’s account for the years 1635–1649, in the town of Stathern, Leicestershire, see Archaeological Journal, lxix. 125 ff.
148 Robert Lowe, chosen in April, 1622.
149 Hist. MSS. Com., Various Collections, i. 89.
150 Cited by Webb, op. cit., 117, n. 3.
151 William Lambard, The Duties of Constables, Borsholders, Tithingmen, and such other towne and lay Ministers of the Peace. Cited by Cheyney, op. cit., ii. 398.
152 Webb, op. cit.
153 Some manor courts continued to fix prices well into Tudor times. E.g., Nettleton, Lincolnshire, 1563. Br. Mus. Add. Ch. 15022.
154 Quarter Sessions Records (in MS.), ii. 30–32. The Statute directs that ale and beer shall be sold at “such prices and rates as shall be thought convenient and sufficient by discretion of the justices of the peace within every shire where such beer-brewer and ale-brewer shall dwell,” except in City borough or town corporate. Statutes at Large, i. 733–734.
155 Derbyshire Arch. and, Natural Hist. Soc., xx. 112.
156 At Stevenage, Hertfordshire, P. R. O. Ecc. Com. 211/46; and at Whitchurch, Hampshire, Br. Mus. Add. Ch. 44583.
157 W. O. Ault, “Some Early Village By-Laws,” Eng. Hist. Rev., xlv. 208–231.
158 Webb, op. cit., 77–78.
159 Manor Court of Ramsey in Huntingdonshire. Fenland Notes and Queries, VIII. 635.
160 Manor Court of Brightwaltham, Berkshire, P. R. O. Court Rolls, 153/73, m. 20.
161 Statutes at Large, II. 120.
162 P. R. O., Court Rolls of the Ecc. Com., 62/2, m. 12, 30, and 39d.
163 34 and 35 Henry VIII, c. 3, 7 Edw. VI, c. 7; 43 Eliz. c. 14.
164 Edingley, Nottinghamshire, P. R. O. Ct. Rolls, Ecc. Com., 62/2, m. 39d.; Scotter, Lincolnshire, Archaeologia, XLVI. 384.
165 Archaeologia, loc. cit.; Fenland Notes and Queries, viii. 355–356.
166 Rolls of Cressingham, 85.
167 Cf. P. Vinogradoff, Growth of the Manor, 169–170.
168 At Salem a stint was established in 1680. A. B. Maclear, op. cit., 92. For a good example of an English stint see the roll of the manor court of Winterbourn Stoke (1574). Wilts. Agric. and Natural Hist. Soc., xxxiv. 211. A complete set of bylaws for the regulation of pasture rights may be found in the court roll of Tackley (1631). Oxf. Arch. Soc., Report for 1911, 66–67.
169 Scotter, 1578. Archaeologia, xlvi. 384.
170 Ealing, Middlesex Co. P.R. 0. Court Rolls, Ecc. Com., 205/ 10, m. 1.
171 John Harland, Manchester Court Leet Records, Chatham Society, lxiii. viii.
172 Plymouth Colony Records, XI. 15, 27.
173 W. S. Holdsworth, A History of English Law, VII. 300.
174 Holdsworth, op. cit., 298.
175 See the account of Winthrop by Professor S. E. Morison in Clifford K. Shipton, Sibley’s Harvard Graduates, iv, 1690–1700 (Cambridge, 1933), 535–549.
176 His son, John Still Winthrop, joined him in London after graduating from Yale in 1737
177 Sloane Mss. 4062, fol. 30 (British Museum, London). The list is inscribed at the bottom, “The Honourable Sr Hans Sloane Baronet from Mr. Winthrop.” As this document is not dated, the chronological reconstruction above is by the author.
178 The first word of this line is illegible. “Tantiusques” as used here, as well as in the fifth item of this list (above) and elsewhere in this account, refers to the site of the lead mine presented by the Massachusetts General Court to John Winthrop, Jr., in 1644. It was also the early name of Sturbridge, Massachusetts, within the present bounds of which the Winthrop family mine was located—in the southern part, about a mile from the Connecticut boundary. See George H. Haynes, “The Tale of Tantiusques’: An Early Mining Venture In Massachusetts.” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, n.s. xvi. 471–497 (Oct., 1901).
179 Part of first word is illegible.
180 Full title: A Voyage to the Islands of Madera, Barbadoes, Nieves, St. Christopher’s and Jamaica, with the Natural History of the Last (2 vols., London, 1707, 1725).
181 Sloane Mss. 4062, fol. 29. The letter bears neither place nor date, save “. . . sday Night.” The portions printed in square brackets are reconstructions, as the manuscript is much defaced.
182 Journal Book, xiv. 40–41. This and other manuscripts belonging to the Royal Society in the Society’s Library in Burlington House, London, are quoted with the permission of the President and Council of the Royal Society. The Journal-Book did not record, as it usually did, the name of Winthrop’s host. If, as I suspect, it was Sir Hans Sloane, the latter had already been Secretary of the Society for several years before he retired in 1712, was almost perennially a member of the Council from about 1700, and was soon to succeed Sir Isaac Newton as President of the Society.
