174. To [Richard Jackson], 25 March 1766

    175. To [William Bollan], 26 March 1766

    176. To Benjamin Franklin, 26 March 1766

    177. To Charlton Palmer, 26 March 1766

    178. To Arthur Haywood, 29 March [1766]

    179. To Thomas Hutchinson Jr., [circa 29 March 1766]

    180. From William Bollan, 29 March 1766

    181. To Israel Mauduit, 30 March 1766

    182. To the Marquis of Rockingham, 30 March 1766

    Within days of the attack on his Boston townhouse, Thomas Hutchinson began a campaign both in Massachusetts and England to win compensation for his losses. By the spring of 1766, he despaired of receiving any relief from either the province or the Town of Boston. His requests for leave to come to England to argue his case before Crown authorities were quietly ignored by officials in London, and Hutchinson was concerned that if he left the province without leave, he would jeopardize his many positions. Instead, he opted to send his eldest son, Thomas Hutchinson Jr., to lobby on his behalf. The careful preparations Hutchinson made for his son’s voyage illustrated how much his hope for compensation rested on the venture. The letter of instruction Hutchinson wrote to his son before his departure on 3 April 1766, as well as those that followed throughout the spring and summer, gave politic advice concerning how to treat the various personalities Tommy would encounter in England. They also exhibit a fatherly concern for his son’s welfare in cosmopolitan London with all the temptations it offered young men.

    174. To [Richard Jackson]

    Boston 25 March 1766

    Dear Sir, Finding my last of the 26 Feb. to have been a very long letter I design to make this short no intelligence having been since received from England and there having been no very remarkable occurrence in the colonies. We see & hear enough every day to convince us the spirit of liberty does not subside. The governor tells me he writes at large to you & acquaints you with his letter to the Secretary of State & application for leave of absence.1 Certainly he may be of great service much more than it will be possible for me to be of which made me the more readily lay aside the thoughts of my journey and I hope he will succeed in his application for it never was more necessary that the most perfect knowledge should be had of the state of the colonies never more need of a judicious plan for ascertaining & supporting the relation of the colonies to G Britain & convincing them that they are in no danger of oppression.2 To keep them subject to the crown and to acts of parliament which respect them is one thing to continue & increase the advantages from their trade & the consumption of B manufactures is another & depends more upon their affection to their mother country than I imagined. The boasts of wearing our own manufactures & importing no more english goods I took to be meer puffs but I am convinced it is a serious affair. The laying aside mourning which I think was laying aside decency takes universally & I can perceive among the country people especially an affection for their own manufactures & it is every day increasing. I shall forget my promise. I hope this letter will be delivered you by my son who would not have gone to England quite so early in life if I had not tho’t it would prove of some service to me that he should shew himself there. Indeed he is immediately concerned having been plundered of a considerable sum of money besides his apparel books &c. I have given him a power of attorney but depend upon following him with more particular instructions than I can now give him after I shall Receive further advice from England; all I have said to him now is to wait upon immediately to follow your advice in everything and never to trouble you but when you appoint him.

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/45X, 26:219–20); unaddressed.

    175. To [William Bollan]

    Boston 26 March 1766

    Dear Sir, I hope this will be delivered you by my son. He intended at some time or other to see England. I should have chose to have had him deferred his voyage a year or two longer if it had not been for this amazing turn in affairs. There never was a time when one would wish more to be absent, and I imagine he may be of some little service to me at lest by keeping my claim alive which might otherwise die & be forgot. I hope he will be prudent. I shall be obliged to you for your advice to him as to his own conduct in a place were I know youth are much exposed.

    I am every hour expecting further intelligence from you. We have nothing later from England than the first of January. We are as sure of a repeal or suspension of the stamp act as if we had advice of it. But what provision will be made for the restoration of order & the authority of government we are utterly at a loss. If the spirit in the town of Boston should subside I think the other parts of the province are so sensible of the miserable state we are in, that from a meer internal principle of virtue we should return to our former state of order, but I see little prospect of the return of Boston to reason. The director of their councils is without dispute, a madman.1

    I have not the lest doubt that if measures should be taken to inforce the stamp duty force will be opposed to force and that their will be a general junction of the sons of liberty in all the colonies they make no secret of such an intention. It must be known in England, & it is impossible this knowledge should not have an influence upon the councils there. We are impatient to here.

