27. To [Israel Williams], 25 August 1760

    28. To [Israel Williams], 21 January 1761

    29. To [William Bollan], 14 December 1761

    30. To [William Bollan], 11 January 1762

    31. To William Bollan, 6 March 1762

    32. To [William Bollan], 31 March 1762

    33. To [William Bollan], [23] April 1762

    34. To [William Bollan], 16 May 1762

    Thomas Hutchinson ceased to be acting governor on 2 August 1760 with the arrival of the new governor, Francis Bernard, who won the post more through the strength of his family connections than through his political acumen. Bernard experienced few difficulties in his previous tenure as governor of New Jersey, and he hoped to gather around him a broad-based political coalition as governor of Massachusetts, much as William Shirley did. He soon fell afoul of escalating jealousies between Hutchinson and the Otis family when he was forced to choose between Hutchinson and Colonel James Otis Sr. upon the death of Chief Justice Stephen Sewall in September 1760. Otis, the Speaker of the House, believed that both Shirley and Pownall had promised him the next vacancy on the Superior Court, but Bernard chose Hutchinson in the belief that he would enforce customs regulations more stringently. James Otis Jr., the advocate general of the vice-admiralty court, vowed to set the province “aflame” to avenge the slight to his father and resigned his position to make common cause with a group of disgruntled Boston merchants upset by new trade regulations. The series of legal challenges launched by Otis culminated with the famous case of the writs of assistance, which allowed customs officers to use general search warrants.

    Sir Francis Bernard, 1772. Hutchinson served Bernard loyally during the latter’s term as governor, but by the late 1760s, Hutchinson began to suspect that he might be able to manage the volatile political situation with greater finesse than Bernard. By John Singleton Copley. By permission of the Governing Body of Christ Church, Oxford.

    Hutchinson’s elevation to the chief justiceship in November 1760 offended many and not just because his lack of legal training rankled an increasingly professionalized Massachusetts bar; others found fault with the way his various offices (lieutenant governor, chief justice, and member of the Governor’s Council) blurred distinctions between the executive, judicial, and legislative branches of the Massachusetts government, concentrating power in one man. Despite his many offices, during the first year and a half of Bernard’s administration, Hutchinson was not able to block a bill making gold legal tender in Massachusetts or to save his old friend William Bollan from dismissal as parliamentary agent.

    27. To [Israel Williams]

    Boston 25. August 1760

    Dear Sir, I did not receive your Letter of the 12. until this minute which happens to be a leisure one and I dont know how to employ it better than in writing an Answer.1

    I thank you for your favorable opinion of my short Reign.2 If it was as unexceptionable as your prejudices lead you to think, ^yet^ there really is no great matter in it. In our ordinary ^publick^ Affairs nothing is requisite but an honest intention & a good look out to see that every Affair is steered in its proper Channel. Shifting of Courses & frequent projections of new Schemes are as pernicious in Government as in Trade.

    It will not be saying a great deal to tell you that we have not made a bad exchange. I have had but little time to make a Judgment, and I think it not prudent for me to insert my self further than the ^Govr.^ requires it, and I have avoided & shall avoid giving him Characters of Men. If he be a wise man he will suspend his Judgment of Men, I mean as far as may be, until he can settle it either from a personal acquaintance with them or else, which is the next best way of doing it, from their general Characters. If he has shewn any greater Regard to T_ng & his adherents than to other persons it is not generally known.3 It is no small disadvantage to them that the Speaker & so many of the principal members of the House dislike them,4 and he will be convinced that at least for this year he will not want them.

    I find him mentioning many Facts from time to time which he receivd from Mr Pownall among others the great usefulness of Br___le,5 but he is so prudent as to conceal any bad Characters. He received strong prejudices in favour of the Castle and intends to reside there the rest of the Summer.6 If he should find people disliked it, I hope he would not continue it, but by his plan of large Garrison &c. it looks at present as if he always designd a Summer Residence there. His Lady is extremely captivated with it.7

    I fancy the Court will not sit again until towards Winter unless some unexpected Event should occasion it.8 I am Sir Your affectionate humble Servant,

    Tho Hutchinson

    RC (Massachusetts Historical Society, Israel Williams Papers); unaddressed.

    28. To [Israel Williams]

    Boston 21. January 1761

    Dear Sir, I thank you for your several favours which I have been answering from day to day but neglected and need your excuse. The Letter to the Speaker I never delivered and communicated only to Colonel Worthington for advice and he agreed with me that as no mention had been made nor was like to be made concerning your affair it was best to say nothing about it.1 I keep the letter & other papers by me that when you come to town you may make use of them if you find it necessary.

    We are all in a flame at Court. Providence has sent the Small pox into several families which alarm the members & they are all of a sudden for rising which will stop the progress of this flame a little while but I fear not extinguish it.