183 Journal-Book, xiv. 40.
184 Ibid., xiv. 40–41.
185 Ibid., xv. 355. The minutes merely state “Dr. Stuart.” It might have been either Dr. Charles or Dr. Alexander Stuart, as both were Fellows of the Society at the time. I assume that it was Dr. Alexander because a few weeks later he signed the certificate recommending Winthrop for membership.
186 For a survey of the rules governing membership in the Royal Society, see my “Colonial Fellows of The Royal Society of London, 1661–1788,” Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, VIII, No. 2, 178–189 ff.
187 This seems most unlikely, and I have found no other evidence to support the contention. Perhaps Winthrop spoke of his grandfather’s role in the issuing of the Connecticut Charter of 1662 and the Royal Society writers became confused.
188 The communications and contributions of John Winthrop, Jr., Governor of Connecticut, to the Royal Society are in Mass. Hist. Society, Proceedings, 1st Ser., xvi. 211–251; Thomas Birch, The Works of the Honourable Robert Boyle (5 vols., London, 1744), ii. 418–421, 473–474; and Thomas Birch, The History of the Royal Society of London . . . (4 vols., London, 1756–1757), i. 67 ff.
189 Certificates, 1731–1750, fol. 54 (Mss. in Royal Society Library).
190 Journal-Book, xv. 410, 413.
191 Sloane Mss. 1968, fol. 58.
192 Philosophical Transactions, XL (London, 1741), “Dedication” (to John Winthrop).
193 Journal-Book, xv. 459–487. The original copy of the catalogue appears to have been lost. Cf. the Original Minutes of the Royal Society, x. 147–148, and the “fair Copy” made by the Secretaries for general reference, i.e., the reference cited at the beginning of this note. The “most interesting portions” of this list was copied by the Assistant Secretary of the Royal Society for the Hon. Edward Everett at the instance of Robert Winthrop of Boston and published in The American Journal of Science and Arts, xlvii, No. 2, 282–290 (New Haven, 1844). Actually, however, the list published omits more than two hundred of the items and there are errors in the transcriptions of Nos. 41, 46, 109, 143, 225, and 280.
194 Nos. 107–113 may have been mica schist, like the famous scythestones and whetstones of Pike, N. H., which are quartz mica schist.
195 “Granates” here and elsewhere (Nos. 231–232) almost certainly mean “garnets.”
196 “Alumen plumosum” is false asbestos. See Johann Samuel Schröter, Real- und Verbal-Lexikon Lithologisches . . . (8 vols. Berlin and Frankfurt-A.M., 1772–1788), i. 36; ii. 136 ff.
197 Nos. 160–164 refer to biotite (mica).
198 Probably not talcs in every case.
199 Most of these “spars” are probably feldspar.
200 Ludus Helmontii, or “Helmont’s Amusement,” the stone of extraordinary qualities which intrigued Jan van Helmont. See Élie Bertrand, Dictionnaire Universel des Fossiles . . . (2 vols. La Haye, 1763), i. 284, for a succinct account of its medical virtues.
201 What is this American bezoar? Traditionally, bezoars were found in animals or birds, the best from mountain goats. Powdered, they were considered an antidote for poisons and once were considered a specific for the plague. See Frank Dawson Adams, The Birth and Development of the Geological Sciences (London, 1938), 104–112.
202 From southern New Hampshire? Cf. Theodore Ralph Meyers, New Hampshire Minerals and Mines . . . (Concord, N. H., 1941), 6–9.
203 Part of these must have been graphite.
204 According to the minutes, Winthrop’s part in the meetings of the Society were as follows: On 20 June 1734 he remarked that rattlesnakes were more venomous in some seasons than in others and that the horns of deer of the same species are not always identical in form; on 10 November 1737 he signed a certificate recommending Captain William Walker as Fellow; on 2 November 1738 he brought one Mr. Robinson as a guest to the meeting of the Society; and on 7 January 1741/42 he showed the Society the skin of a ground squirrel, “an Ossification of the Aspera Arteris of a Duck,” and a lump of black ore from Tantiusques which, he contended, proved that New England had ore richer in silver than that of Potosi!—Journal-Book, xv. 449–450; xvii. 296; xviii. 312; Certificates, 1731–1750, fol. 139.
205 Journal-Book, xv. 454 n.
206 Council Minutes, iii. 167–168. The Bond was required of all Fellows who resided in London as a guarantee of payment of “weekly Contributions” levied for support of the Society’s experiments and other activities. See my “Colonial Fellows of the Royal Society of London, 1661–1788,” op. cit., 183–189.
207 Philosophical Transactions, xl, for the years 1737, 1738 (London, 1741), “Dedication,” unpaged.
208 The boxes were received by the Society on 10 February 1669/70. They contained something more than fifty specimens which were listed in detail in the Journal-Book, IV. 112–117. This list includes items almost entirely duplicated in the larger collection of 1734—the dwarf oaks and their acorns, the Indian Wampum, the walnuts and hazelnuts, the bayberry wax, the shellfishes, and the ores. Many of these items are also listed in the official catalogue of the Royal Society’s museum published in 1681. See Nehemiah Grew, Musaeum Regalis Societatis, Or A Catalogue & Description & the Natural and Artificial Rarities Belonging to the Royal Society and Preserved at Gresham Colledge . . . (London, 1681), passim.