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/45X, 26:216); in WSH’s hand except for the dateline, salutation, and first sentence, which are in TH’s hand; unaddressed.

    176. To Benjamin Franklin

    Boston 26 March 1766

    Dear Sir, My son being bound to London I give him a letter to you that he may have a better pretence for waiting on you and paying his own as well as my respects to you.

    I expected to have gone my self some of my friends advising to it; others thought it best for me to remain here and that I should not recommend my self to the ministry by leaving the Province at this time although I had leave for it I hope my son will be of some service to me in my sollicitations for relief under my great sufferings which was my principal inducement to consent to his voyage just at this time. I have cautioned him much against the snares and temptations of London. I hope he will be upon his guard. I am sure your advice will have great weight with him in every affair. I am with great esteem Sir Your faithful humble Servant,

    Tho Hutchinson

    RC (American Philosophical Society, Benjamin Franklin Papers); at foot of letter, “Doctor Franklin”; addressed, “To Benjamin Franklin Esqr London”; endorsed, “Lieut. Govr. Hutchinson March 26. 1766.” AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/45X, 26:219); at foot of letter, “Doctor Franklin.”

    177. To Charlton Palmer

    Boston 26 March 1766

    Sir, My son being bound to London I could not avoid writing to you by him altho I have nothing of moment to comunicate to you. The distracted affairs of the colonies you will hear enough of from news papers & publick Reports. Perhaps it is better both for the nation & them that these commotions should happen now than half a century hence. It may be the means of settling the Relation they bear each to the other & continuing for ages the connexion between them. Much depends on the measures taken or to be taken in England. It is now near 3 months since the date of our last letters. We are impatiently waiting especially such of us as are in publick posts without being able to perform the functions of them.

    If Mrs. Mariot be living I have not heard anything said of her for many years I should be very glad my son might have an opportunity of waiting upon her & letting her know I still have a grateful Remembrance of the civilities which I received from Mr Wilks & his family five & twenty years ago.

    I expected to have been under necessity of a voyage to London my self many of my friends advising to it from apprehensions of further violence from a populace full of political enthusiasm. If the stamp act is repealed or suspended I hope we shall have no further orders if the execution of it is resolved upon I dread the consequences. We are in the hands of providence.

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/45X, 26:220); at head of letter, “Mr Charlton Palmer.”

    178. To Arthur Haywood1

    March 29. [1766]

    Sir, My son being bound to England I cannot avoid by him Reviving a correspondence which has for some years been discontinued, my publick employments having taken me off from mercantile affairs.2 If my son should visit Liverpool I beg leave to recommend him to your favorable notice.

    A late duty imposed by parl. upon the colonies has caused the inhabitants to Run absolutely distracted & not only to Refuse to submit to the duty but to commit the most heinous outrages upon the officers of the crown. We hope very soon to hear the act of parl is Repealed. The multitude have had a large taste of power. I doubt whether they will very soon be willing to part with it. I am with very great esteem Sir Your most humble & most obedient Servant,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/45X, 26:221); at head of letter, “Arthur Haywood Eq.”; partially dated.

    179. To Thomas Hutchinson Jr.

    [circa 29 March 1766]1

    As you are just embarking on a voyage to London I desire to commit you to the protection of a kind providence both upon the sea & the land and to recommend to you a constant guard upon your virtue & Religion in a place full of temptation that you may avoid the Reproach so many of your country men have foolishly brought upon their characters. I shall deliver you bills of exchange for £170 – – sterl and I write to Mr Wilsonn to pay you the balance of my account current with him.

    Reserve enough in your hands to pay the several articles I have mentioned in an Invoice delivered you and what Remains lay out in bohea tea to be bought at the sale & on the best terms which perhaps by consulting some Broker of character you may be able to inform yourself of so as to serve not only the present occasion but to be of use in a future course of business. Leave £100 – – sterl without insurance or by shipping about that sum in different vessels the whole may come without insurance.

    I shall also deliver you a power of attorney to appear for me in solliciting a compensation for my heavy loss & to Receive any sums which may be obtained.2 Not having Received any advices for a long time I cannot tell what or whether any progress has been made in this affair. I would have you immediately upon your arrival wait upon Mr Jackson & take his directions in what manner to proceed & do nothing without his advice for I have a perfect confidence in him & know he will do every thing in his power to serve me but be careful you do not trouble him in this or any other affair but at such times as he appoints you. As soon as I hear from England what steps have been taken I shall be better able to judge what to say further to you upon this subject & if any sum shall be granted to me shall let you know how to dispose of it.