    Upon the Governors nominating me to office one of the Gentleman’s sons who was solliciting for it swore revenge.2 Soon after a difference hapned between the Collector Barons & Mr Paxton. It seems Paxton had made charges of large sums paid private informers upon seizures wherein part of the forfeitures to the king for the use of the Province and these charges are to be paid out of the Province’s part.3 Young Otis struck in & tells the Merchants they had been abused by these private informers that the Province had been defrauded [MS torn]body or other ^its bruited about^ that the Govern[or]4 [MS torn] supporter and that the L G was his friend. The Merchants applied to the Court to sue the Judge Marshall &ca for the Provinces mony received or retained and have been [heard?] by Mr Otis as counsel. A Report that they should be sued by the Treasurer has been accepted by both houses.5 The Governor has told them by a message that the forfeiture was to the King tho’ for the use of the province and he could not answer it to consent to an Action being brought but by the Attorny General and he would consent to the vote with that alteration.6 This was a fine subject for your friend the adjutant general to exert himself upon for he & the speaker have made up all differences & are as great as two ——.7 I have opposed the whole measure. I knew the spring of it. I thought it a cruel thing to force the Governor into this measure and I really doubted as it was a matter within the jurisdiction of the Admiralty whether we had any right to controul the Judgment of that court and whether we had not slipped the proper remedy an appeal.

    James Otis Jr., 1755. Otis was undoubtedly the key figure in stirring resentment against British policies during the early to mid-1760s. Hutchinson always believed him to be motivated by jealousy and resentment rather than ideology, although Otis certainly understood better than Hutchinson the role ordinary people would soon play in political affairs. By Joseph Blackburn. Courtesy of the Frick Art Reference Library, NY.

    But it is not a farthings matter what principle I acted from as long as I oppose a popular measure the clamour will be against me. The remedy is patience and conscia mens recti8 the probability of something happening [MS torn]able to the people that I can [com]ply9 with and not [illegible] my judgment

    RC (Massachusetts Historical Society, Israel Williams Papers); consisting of one leaf and probably incomplete; last two lines on both sides partly cut away; unaddressed.

    29. To [William Bollan]

    Boston 14th. Decr 1761

    Dear Sir, I am obliged to you for your kind letter of 7th Sept.1 I have Intimations from others as well as from you of the restless indeavours of my friend to disserve me with Ld. Halifax & that he had assured me ^him^ no man could be more disagreable to the whole country than I was.2 & I knew there was nothing that he wou’d not say or do, & altho’ the least prospect of advantage to himself would bring him to court & profess esteem for a person [he despised]3 above all others in the world yet that was not like ever to be the case with me & I tho’t the very small advantages attending my Commission could not countervail the vexation which such endeavours against me occasioned but I shall now strive to keep myself easy, nor am I anxious for a place of more honor or greater emoluments, but should be glad to be always employed in such a station as shall enable me to be serviceable & I hope I shall never give any cause to any of my friends to repent of their endeavours to serve me by their defending my Character.4 The last Sessions of the Court was spent in a Controversy about our mony. The House passed a Vote for making gold a lawful tender at the rate it passes.5 This wou’d have drove away our silver & eventually depreciated the Currency. I stood in the front of the opposition & it was with great difficulty the Council was kept from concurring & I am affraid of the next sessions as the Govr at present is not sensible of the ill consequence of the proposal.6 If it should succeed I look upon it to be the first step of our return to Egypt. I think I may be allowed [to] call myself the father of the present fixed medium & perhaps have a natural biass in favour of it, however I have ventured to give my reasons for my conduct in print & if I am in an error I should be glad you would let me know it.7 You will receive a letter from the Court upon the subject of the loan from Gov Shirley.8 It was prepared by Mr Bowdoin & as He reported it I tho’t it not very intelligible. Some alterations were made which I do not exactly remember. The case in short was this. The Government received of Mr Shirley Forty Thousand Pounds lawful mony as equal to Thirty Thousand pounds sterl. When the grant of parliament arrived at New York the first proposal was to order the whole mony to Boston & to pay the Forty Thousand Pounds where it was received & the Government to take the chance of any loss or gain that might arise by 30,000£ sterlg. [of] the bullion shippd being worth more or less than 40,000£ lawful mony but Mr Apthorp who was then obliged to send mony from hence [to N] York made this offer, that if the Government would order £30,000 of [bullion] he would take that chance upon him & discharge the Province of their Obligations to Genl Shirley and that he wou’d purchase the rest of their mony or Interest in the grant & for every thousand pounds sterl pay the Treasurer Thirteen Hundred & thirty three pounds six shillings & eight pence lawful mony & he did pay accordingly & had an order for the whole sum to be delivered him & the two pence a dollar may with the same reason be demanded upon the remaining sum which was between 20 & 30,000 sterlg more as upon the 30,000£ borrowed of Mr Shirley.9 Whether the bullion shipped in England made the same sterl sum here accounting a dollar at [4/6] that it cost in England is uncertain. The Treasurer is confident that Mr Apthorp told him afterwards there was some gain to the Contractors by the bargain be that as it will it was not to affect the contract made by this Government. Mr Temple delivered me from you my Commission for Lt Govr but I had no letter nor any Account of the fees.10 I wait only an Opportunity of purchasing bills of Exchange to remit to Mr Wilson & shall order him to reimburse you what you have been so kind as to advance for me. I am with very great regard,