209 Thomas Birch, The History of the Royal Society of London . . . (4 vols. London, 1756–1757), i. 67 ff. Governor Winthrop’s largest single gift was that of 1669 mentioned above.
210 Grew, Musaeum Regalis Societatis, 205–206, 208, 346. Governor Winthrop was listed among the contributors to the Society at the end of the volume (unpaged).
211 C. R. Weld, A History of the Royal Society . . . (2 vols. London, 1848), ii. 125.
212 Charles Hatchett, “An Analysis of a mineral Substance from North America, Containing a Metal hitherto unknown,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1802, xcii. pt. 1, 49.
213 Loc. cit., 290 n.
214 Information supplied to the author by Miss J. M. Sweet, Department of Mineralogy, British Museum (Natural History), London, England. Letter of 18 March 1957. Used with permission of Miss Sweet.
215 F. S. M. Crofut, Guide to the History of the Historic Sites of Connecticut (2 vols. New Haven, 1937), ii. 721–738, 950.
216 I am much indebted to my friend and colleague, Professor George W. White, Head of the Department of Geology at the University of Illinois and a close student of the history of early American geology, for this and many other observations regarding Winthrop’s lists.
217 See Adams, The Birth and Development of the Geological Sciences, 29, 98–102. Nehemiah Grew referred to eagle-stones as having been “named from a vulgar opinion.” Musaeum Regalis Societatis, 297.
218 By 1959 Mrs. Howland had completed her promised gift of $100,000 to the Society. As expenses of restoration and furnishing were met from current income and from the gifts of members and friends, the $100,000 is held as a fund (principal and income unrestricted), the income of which meets the normal operating costs of the house.
219 For an annotated biographical sketch of the merchant and an extensive analysis of his Will, see William and Mary Quarterly, third series, vii (1950), 568–587.
220 Unless otherwise noted, all quotations are from the text of the Will that follows.
221 Records of the First Church of Boston (copy in Massachusetts Historical Society), 12, 14.
222 N. B. Shurtleff, ed., Records of the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New England (Boston, 1853–1854), iii. 278.
223 Based on a comparison of the text in the tenth Report and the handwritten copy in the first volume of the Suffolk County Probate Records (1892).
224 Keayne had become a member of the Honourable Artillery Company of London in 1623, and had been a founder and the first captain of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts. G. Goold Walker, The Honourable Artillery Company [of London] (London, 1926), 42–43; Oliver A. Roberts, History of the . . . Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts (Boston, 1895–1901), i. 1–21.
225 The complicated history of the Keayne family estate up to the death of the merchant’s granddaughter in 1704 has been sketched by Edmund S. Morgan in “A Boston Heiress and Her Husbands: A True Story,” these Publications, xxxiv. 499–513.
226 For a description of this particular property and an account of its subsequent history, see Mellen Chamberlain, Documentary History of Chelsea (Boston, 1908), chaps, xix-xxi.
227 The proper spelling of seventeenth-century names is often a puzzle as there was little consistency in usage. Hannah, Anna, and Anne were used almost interchangeably. Since Keayne himself was more or less consistent in calling his wife Anne and his granddaughter Hannah (though the latter herself apparently preferred Anna) I shall follow his preference.
228 The provisions that follow led to the construction of Boston’s first town house; the conduit project was less successful. See Josiah H. Benton, The Story of the Old Boston Town House 1658–1711 (Boston, 1908).
229 I.e., the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
230 The early results of Keayne’s benefaction to Harvard may be conveniently traced in the Harvard College Records (these Publications, xv, xvi). The income from the bequest is still being paid towards beneficiary aid to “the godliest and most hopefulest of the poorer sort of scholars.” See, Official Register of Harvard University, liii, no. 18 (September, 1956), 8.
231 Benjamin Keayne married Sarah, daughter of Governor Thomas Dudley. It soon developed that she was given to certain excessive enthusiasms. She was banished from the First Church on 24 October 1647, not only for “irregular prophecying,” but also for “falling into odious, lewd, and scandalous unclean behavior with one Nicholas Hart, an excommunicated person of Taunton.” The Records of the First Church of Boston (These Publications, xxxix), 49. For other details, see Suffolk Deeds (Boston, 1880–1906), i. 83, 84.
232 Keayne’s concern about his granddaughter’s romantic disposition and his repeated insistence that her judgment be checked by wiser heads were only too well taken. For the fantastic story of her marriages, see Morgan, “A Boston Heiress,” these Publications, xxxiv. 499–513.
233 I.e., wampum.
234 Keayne’s repeated insistence that he was not giving away more than he comfortably could was in vain. He substantially overestimated his estate. It was officially appraised at his death in 1656 at £2569 19s. 3d., a sum insufficient to cover his bequests. Suffolk County Probate Records, III. 160–173; Morgan, “A Boston Heiress,” 503–504.
235 Printed in the Essex Institute Historical Collections, xcii (1956), 265–278.
236 This paper, supplemented by the bibliography that follows it, was preprinted by the Society in 1959 and was distributed as the third of the Studies in the History of Calligraphy of the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, and the Newberry Library, Chicago. Although this volume bears the imprint of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts on the title page, copies were available only from the two libraries, which bore the expense of the preprinting.