    There is an affair unsettled between the late Mr Storkes house & H & G & a balance due of 53.18.9 ½ sterl to the latter I have taken a great deal of pains to satisfy Mess. Champion & Healy of the justice of this demand and I shall give you the last account current from H & G which you will deliver to Mr Healy & as I am well assured there is no error I hope he will pay you the balance.3 If he should there is a balance of 35£ due from H & G to Halsey & Hanbury of Hamburgh one of which gentlemen I am told is in London & I would have you pay him 50£ sterl the money having been long due consideration should be made for it & indeed it is equally Reasonable that a consideration equivalent should be made by Mr Storke.

    I am told that you must treat Mr Healy with great delicacy to avoid giving offence. I have wrote to Mr Lane upon this subject who will give you advice.4

    Wait upon Mr Bollan as soon as you can with my letter. The treatment he has Received from the province has made him apprehensive that his friends have not exerted themselves but it was impossible to withstand the party against him nor have I ever wanted inclination to serve him nor failed of anything in my power for that purpose.

    Mr Palmer you will find a very civil obliging gentleman.5 I was acquainted with him & his lady. I am afraid whether Mr R who I recommended to him has not giving him some offence which I collect from Mr P’s last letter to me.6

    Mr Barnard brother to the minister of Marblehead has been very friendly to all his countrymen & will not forget the friendship there has been between his family & mine.7 Doctor Franklin I doubt not will take a kind notice of you for my sake.

    Governor Pownall you must treat with great court & Respect & may obtain his favour & it will be a good general Rule to say & do every thing you can with a good conscience to obtain every mans favour & to avoid as far as possible giving offence especially be very careful of using any freedom in these times with the characters or late actions of any of your own countrymen as many of them may happen to have connexions there which you know nothing of.

    If you go to Liverpool I have given you a letter to Mr Heywood a principal gentleman there with whom I have done a great deal of business to our mutual satisfaction.8 Be sure not to omit letting me hear from you by every ship if you have nothing more to write than to let me know that you are well & sometimes write by vessels from the out ports when you hear of any. So committing you &c. I rest Your affectionate father,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/45X, 26:223–24); unaddressed; undated.

    Invoice &c1

    [29 March 1766]

    A piece of silk about 30 yards if ¾ wide being for 2 sacks & 2 petticoats in proportion if narrower or wider, the ground to be of stone colour darker than portland stone or other genteel fashionable colour not too light no stripes but flowered & not very full of flowers. Either india or english silk as you can meet with it though I chuse the former about 10/ per hand with the draw back off. When Mr Lane or any other gentleman ships any debenture goods they will put it with their own.

    A laced suit of muslin or lawn as in fashion for Sally to cost 7 guineas2

    2 pair white silk hose for Sally 1 for Peggy not too small3

    A dozen & half small busts yellow bronze about half as big as those that were in the hall

    Cicero Horace Virgil Julius Cæser Augustus Pliny Junior Erasmus Milton Tillotson Addison Pope Locke Shakespeare Gay and make up the number such as you fancy including one of the King if to be had to cost 3 or 4/ apiece.4

    2 Sconces for the hall, small in white carved frames about 3 Guineas each second hand if you can

    Sword to be mended with a new blade & scabbard & 2 leather belts one black

    a black sword to cost about a guinea or less

    2 such small shaving brushes as I had in the box to screw in

    A good razor made to go into a common strop & the strop a small one in a flat case

    Bill to pay in favour of Mr Hubbard £10

    To pay Peter Leitch his account about £17.105

    Colo Fosters Picture to be copied & frame nightgown dress6

    The other to be repaired

    A seal with my arms in silver or if no great difference in stone to cost from ½ guinea to guinea

    The money to be paid & the foregoing articles to be shipped to N Engd as soon as conveniently may be

    You will frequently see advertised second hand post chaises or chariots. When you can meet with one with harnesses that you think will do for me for the circuits—not too much worn the wheels pretty good & can purchase it for 25 or not more than 30£ I would have you buy it & send it for as low a freight as you can agree. I should be glad to have it as light as that which Mr Pownall had if it be sufficiently strong. By engaging somebody to go with you who is acquainted with those peoples manner of chaffering7 you may save in the bargain.