    Please to deliver the inclosed thot to Colonel Barré late Major Barre a Member of the House of Commons as soon as it comes to hand.11

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:2–4); in TH Jr.’s hand, except for the postscript inserted by TH and two minor corrections in TH’s hand; unaddressed.

    30. To [William Bollan]

    Boston 11 Jan. 1762

    Dear Sir, I sent you by Jacobson something I published upon the subject of our currency. A Bear a successor of Jemmy Allen undertook to answer me but discovered so much brutality that my friends advised me to make no reply and to publish something further on the same subject to shew that I took no notice of him.1 I send it to you inclosed. The piece Y Z is said to be Mr. Bowdoins.2 The Assembly sits to morrow. The town is full of contention.

    15. I opened my letter to tell you that the House have passed a bill for issuing notes payable in dollars at 6/ or in gold at the rates now set which sinks our currency 4 or 5 per ct.3 It will pass the board without ^little^ opposition. The Secry, Erving Bowdoin & 2 or 3 more are with me all the rest of the court & country against me and a great clamour is raised against my papers.4 Pray tell me if I am wrong & let me know what people say on your side the water. If the party see them condemned I shall have no chance. Our dollars will be gone in a twelve month pistereens5 will succeed & I shant wonder if the next motion ^or at least after some time^ is to bring gold to a proportion to them at 14d. each. The intrinsick value perhaps is not 8d. The G is full in the measures of the house in this bill.

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:6); unaddressed. Enclosure not found.

    31. To William Bollan

    Boston 6. March 1762

    Dear Sir, This Vessel tarrying longer than expected gives oppo[rtunity]1 of acquainting you that a troublesome session of the General Court is at an [end]. The G. for the sake of peace complied, I think, farther than [he] would otherwise inclined to have done with the opposers of government & found by experience the truth of S R Walpoles saying that one expedient makes necessary a great ma[ny] more and to day they presented him a bill restraining the Superior Court from issuing Writs of assistance except upon sp[ecial] information to a Custom house officer oath being first made, [the] informer mentioned and the person supposed to own the go[ods] & the place where they are suspected to be concealed.2 Yo[u] will not imagine it possible for him to have signed such a [bill] and after requiring such of the Justices of the Superior Court as were in [town] to give their opinion upon some points he refused it.

    I suppose an Act making gold the lawful mony of the province [goes] by this Ship but for some particular reasons I say [nothing to] you about it. A cause of great expectation between the Province & C P has been determined against the Province.3 The Court were fully convinced of the injury done the Province but there was no room to question the jurisdiction of the Admiralty. This trial, the Writ of Assistance & my pernicious principles about the currency have taken away a great number of friends and the House have not only Reduced the allowance to the Superior Court in general but have refused to make any allowance at all to me as chief justice.4 I shall make no complaint under this cloud but please my self with hopes of it’s blowing over.

    At worst I hope to keep a conscia mens recti.5 We wish for a good peace with foreign enemies it would enable us to make a better defence against our domestick foes. I am sorry you do not write oftener to the Court if it was only to tell them you had nothing to say. I am Sir Your affectionate humble Servant,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:8–9); at head of letter, “Mr Bollan.”

    32. To [William Bollan]

    Boston 31 March 1762

    Dear Sir, As the Government do not regularly correspond with you it seems necessary that some of the members should inform you from time to time how our affairs go on. The Assembly in their last session resolved to raise 2000 men in addition to 600 who have been in service all winter part at Halifax & part at Crown point. This is short of what was required by the S of State & a very ill judged oeconomy.1 It is thought they will add 400 more at their next session ^the 14. April^. The Gov will then urge them to raise a number of recruits for the regulars & thinks he shall succeed. I think it is rather to be wished than hoped.2

    I have observed for some time the heads of a clan very busy & am satisfied they have some scheme projecting for the next session & am not without my apprehensions that you are the subject of it but I say nothing to your friends as yet because I am uncertain.3 I know in general that some of the bar who have treated me very ill treat you so also and as they are at the head of the party I refer to for that reason I suspect them besides. There is nothing they will stick at to feed their malignity. It has been levelled at me all the past year & I tell the Gov I have kept it off from him but they find I have altogether neglected & despised it & they grow tired, but it must have vent somewhere or other.