237 E. M. Thompson, An Introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography (Oxford, 1912), 555. He is here discussing the English secretary especially. Even the informal later medieval northern scripts tended to be solid, angular and heavy.
238 R. Nash, ed., An Account of Calligraphy & Printing in the Sixteenth Century (Cambridge, 1940), 9. In the Flemish text it is called loopende.
239 For an understanding of the cancellaresca in all phases of its Italian sixteenth-century development, the well-illustrated studies by James Wardrop are essential: see Signature, no. 12, 1939 (Arrighi); new series nos. 2, 1946 (P. Sallando and G. Pagliarlo);, 1948 (Ruano and Cresci); 8, 1949 (Tagliente); 14, 1952 (Palatino), pending publication of his forthcoming book. John Howard Benson’s notes to his English facsimile edition of Arrighi’s copybook, The First Writing Book (New Haven, 1954), are also important, as are recent publications of the English calligrapher Alfred Fairbank, A Handwriting Manual (London, revised edition, 1954), and his A Book of Scripts, 1949, which offers a broad prospect in Penguin compass, with sixty-four pages of plates to serve as an “anthology of calligraphy.”
240 On falling into Maria’s trap, Malvolio delivers the familiar line, “I think we do know the sweet Roman hand” (Twelfth Night, III. iv). Katharine’s reference to A Booke Containing Divers Sortes of hands is in Loves Labours Lost, v. ii, 42. On this see George a. Plimpton, Education of Shakespeare (London and New York, 1933); also T. W. Baldwin, William Shakespere’s Petty School (Urbana, 1943). The Bard’s handwriting is discussed and illustrated by E. M. Thompson, Shakespeare’s Handwriting (Oxford, 1916), and the point in question by s. a. Tannenbaum, Shakespeare and “Sir Thomas Moore” (New York, 1929).
241 The general authority for the biographies of British writing masters and the bibliography of their published works, up to the year 1800, is Sir Ambrose Heal’s monumental English Writing-Masters and their Copy-books (Cambridge [Eng.], 1931). It contains a valuable historical introduction by Stanley Morison; also the abundant collotype reproductions of copybooks are important for the background of colonial American handwriting development.
Penmen from the Lowlands frequented England and their works were published in British copybook collections—such masters as Jan van den Velde were celebrated by generations of English writing masters. The compliment was returned, too; most notably by the Fleming Jodocus Hondius who, after spending the previous decade across the Channel, published his Theatrum Artis Scribendi (Amsterdam, 1594), for which he engraved the work of two English penmen.
242 Bradford’s manuscript is on exhibit at the Massachusetts State Library, Boston. The published editions of it contain reproductions; a dozen lines in halftone (from the page preserving the “Mayflower Compact”) appear in an article by the present author, “The Handwriting of the Founding Fathers,” in Manuscripts, vii. iv (Summer, 1955).
243 See the two pages reproduced, facing pages 114 and 116, from an odd leaf bound out of place in an old record book at the probate court, Charleston, in A. H. Hirsch’s The Huguenots of Colonial South Carolina (Durham, 1928).
244 See Wardrop, “The Vatican Scriptors,” Signature, n.s. no. 5, fig. 5, for a fine collotype reproduction of Cresci’s epistolary hand.
245 Charles K. Bolton was one of the few American antiquarians to study this subject. In “Colonial Handwriting,” The Essex Antiquarian, I. 11 (November, 1897), he wrote:
“Some of the early handwriting shows a lack of training which is to be expected in an agricultural community like that in the New England of the seventeenth century. The callous hand was not always under control. A quaintness, too, was given to the page by the spelling which at best allowed some liberty to follow one’s own taste, originality and manner of pronunciation. A man who spelled ‘son’ with a double ‘o’ would now be writing his death warrant.
“But there are certain forms characteristic of the writing of our emigrant ancestors which were due neither to paper, pen nor lack of training. These are after all few, but they appear with sufficient frequency to puzzle one unfamiliar with the subject. They may be traced in part to the teaching of the schoolmaster and in part to the printed forms of letters.”
246 But see plate IIIb. Also infra see bibliographies of the Collins edition of the Instructor (Burlington, 1775), and its reissue by Crukshank (Philadelphia, 1787), copying plates and text from the English edition; its secretary hand is an anachronism.
247 Foster Watson’s article “Writing,” A Cyclopedia of Education (New York, 1913), summarizes the background of instruction in penmanship.
248 In many old writing books the copy line set by the master is in an exemplary hand, easily distinguishable from the pupil’s, and sometimes set off by different-colored ink. However, as many others at least show that the learner was working from printed copies. The small oblong books of “copy slips” introduced in the latter part of the eighteenth century served him.
249 R. F. Seybolt, Private Schools of Colonial Boston (Cambridge, 1935), is the authority on private education in Boston at this period.
250 Peter Burr’s accounts, preserved in the collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, show that he gave private instruction in writing to girls too.
251 The authority cited for private schools is also responsible for the standard work on public schools: R. F. Seybolt, The Public Schools of Colonial Boston 1635–1775 (Cambridge, 1935). This should be supplemented by the same author’s The Public Schoolmasters of Colonial Boston (Cambridge, 1939).
252 Town meeting was an unwieldy school board in any case. On the western fringe of civilization at Westfield, Massachusetts, for example, in 1719 the town is recorded as making provision for a “wrighting master” in November of the year following. In 1720 it was voted to leave “the concern of hiering a wrighting schoolmaster with the selectmen.” Two years later Isaac Stiles was actually serving in that capacity, as well as assisting the minister, and continued during 1723. See John H. Lockwood, Westfield and Its Historic Influences, 291, and J. G. Holland, History of Western Massachusetts (Springfield, 1855), ii. 143.
253 William Webster, An Essay on Book-keeping (London, 1752), (“The Eleventh Edition”), 77–88, “An Attempt Towards rendering the Education of Youth More Easy and Effectual.”
254 The tribute is contained in the introduction to A Delightful Recreation of 1717. It is only fair to add that this princeling from South Carolina who made such a favorable record in six months was not in London in the ordinary way but as a protégé of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, to which William Brooks’s book is gratefully dedicated.
Brooks suggests in the same place that the copies in his book be cut asunder for mastery of one piece at a time. Sometimes the separated lines of copy were laid down on a piece of light board so that they could serve individual members of a class in turn and, though stained and grubby, circulate for years. However, the practice of cutting up copybooks could not on the whole be considered as in the interest of conservation and the master’s encouragement of it is suspect.
255 “Col. Fitch express’d himself as much prizing Mr. Granger’s Accomplishment to Teach Writing; never such a Person in Boston before.” Diary of Samuel Sewell, 8 March 1719/20. A Matthias Grainger published Grainger’s New Copy Book in London around 1730 but no kinship is established.
256 The report of a town committee in 1743 acting on the petition of Zachariah Hicks, usher at Boston’s North Writing School, shows the going terms. The enrollment was 280; Master Procter was paid £280 salary and Hicks received £150, which was the ground of his complaint. Admittance to the school, the committee found, was refused no child of the town who could read in the Psalter. Children of “strangers” had to pay an entrance fee. Poor children were asked to pay nothing on any account but those who could afford to make a contribution paid a few shillings for “firing,” averaging about five shillings each overall. This was taken by the master as his rightful perquisite and he insisted that he could not get along without it, especially since he had to hire additional help out of his own pocket to the amount of £100.
257 See the present author’s “Abiah Holbrook and his ‘Writing Master’s Amusement,’” Harvard Library Bulletin, vii. 1 (Winter 1953), 88–104, illustrated with collotypes of the work of Holbrook and contemporaries displaying all the usual hands of the time.
258 For illustrations of them, ibid.
259 This copy, which came down in the Gookin family through Holbrook’s adopted daughter, is in an old binding; the group at Harvard are in fairly uniform wrappers with titles in manuscript. On the engraved title of the Shelley Alphabets in all hands, hidden by a paper patch, is written “The Gift of Mr. Holbrook.”
260 In the author’s copy of this work is an inserted letter written by Thaddeus Mason Harris in his old age telling how the book was bought at the Dolbeare sale “to be exhibited to the School Masters, as models; and to the Scholars, for their excitement to fair hand-writing. . . .”
See W. C. Bates, “Boston Writing Masters before the Revolution,” New England Magazine, n.s. xix (1898/99), 403–418, for the story of the Ward collection, with reproductions of pieces from it.
261 For a notice of Rogers and this piece in particular, see R. Nash, “An American Colonial Calligraphic Sheet of King Charles’s Twelve Good Rules at Dartmouth College Library,” The Library, 5th ser. vn (1952), 111–116, with illustration.
262 William Massey, The Origin and Progress of Letters (London, 1763), 171: “I have also seen . . . Sir Matthew Hales character, and his sum of religion, in roman and italic print, written by Mary Johns . . .” around 1747.
263 See Stanley Morison, American Copybooks: An Outline of Their History from Colonial to Modern Times (Philadelphia, 1951).
264 A facsimile of the Plimpton copy, edited by Stanley Morison with his introduction, was issued at Christmas 1933 by the Printer to the University, Cambridge, England.
265 Other attempts in the way of home-study manuals on American ground but without particular handwriting instruction appeared in The Young Secretary’s Guide by John (alias Thomas) Hill at Boston in 1703; also in The Young Man’s Companion brought out as early as 1705 by William and Andrew Bradford of New York. In later editions the Bradford compilation assumed the title The Secretary’s Guide. Henry Miller of Philadelphia printed The Alphabet there in 1770, but since the only calligraphic interest in it is represented by illustration printed from type on the title page, this work hardly qualifies for our bibliography either.
266 I am indebted to Whitfield J. Bell, Jr., one of the editors of the Franklin Papers for this suggestion, and for looking (without avail) for a possible illustration of the Cyphers in manuscript.
267 Milns’s Round-Text Copies (New York), and A Set of Round Hand Copies, engraved by S. Hill (Boston), by him were published early in the nineteenth century (ca. 1810). In the burying ground on the Common, Boston, is his headstone inscribed: To the memory of William Milns Member of Sṭ Mary Hall in the University of Oxford, Author of the well bred Scholar, The American Accountant, The Penman’s Repository, and of Several Dramatic works, Master of Salvador Academy, and of the City Commercial School in London, who died in this town, the 27tḥ February 1801, Aged 40 years. . . .