    During the session there was a scheme carrying on for a new college in the county of Hampshire & the House passed a bill of incorporation but the council Refused it. The Hamp. men then applied to the Gov who signed a charter of incorporation in the Kings name under the Province seal. The House the day the Court rose applied to him not to issue it & he promised it should not be delivered until they met again, the overseers of Hd College likewise applied & I fancy a stop is put to it, but it will be a troublesome affair for the H. men will think themselves ill used by the opposition they have met with.4

    I had no suspicion that [blank space in MS]5 would any ways interest himself in my concerns but I am informed that soon after he came over [he]6 wrote to Mr. J P that some things which he had heard of me were ^entirely^ fa[lse].7 He wrote also to the L of the T and Mr P that it was very much ow[ning] to me that the disputes in which the Officers of the Customs have been engaged ha[ve] been brought to so favorable an issue.8 I am obliged to [blank space in MS] altho’ I have no great expectation nor desire of any further effect [than] a removal of some prejudices which may have been unjustly Raised ag[ainst] me.

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:10); unaddressed.

    33. To [William Bollan]

    Boston [23] April 17621

    Dear Sir, My suspicions were well founded. Monday last the House sent up a vote to dismiss you from the Agency. I made what opposition to it I could but the terror of Election which is just at hand prevailed over all other considerations & 11 votes carried it against 10 for a concurrence with the house. Two lawyers of the same name carry all before them in the house & B____le at the board heads the Party there.2 This afternoon they have chose one Mr Mauduit to whom I am an entire stranger.3 I never knew an instance of such mad proceedings. The Court must rise in 2 or 3 days at farthest. They would have had me been of a Committee for Instructions but I declined it & told them it would take more time than they had to spare upon any one of several affairs depending & which you are throughly possessed of.4 Indeed I desire to have no more to do with them & they assure me I shall not after this Session.

    I had almost forgot to tell you that the House ordered a bill to be brought in to exclude the Justices of the Superior Court from a seat in either house & upon a second reading in a full house would have carried a vote for it if the Party could have brought four or five more over to them.5

    I must in justice to the Secretary tell you that notwithstanding Mr Mauduit is his friend he was one that Remained firm to your interest. I am Sir Your affectionate humble Servant,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:12); unaddressed, but the volume index lists “Mr. Bollan” as the recipient.

    34. To [William Bollan]

    Boston 16 May 1762

    Dear Sir, The letters by the Feby packet came to town last evening. It is too late to follow your advice with respect to our currency.1 I did everything in my power to prevent the bills passing into an Act.2 The Governor I am satisfied always means well but saw that affair in a very different light from that in which it appeared to me otherwise it wou’d never have passed the Council. The Act is not yet sent home but has in a great degree had its effect here & I suspect this delay will afford an additional reason for the suspending clause you hint at which in your publick letter & that to me is all I know about it having never heard of a design of that nature.3 There has always I take it been an Instruction to the Governor not to sign any bill which shall have its full operation or effect before it can be presented without such a clause & I confess that when I consider our Constitution I am not much surprized at such an Instruction, but to have such a clause made necessary in all bills wou’d be such a clogg that I do not see how we cou’d go on with the affairs of the Government. I think I know you so well as that I can depend on it your ill treatment will not suffer you to omitt any thing that may serve the province which in your private capacity you will be better able to do than one in a publick Character wholly unacquainted with our affairs. I hope I shall be able to preserve the same temper. Whether we shall have a better house or not than that of the last year is uncertain. Mr Hatch might have been chose but refuses & I am told some others do the like who are good men. The same representatives are chose again for Boston.4 I am,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:13); in TH Jr.’s hand; unaddressed.

    35. To [Jonathan Belcher Jr.]

    [8–11 November 1762]1

    Sir, The first opportunity after the Receipt of your letter I communicated it to the G & Council where I am sensible it made some impression but the House of Repr which was then sitting was fixed on a Resolution to be at no expence upon the poor people sent from your province and not to suffer them to land unless the General would undertake to defrey the necessary charge of supporting them and this he utterly Refused to do.2 Before a final determination was had I was obliged to leave the town upon circuits through several parts of the province which are but very lately finished and by this means I have been prevented answering your letter so soon as otherwise I should have done.3 I am very sure that all unprejudiced persons must think that it was a necessary caution in your government to Remove these people. Indeed I do not Remember to have heard the measure censured by those who were most averse to their landing here. I own for my part I was not without apprehension that the small fleet at Nfdland would be joined by the Ships from Hispaniola or by other ships from France & it is very fortunate that they were not.