268 According to W. Allen, The American Biographical Dictionary, 3d ed. (Boston, 1857), 475. There is no record in the Delaware state archives to support this date or place, however.
269 Note 3, p. 1 supra.
270 Two early eighteenth-century continental examples of excessive enthusiasm for subjecting the whole alphabet to mathematical rule and rigor: Aznar de Polanco, Arte nuevo de escribir por preceptos geometricos, y reglas mathematicos (Madrid, 1719); Jan Pas, Mathematische of Wiskundige behandeling der Schryfkonst (Amsterdam, 1737).
271 Cocker, The Pen’s Triumph (London, 1659).
272 “Explained” by Franklin in his Instructor of 1748 and 1753; see p. 23 f. supra.
273 William Bentley, Diary of William Bentley, D.D. (Salem, 1911), III, 389 f.
274 Ibid., III. 109.
Among other writing masters of the time who come in for comment by the diarist are Edward Norris, “a man of small powers but a good tho’ not correct penman,” and Andrew Peabody who in 1808 had been writing master in Beverly for ten years. He quotes, under date of 6 January 1808, a letter from President Jefferson regarding “the specimens which I sent him of penmanship from the children of Mr. B. Crowninshield, son of my Landlady”: “I have certainly never seen anything in either way equally perfect. . . . Be so good as to present to the young artists the assurances of my thankfulness for these acceptable proofs of their uncommon talents. If my testimony of their eminence can be any gratification to them it is offered with sincerity as justly due to them.”
Ex-President John Adams also had something to say on the subject, not quite in line with Bentley’s observation that the same position of body and fingers is not good for writing in different languages. In his deed of gift to the town of Quincy, referring to the academy, he wrote in 1822: “I advise them to begin their lessons in Greek and Hebrew, by compelling their pupils to take their pens and write, over and over again, copies of the Greek and Hebrew alphabets, in all their variety of characters, until they are perfect masters of those alphabets and characters. This will be as good an exercise in chirography as any they can use, and will stamp those alphabets and characters upon their tender minds and vigorous memories so deeply that the impression will never wear out. . . . (Cited by W. S. Pattee, History of Old Braintree and Quincy (1878), 342 n.) This founding father’s own chirography is a witness to the Bentley theory.
275 Nash, ed., Calligraphy & Printing, 10, has the following exchange between the questioner of the dialogue, G., and the sixteenth-century writing master, H.: “After having shown the single letters, what do you do?” “First we show how to make words of them . . . then more and more according to the capacity of the child. . . .” “Then those who naturally have a heavy hand are not likely to write well.” “No. Nevertheless, practice can overcome this handicap in them.”
276 A letter from President Kirkland of Harvard to Tristam Burges of Providence, 22 December 1814, in the John Carter Brown Library, is to the point: “Sir, Mr. Jenkins informs me that you are disposed to aid him in getting his works published & sought for. I have told him it would be desirable, in my opinion, if they could be engraved on copperplate. He desires me to say to you that I have this impression on this subject—at the same time I have not made the calculations with any exactness. He says that you will give him the benefit of your judgment, which I hope will be the case.”
277 Cf. p. 22 supra. Jenkins says, “Let the learner be always furnished with two well made pens, the one of which should be always used entirely dry . . . to be carefully drawn or traced over the strokes or skeletons of letters before drawing the same with ink . . . to teach the learner the proper movement, pressure, and rise of the pen. It is also of great use thoroughly to impress the mind of the pupil with correct ideas of the shape of the letters.” (A. of W., 1813, p. 55 f.) See plates xxv, xxvi, xxvii; also detailed directions cited in the bibliography of Book II, infra.
278 The value of the land and buildings at 87 Mount Vernon Street, Boston, received by the Society on 14 December 1954 as a gift from Mrs. Llewellyn Howland, is not recorded on the books and is not included in the statement of assets and funds in this Treasurer’s report, or others published in this volume.
279 S. A. Drake, Nooks and Corners of the New England Coast (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1876), 27.
280 C. T. Jackson, First Report on the Geology of the State of Maine (Augusta, Maine: Smith & Robinson, 1837), 43
281 Jackson, First Report, 44.
282 H. E. Taylor, “Topographical Map of Roque Island,” 1881. Enlarged manuscript map of “Taylor, 1881” is framed at New House, Roque Island.
283 E. C. Donworth, “Not to the Swift,” Washington County Railroad Monthly (Calais, Maine, 1900), May, ii, no. 1, 20–23.
284 Lincoln County Registry of Deeds (Wiscasset, Maine), 15 Sept. 1773, Vol. 9, p. 214.
285 Manuscript and memo of Joseph Pierpont to Proprietors of Township No. 22, 1789 in “Jonesborough, Maine” (Salem: The Essex Institute), Manuscript volume.
286 Lt. Col. Breyman commanded the Grenadier Battalion of 564 men of the Brunswick troops, which arrived from Germany in Quebec in June 1776 for Burgoyne’s forces. M. von Etting “The German Allied Troops in the North American War of Independence” (Albany, N. Y.: John Munsell’s Sons 1893), translation by J. G. Rosengarten.
287 Letter, Joseph Fenno to Anon., 20 June 1805. Though the letter is addressed to no one more specific than “Dear Sir,” its contents make it impossible for it to have been meant for anyone but Joseph Peabody. (Framed manuscript letter in Old Farm House, Roque Island.) For such information as has survived about Joseph Peabody’s business activities, see Walter Muir Whitehill, Captain Joseph Peabody East India Merchant of Salem (1757–1844) A Record of his Ships and of his Family compiled by William Crowninshield Endicott (1868–1936) edited and completed with a Sketch of Joseph Peabody’s Life (Salem: Peabody Museum, 1962).
288 For a ship to be “registered” meant it was built and owned by a United States citizen, and engaged in foreign trade; when it was “enrolled” it was built and owned by a United States citizen, but involved in domestic trade; while to be “licensed” meant, with the same conditions of building and ownership, that the ship was a fishing vessel. As port charges and fees varied for the different categories, it was often worth an owner’s while to shift his ship from registry to enrollment and back again.
289 Letters to John L. Gardner, Jr., from Joseph P. Gardner, 13 Sept. 1867; and from John L. Gardner, Sr., 16 Sept. 1867.
290 John L. Gardner, Jr., to George A. Gardner, 8 July 1888.
291 Eleanor Palffy, Largely Fiction (Boston, 1948), 305.
292 Deed, Thomas Kelley to Francis Shaw, Jr., dated 18 Sept. 1773, Lincoln County Registry of Deeds (Wiscasset, Maine), Book 9, p. 214.
293 Jonathan Stone, “Survey of the Mespeckey Islands for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Plan of XXII, Aug. 1785.” The original survey map is in the Land Office, Forest Service of the State of Maine, Augusta, Maine. Book no. 8, p. 62 (old number “176”) entitled “Great Moosepeckick or Rogues” shows the islands in detail, p. 59 (old number “172”) shows the whole township.
294 For this section the writer draws heavily on personal communications with Dr. Frank T. Siebert, Jr.
295 According to R. W. Hale, Jr., The Story of Bar Harbor (New York: Ives Washburn, Inc., 1949), 48.
296 Collections of the Maine Historical Society. Documentary History 2nd Series, vi. 88.
297 Franquelin-de-Meulles, Carte d’une partie du Canada et de l’Acadie, 1686. (Original in Depot des Cartes et Planns de la Marine, Service Hydrographique, Paris, portfolio No. 132. A photostat is in the Map Room, Harvard College Library, M 3006, F 18–1–4B.) It is also called I. Mouchibequi on Anon., Carte Particuliere de la Coste d’Accadie, 1702, a chart which follows Franquelin. (Original in Depot des Cartes etc., Paris, portfolio 132. A photostat in the Map Room, Harvard College Library, M 3006 F 18–2-2B.)
298 Anon., Carte des côtes de l’Acadie,? 1697. (Original in Depot des Cartes, etc., Paris, portfolio 132. A photostat in the Map Room, Harvard College Library, M 3006, F 18–1-5.)
299 M. Seutter, Partie Orientale de la Nouvelle France ou du Canada . . . Augsbourg? 1720. (Original in Map Room, Harvard College Library, M 3085.11.)
300 The framed original hangs in the living room of the New House at Roque Island.
301 Narrative of American Voyages and Travels of Captain William Owen R.N., edited by Victor H. Paltsits (New York: New York Public Library, 1942), 118, 136, 151.
302 Lincoln County Registry of Deeds, Vol. 10, p. 69, as quoted in the Bangor Historical Magazine, Vol. 5, no. 3 (Sept. 1889), p. 67.
303 J. F. W. Des Barres, “No. 2—Charts of the Coast and Harbours of New England . . .” (London, 1776). A complete set is in the Map Room, Harvard College Library (MA 4865.781–1 no. 5). A framed original of “No. 2” hangs in the hall of the New House at Roque Island.
304 C. Blaskowitz, “A Plan of the Sea Coast from Gouldsborough Harbor to . . . Passamaquoddy . . . ,” Manuscript map in Hydrographic Department, the Admiralty, London, on which the Atlantic Neptune chart was based, clearly shows the spelling to have been Reach. This is only one of several errors made either by Blaskowitz, the District Deputy, who made the survey for Samuel Holland, the Surveyor General for the Northern District of North America, or those who actually drew the final charts in the Admiralty. A photostat of part of this manuscript map was obtained through the great kindness of Vice Admiral John Godfrey, R.N. (Ret.) whose daughter, Mrs. John Kinmonth, was a guest at Roque Island.
305 F. Kidder, Military Operations in Eastern Maine and Nova Scotia (Albany: J. Munsell, 1867), 137,130.
306 See footnote 2, this chapter. Rufus Putnam, under whose supervision this survey was made, left his unpublished survey notes to the Marietta College Library, Marietta, Ohio, where they now are.
307 J. Norman, The American Pilot Containing the Navigation of the Sea Coasts of North America (Boston, 1791). Copies of this very rare chart are in the Houghton Library of Harvard College (p. AC7-N7844.791A) and the Boston Athenæum
308 O. Carleton: A map of the lottery and other townships east of Mt. Desert Is. In the Massachusetts Archives, Maps and Plans, No. 995,1792 (Boston, 1792).