    I assure you Sir that I shall ever favorably receive the Recommendations of any measure that appears to you for the Publick Service & they will have great weight to induce me to think it to be so. We have two vessels from Scotland with short passages. One left Glasgo the 4. Oct. & brings London prints to the 28. Sept.4 Probably you will have heard that the Duke of Bedford is in France where he was received with more than usual pomp. The Duke de Nivernois is in England we hear nothing of any great joy upon his arrival.5 The Secretary of State had by a letter to the Lord Mayor intimated to the city of London that overtures of peace had been made but it seems that addresses are preparing from all parts of the Kingdom for continuing the war until such terms can be had as it is not probable France will concede to.6 I hope they will not strain the cord so as to break it & thereby oblige us by and by to submit to worse terms than we are now offered. Every man who has at heart the interest of his country cannot but see that the Ministry if all suppose them to have it at heart also must be extremely embarrassed & at a loss what step to take. I wish every such man after Peace is made & perhaps not in every respect such as we could wish may reflect upon the situation we are now in & endeavour to preserve intestine7 peace & quiet in the nation. I am Sir Your most humble & most obedient Servant,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:25–26); unaddressed; undated.

    36. To [William Bollan]

    Boston 15 Nov 1762

    Dear Sir, I am very much obliged to you for the notice you took of my nephew & am glad to see that he is not insensible of it.1 He speaks very freely of the different figure the Province makes in England by their new agent from what they did by their old & your enemies have no other answer than this that his uncle has instructed him.2 He tells me that you sometimes say pleasantly that you are punished for my sins. It is very true that your enemies & mine are the same persons but they think that each of us have sins enough to deserve punishment & I question whether either of us were then punished for the sins of the other. Mr Pownall was the cause of your losing your interest in the court.3 He could not weaken it to that degree but that the weight of a governor in your scale would turn it in your favour. As soon as he was gone I found no great difficulty in doing it. Mr Bernard determined to give his weight to neither scale. I would not mention this to you least it should have the appearance of a desire to prejudice you against him if I did not know that he had mentiond the same thing to your common friend Mr Wilbraham but his neutrality had this effect with some of the council to induce them to think a change would not be disagreable.4 I really think he wishes you had been continued & I do not think he wou’d upon the whole have weakned his own interest in the court if he had openly said so. I have more than once said to you that I have a very different opinion of him from what I had of his predecessor & he desires not only to be easy & happy himself but to make the province so. At the same time I do not think his system tends to it. A Governor in the plantations must support those who are friends to government or they cannot long support themselves against their enemies. He is in some measure convinced that this is true & I hope will be more & more so. I have been so often ill used by the people when I have endeavoured to do service & sometimes in promoting measures which they must have been convinced could not possibly serve any particular interest of my own that I am almost tempted to take for a motto Odi profanum vulgus.5 When the popular wind changes I am a little cooled. I fancy at least that they turn to me & not I to them. Our new agent in his last letters to the court has proposed to them to join his brother with him in the agency & I hear that some of the Boston members say that it is a good proposal. It is not intended that the court shall sit until January. I can scarce believe such a point can be carried but am not sure that it will not.6

    Is it owing to the different appearances which the same actions make in the different stages of life or is the world more of a theater than it used to be & every man in it more of a [performer]? I cannot help thinking that in [this]7 country we have made great proficiencies within these five years. You & I have been so long upon the stage & have so few more scenes to go through that it can be of no very great consequence to us. I wish the latter which are to come may prove happier to us both than those which are past. I am Dear Sir Your most affectionate humble servant,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:30–31); unaddressed, but the volume index lists “Mr. Wm. Bollan” as the recipient.

    37. To [Richard Jackson]

    Boston 15 Nov. 1762

    Sir, I am very much obliged to you for your kind letter by my Nephew Mr Rogers.1 I am glad my little performance ^in a news paper^ which procured me many enemies in my own Country met with your approbation. I wish my nephew had shewn you an historical account of our Currency ^from the first settlement of the Colony^ which I published in two succeeding papers.2 I fancy the facts would have been entertaining to you ^afforded some addition to the great collection which you have made.^ Your observation that although Silver by law is the measure in England yet in fact Gold is become the measure must certainly affords you one Argument ^which could not be made use of here^ in favour of altering the nominal value of Silver Coins rather than Gold. Give me leave however to ask you ^whether^ upon the whole the reasons for bringing Gold to Silver will not ^preponderate^ those for bringing Silver to Gold. Is it not dangerous to depart in any Instance from the measure established by law. Obsta principiis3 seems to be as necessary to be kept in mind when any alteration of the measure is proposed as upon any one case ^occasion^ I can think of. The Coin ^wears and^ the weight ^diminishes^ and if Suffered to pass any time at a little while the diminished weight the light Coin ^may & in fact has^ become the measure and the [illegible] in bullion [illegible] ^Will^ There ^not be^ just the same reason for making new Coin whether Gold or Silver of no greater weight than the worn Coin as there is for raising Silver now? ^You seem to admit of two measures gold as well as silver. Now^ the proportion of gold ^& silver^ each ^to the other^ is fluctuating. That which is the least valuable in proportion ^as they pass in other countries to which they are exported^ be it one or the other will in fact be the measure ^in England^ for no man will part with anything of greater value when he can answer the same purpose by parting with something of lesser value. Admit that when you have made a Crown a penny weight lighter it is the present just proportion to a guinea of 21s/. Suppose that in a few Years in some other Countries to which gold & silver are exported from England the proportion between them should vary and Cause all your Gold to be exported & leave you nothing but Silver. Will there not be the same reason then for Coining lighter Guineas as there is now for Coining lighter Crowns for if you raise a Guinea to 22s/ or more or less it has the same effect. If the proportion should alter again in a few years more & cause your Silver to be carried away you have nothing to do but to make your Crown still lighter & so from time [illegible].4 ^Let which will be the least valuable after it is become the measure I do not see but that upon the principle of two measures the other must be all exported unless to prevent it you raise the value of the other & so from time to time depreciate your currency.^

    Will not ^such depreciations cause^ infinite Injustice ^and confusion^ as all your immense paper credit & every debt in the nation is affected by it ^made just so much less in real value^? ^Is it^ It seems to me impossible to prevent this mischief in any other way than by making one metal alone the measure religiously adhering to it & continually observing ^watching^ the proportion which the other metal bears and [noting] from time to time the proportion [alters] in the world or in Europe ^to it in those countries to which bullion is exported & settling in England accordingly the^ rate above which ^the other metal^ shall not be suffered to pass? Our legislators are short Sighted & never think of anything but a temporary expedient ^but^ you look forward & provide for ^future Ages^. ^I have never had the pleasure of seeing any thing wrote by Mr Harris.5 Few of the sensible performances upon any subjects which have been lately published reach us. We have trash enough sent over.^6 ^I ask your pardon for saying so much upon a subject which is to be^ determined by those who are in every respect so much my superiors.

    (The removal of Mr Bollan from the Agency was I think an Ill Judged proceeding. We have many affairs depending in which he was perfectly well versed and he has given us in many Instances the fullest evidence of his Capacity and Integrity. I do not find that any body questions the Integrity of his successor but he is said to be wholy unacquainted with our Affairs and in advanced life & ill state of health.7 We have violent parties in our little mock Parliament & some times the publick Interest gives way to private picques & prejudices as well as with you.) We wish for peace & are sensible of the great difficulty the Ministry must be under. If the concessions ^to be made by France^ are ^not^ very great it looks as if the Nation would not be satisfied. If they are so I fear the peace will be of but short continuance & that we shall soon be involved in another War ^more difficult to support the charges of Perhaps than the present has been^. I thank you for the Medall you sent me by Mr Rogers. It will make a valuable Addition to my small Collection. I am with very great Esteem Sir &c,

    Dft (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:28–29); heavily reworked with many interlined and crossed out words and passages that are now illegible; unaddressed, but the volume index lists “R. Jackson” as the recipient.

    38. To Richard Jackson

    Boston 7. Dec. 1762

    Sir, When our ancestors first came over they apprehended themselves subject to no other laws or rules of government than what arise from natural Reason and the principles of equity except any positive Rules from the word of God. I intended to have sent you a collection of punishments inflicted for a great variety of offences some of which would have diverted you & all of them would have tended to discover to you the cast & genius of our first settlers but my time since the date of my last has been much taken up in preparing a defence of the province title to the lands between Nova Scotia & the province of Main.1

    I hope to have leisure before another opportunity of writing to you. I am,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:35); at foot of letter, “R Jackson [illegible].” Contemporary printings: Boston Gazette, 10 July 1775; Massachusetts Spy, 19 July 1775; Norwich Packet, 24 July 1775; Remembrancer (1776), 2:62.

    39. To John Cushing

    Boston 3 Jan 1763

    Dear Sir, You have discovered to me by your letter of Nov 26 that you are less of a politician than I always before took you to be.1 One of the best friends you have in the world & which is more ^comes still nearer^ you your self have been slandered vilified Ridiculed from week to week & for months together & you bore it with tolerable patience but as soon as a character is attacked which you Really are not obliged to defend you lose your temper & grow quite angry. I differ from you toto cælo.2 I think O is a clever fellow.3 He was so unfortunate as to mistake before but he certainly has the Right scent now. Pray do not stop him in his course.

    But to be serious I never knew so little ^less^ notice taken of a pamphlet that contained so much slander which generally gives a run than there is of this & I am mistaken if he increases the number of his friends.4 Brattle extols it to the skies & will not allow that a more sensible thing was ever wrote. He connects himself closer & closer with them & it is whispered that some great things are to be done the next session & what they effect in the house he is to carry through at the board but what it is does not transpire.