309 The Privateer Wasp Journal 1782. Proceedings of the Maine Historical Society 2nd Series, Vol. 6 (Portland, 1895). There is also an entry for 21 July, “Sayled as far as Mrs. Peck Reach there cooked dinner and then sailed to Machias.”
310 F. H. Eckstorm, Indian Place Names of the Penobscot Valley and Maine Coast. University of Maine Studies, 2nd Series, No. 55, The Maine Bulletin, xliv, No. 4 (Nov. 1941) (Orono, Maine), 217.
311 W. F. Ganong, Notes for projected “Monograph of the Indian Place Nomenclature of the Atlantic Provinces of Canada and adjacent parts of Quebec, Newfoundland and Maine.” This has never been published. His notes on Moosabec and Mispek (a word stemming from the Nova Scotia Micmacs, rather than from the Penobscot dialect, meaning “flooded by the tide”) were provided the writer, and their use permitted through the courtesy of the director of their repository, J. R. Harper, The New Brunswick Museum, St. John, New Brunswick.
312 Works Progress Administration, Maine, the American Guide Series (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1937), 284–285.
313 The material presented in this paper is included in Mr. Labaree’s book Patriots and Partisans, The Merchants of Newburyport, 1764–1815 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962).
314 C. O. 5: 66, pp. 127–136, which has been transcribed here. Another copy is found in the Newcastle Papers, 33030, f. 318 ff. I am obliged to Nancy Davis Sachse for help in transcription.
315 Huske’s career is briefly outlined in Notes and Queries, 12th ser., viii (1921), 217, 335; Appleton's Cyclopœdia of American Biography (New York, 1887–1924), III. 330; Lawrence C. Wroth, An American Bookshelf, 1755 (Philadelphia, 1934) 135–136.
316 See below, note 6.
317 L. B. Namier, The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III (London, 1929) 137–139
318 Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, xliii. 197. Horace Walpole once referred to Huske as “a wild, absurd man”; yet he admitted that he was “very conversant with America,” and commended his remarks in the House of Commons on at least two occasions. Memoirs of the Reign of King George the Third, re-ed. G. F. Russell Barker (London, 1894), ii. 190–191, 213–214. Franklin, who used materials furnished by Huske for newspaper letters on the state of trade with the colonies, described him as a “judicious Merchant.” Verner W. Crane, Benjamin Franklin's Letters to the Press, 1758–1775 (Chapel Hill, 1950), 141 ff. Sir Lewis Namier includes Huske among “the foremost experts on America” of the period. England in the Age of the American Revolution (London, 1930), 265.
319 Oppression, a Poem by an American (with notes by “a North Briton”) was published in London in 1765 and reprinted in Boston and New York the same year. The identity of author and annotator is unknown. Notes and Queries, 12th ser., viii (1921), 335. The New English Dictionary cites this poem as affording the earliest use of the term “Yankee” as a “nickname for a native or inhabitant of New England.”
320 See Wroth, An American Bookshelf, 1755 (Philadelphia, 1934), 136.
321 Sir John Fortescue, The Correspondence of King George the Third from 1760 to December 1783 (London, 1927–1928), I. 226, 236, 247, 276.
322 Carl Van Doren, ed., Letters and Papers of Benjamin Franklin and Richard Jackson, 1753–1785 (Philadelphia, 1947), 22.
323 6 George III, c. 49. It is printed in Danby Pickering, The Statutes at Large (Cambridge, 1762–1807), xxvii. 262–270.
324 Fortescue, I. 309. For the members of the Committee, see Commons Journal, xxx. 811.
325 The Peace of Paris, 1763, terminating the Seven Years’ War.
326 The Revenue Act of 1764 (the so-called “Sugar Act,” dated April 5) was followed two weeks later by the Currency Act.
328 On the annual average.
329 According to the sixth section of the Revenue Act of 1764 (4 George III, c. 15), each gallon of molasses and syrups produced in foreign colonies and imported into British colonies was to pay a duty of 3d. See Pickering, Statutes at Large, xxvi. 35.
330 Huske errs on the date; he means the Revenue Act of 1764. In the same year Grenville’s administration issued special instructions for the seizure of all foreign vessels found in West Indian ports. Burke reversed this policy in 1765, granting privileges for Spanish ships. The Cambridge History of the British Empire, ed. J. Holland Rose, A. P. Newton, E. A. Benians (Cambridge, 1929–), I. 345.
331 Provided by the Molasses Act of 1733.
333 The export of rice direct from the British colonies to points in Europe south of Cape Finisterre had been permitted since 1730.
334 The War of Jenkins’ Ear (1739–1742), occasioned by Anglo-Spanish conflicts over the conduct of Latin-American trade.
335 Guardacostas, customhouse cutters.
336 Impost, duty.
337 During the eighteenth century the Isle of Man was notorious as a resort of smugglers. Not until 1765 did the Stanley family sell its sovereign rights in the island, including the customs revenue, to the British crown.
338 This represents the balance of principal and interest due in connection with the sale of 500 shares of The Lehman Corporation and the purchase of $10,000 United States Treasury bonds.