    I have had a difficult case between a mother & her children upon Choates paragraph of the intestate law & in order to establish one Rule for us all with leave of the Governor & Council I have transfered it there & they have appointed the 2d Thursday of the next session to determine the point & they expect every Judge of Probate to be present.5 I am in earnest & if you should not attend it will certainly be put off.6

    You have been by your fireside & so have I by mine Reading ^poring^ over old year books & when I am tired I relieve my self with historical facts of our own country for I design to carry down Mr Princes chronology & as Bishop Burnet did write the history of my own times.7 I shall paint characters as freely as he did but it shall not be published while I live & I expect the same satisfaction which I doubt not the Bishop had of being Revenged of some of the r—s8 after I am dead.9 I wish you may have the pleasure of reading it. I am &c,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:38–39); at foot of letter, “Colo Cushing.” Contemporary printings: Boston Gazette, 10 July 1775 (last paragraph only); Massachusetts Spy, 19 July 1775 (same extract); Norwich Packet, 24 July 1775 (same extract); Remembrancer (1776), 2:62 (same extract).

    40. To [Israel Williams]

    Boston 3 January 1763

    Dear Sir, I was disappointed in not seeing you at Springfield. I saw a Hampshire man some time ago who told me you had been confined by disorder but was recovered or much better & I hope your state of health will not prevent your coming to court which certainly will sit next week. If your County desert the publick as some of the best of you seem disposed to do I will give it up too for it is only loss of time to attempt any opposition.1

    One of my country neighbours who is subject to Epileptick disorders lamenting his case to me I told him of your medecine but I could not find that he had any knowledge of the plant. If you will bring or send some of the seed it may possibly afford help to one of our species, the reward I mean the pleasure that will arise from it we will share between us. I hope Colo Partridge has quite recovered his health.2 I am Sir Your affectionate friend & humble servant,

    Tho Hutchinson

    Portugal you will see by the Papers is Relieved from the Spaniards by the hand of God their army being kept back three weeks by continual Rains & bad weather which discouraged them from any further attempts.3 Lord Halifax Secretary of State the place he has been aiming at all his life.

    AC (Massachusetts Historical Society, Israel Williams Papers); unaddressed.

    41. To [William Bollan]

    14 Feb 1763.

    Dear Sir, I received your letter by the Packet this day sennight.1 I immediately wrote to Mr John Turner but I fancy my letter was delayed some days by the extreme bad travelling the Snow being so deep that in some places the roads are scarce passable.2 As soon as I receive his answer I will send it you. I have no news to write. I have been out of humour this fortnight by an infamous piece in one of our papers wrote by young Otis.3

    Whether he has abused you or me the most I am at a loss. I have this satisfaction that people in general are very angry with him. I have no remedy but patience. I am,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:46); unaddressed.

    42. To David Chesebrough

    9 March [17]63

    Dear Sir, I am at a loss whether you or I have most Reason to be [miffed]. Our correspondence has kept so near upon a balance that it will be difficult in whose favour it is. If I am one letter in your debt it is because I have had nothing worth communicating for I could always have found to have wrote in the greatest hurry of business. I sincerely rejoice with you in your good news from Halifax & hope it is an earnest of more to follow.1 For what you write Relating to my own concerns I am told no body abroad understands our papers & I know almost every body at home condemns them. I have always told my friends that it was the best way to treat such Ribaldry with contempt but they would bear it no longer & have broke out at once from all quarters & I really pity my enemy.2 He is ^indeed the^ stranges Creature in the world, says a hundred things I do not deserve in all companies as if he designed to Raise my character & as soon as he goes home sits down to libel me.

    I do not know what Martin means.3 When he was in town we settled our accounts in good friendship. He neither said he would nor would not continue upon the farm but would consider of it. I really ask him no more Rent than he always agreed to pay. All the matter in dispute is that in his former leases he covenanted to keep all the buildings &c in Repair & yet I have from time to time allowed considerable sums for that purpose whereas now to prevent disputes I require him to lay out 20 dollars a year in Repairs over & above the old Rent. If he designs to quit he ought to have given me more notice. I am afraid I shall not be able to go up this spring. I was in hopes to have found 5 or 6 days between Plimouth & Barnstable Courts but we travel now with so much apparatus Wigs Robes Bands & such sort of trumpery that I cannot well contrive it.4

    As for changing tenants I believe mine is the best farmer & can take best care of his own interest but that is not always best for the landlord. I hope upon the whole yours will do better than if he staid in town where expences run high in a genteel family let there be never so much oeconomy. I shall be glad for your sisters sake to hear they live easy & happy there.

    I am very unfortunate with Belknap but am utterly ignorant of the dispute between Mr Willett and Mr Honeyman.5 I am obliged to you for sending the 25 ½ dollars I received of Mumford. I hear there is a disposition to get Rid of your paper currency. I wish I knew the state of it. I think such a plan may be laid for exchanging the bills that the people would not be sensible of any burden & I should be glad to be instrumental in doing it. Rhode Island gave birth to the greatest happiness, too too short, I ever enjoyed & I consider it as my other Country.6 All the Reluctance I should have would be that I am sure it will give your trade all that advantage over the trade of this Province which it had 30 years ago.

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:47); at foot of letter, “Mr Chesebro”; partially dated.

    43. To [William Bollan]

    Boston April 11th 1763

    Dear Sir, Our News from London is three Months Old & we have Rumors that there were some obstacles in the way of the definition treaty.1 I hope we are not in danger of another years War. Our foolish internal quarrels are not worth communicating to you. I suffer more by them than any other Person at present.

    I forgot to mention to you in my last that I had made enquiry after Philip Lemonier & find several Persons who knew him.2 He has been in the Provincial Army & served as a Clerk at Halifax in one of the Companies. One Gentleman told me he saw him in the Street in [this] Town in the Winter & I have heard from others that he has since been at Cape Ann. I enquired what his Circumstances were. They are supposed to be ^but^ indifferent not said to be in a suffering Condition. If I can find out where he is I will send to him & let him know the enquiry made concerning him. We have had no Spring Sessions & the General Court is now dissolved. I am &c,

    P S to Mr Bollan

    April 16. We have advice to day from Lisbon that the definitive treaty was signed at Paris the 10 Feb so that we hope now for a few years of quiet from foreign foes.

    18. In a letter to the Court Received this day from Mr Jasp Mauduit probably wrote by his brother he acknowledges the Receipt of the copy of General Amhersts certificate of the number of our forces in Nova Scotia &c & says if your illness had not prevented your delivering him the original he supposes he should have been able to receive the whole £10,000—whereas now the other Agents have laid in their claims.3 This hint if it should be known to come from me might make a clamour but I think friendship Requires me to give it to you.

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:52, 55); letter in EH’s hand, postscript in TH’s hand; unaddressed.

    44. To [Israel Williams]

    Boston 15 April 1763

    Dear Sir, Judge Oliver took the Oath of a Counsellor the last day of the Court.1 The rumor which you have heard that I intended to quit must have been spread by people who think I ought to do it for I have always given out my self that their opposition should make me more resolute, but between you & I notwithstanding outward appearances I am sometimes discouraged. I never met with two such men as the father & son.2 The latter professes to have buried the hatchet every three or four months. As soon as ever any body affronts him be it who it will instead of returning the affront to the person from whom he received it he wreaks all his malice & Revenge upon me. The former just before the Court rose desired to speak with me in the Lobby & mentioned that we used to think alike &c I told him he could not be insensible of the injurious treatment I had received from his son & that the Monday before he had published the most virulent piece which had ever appeared, but if he would desist & only treat me with common justice & civility I would forgive & forget every thing that was past.3 He replied it was generous and yet his son has gone on in the same way ever since and I have no reason to think the father dislikes it.

    I do not think the major part of the town of Boston think Otis a good man but its the general opinion that he will be Representative again notwithstanding and if the gentlemen of your County would attend their duty in the house it would be as well for every body in the Province I only excepted that he should be there as not, for they could prevent his obtaining his ends in any matters of consequence.4 He might stop particular grants & do some other little things not worth Regarding.

    Old Lord Granville the President of the Council who has stopped all Plantation business for ten years past is dead and I imagine the affair of the Connecticut towns & our other controversies may now be issued.5

    When I have nothing else to do I sit down & write History. I have a great many of Whaley & Goffes papers. Goffes diary for 7 or 8 years. The last I find of him was at Mr Russels in Hadley about 1675.6 I suppose Whaley was then dead. I wish you could inform me when they died & whether they have any tombstones or monuments. Goffes friends wrote to him by the name of Walter Goldsmith. I never could find any name for Whaley.

    I thank you for the seed. I gave the greatest part of it to Mr. Clark for Mrs Gibbs the old Secretarys daughter.7 If it should do her any good you must expect a great deal of custom. I am Sir Your affectionate humble servant,     Tho Hutchinson

    RC (Massachusetts Historical Society, Israel Williams Papers); unaddressed.

    45. To [William Bollan]1

    Boston 18 May 1763

    Dear Sir, I am glad to hear by Doctor Whitworth of your being in health.2 I have received no letter from you of a later date than November.3 Your late alterations make it proper for me to make new addresses and I must ask your favour to deliver the inclosed for I have not yet any correspondence with our new agent.4 I have no views any further than to preserve decency. My ambition which never made me restless is at an end & I am so fond of rest that I would not spend the Remainder of my days in any other country than this for the sake of the best government the King has in his gift, and yet I am willing to be doing some service as long as I live. I hope you will let me frequently hear from you. I am Sir Your affectionate humble Servant,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:58); unaddressed. Enclosure not found.