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/45X, 26:226); undated.

    180. From William Bollan

    Gerard street, March 29th. 1766

    Dear Sir, Having three days ago received yours of the 23d. of Jany. I am not surprized at your uneasiness, but am very sorry that you have such continued cause for it:1 an equitable demand upon government hath ever appear’d to me sufficient, and the governments effectual support of those faithful officers who suffer for the sake of it seems evidently founded in good policy as well as equity. Upon these grounds, as well as out of personal regard, I have endeavour’d to promote your essential service. Some part of the proceeding respecting you appearing to me poor & unsuitable, my consequent conduct, I am satisfied, was not well liked. I sent your letter, with the inclosed resolve, directly to the marquis of Rockingham, & have been at his house, but found him surrounded with persons of consequence. If the sense of your countrymen will but correspond with the sense of the house of lords, ^(tho’ I did not like their word require)^2 I shall have hopes that the government here will sooner or later do something for you in their way; but having sent you the material intelligence you can judge of the latter as well as the former. You know the times, & I am heartily sorry that both partake so far of uncertainty. Wishing you better fortune I remain, Dear Sir Yours most Sincerely,     W Bollan

    RC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/45X, 25:69); only the closing and signature are in Bollan’s hand; at foot of letter, “Lt. Gov. Hutchinson”; endorsed, “Mr Bollan 29 March 1766”; docketed, “List of damages recovered by force of the judgment of the said superior court on the said appeal, saving only so far as the said judgment has been Received upon the review and shall also pay such cost & damages”; presumably the docketing describes a notation or memorandum pertaining to an unrelated court case that TH incidentally set down on the verso of the letter.

    181. To Israel Mauduit

    Boston 30 March 1766

    Sir, This day just as my son is embarking for England I received your kind favour of 11 of Jan. which I ought not to omit acknowledging. I thank you for the feeling you have of my misfortunes.

    Some of my friends strongly advised me to go myself to England others thought that it would be better accepted by the ministry at lest that I might do service here which ought to be well accepted & advised me to send my son.

    Letters dated 4 or 5 days after the session opened say the stamp act will certainly be Repealed.1 There will be no living here if it should not. The authority of government will not soon be Restored if it should.

    The peoples minds have been filled with such loose confused notions of their Relation to G Britain that it will Require the most judicious wise measures in the administration to set us right again. I am with Real esteem Sir Your most humble,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/45X, 26:229); at head of letter, “Israel Mauduit.”

    182. To the Marquis of Rockingham

    Boston 30 March 1766

    My Lord, Nothing but the fear of being troublesome to your Lordship has prevented me from representing to you my great misfortunes in His Majesty’s service from the rage and fury of an infatuated populace, and humbly praying your Lordship’s influence towards my obtaining relief. Relief, My Lord, is so necessary to my future comfortable subsistance that I intended a voyage to England to make my humble application, in person, to your Lordship, but I am advised not to leave America whilst the present confusions continue and, rather, to send my eldest son to appear and sollicit in my behalf.

    There is a full dependance in every colony upon the repeal of the late act of parliament, and if there should not be a disappointment, tumults riots and acts of violence will probably cease, but power has been so long with the multitude that it will require very wise measures to restore subordination & a due submission to the authority established by the respective constitutions of the colonies and to reconcile the minds of the people to a just sense of their relation to Great Britain. I have the honour to be with the greatest respect My Lord Your Lordships most humble & most obedient Servant,     Tho Hutchinson

    RC (Sheffield Archives, Wentworth Woodhouse Muniments, Papers of the Marquis of Rockingham, R24/77); at foot of letter, “The Rt Hon the Marquiss of Rockingham”; docketed, “1766 Hutchinson March 30.”

    183. From Peter Oliver

    Middleborough March 30. 1766

    Dear Brother! I am sorry {for your sake} I am obliged to send this Messenger; but I got so bad a Cold the last Time I was at Court that I have not been well since & am unable to take so long a Journey to Salem, &, as I imagine, to no Purpose, for I suppose the Bar will not be willing to go on with Business.1 If I was there, I should be willing to do any Thing as far as Duress would let me, but perhaps none of the Court would be so open as to say so in publick. I am concerned lest it should give you Uneasiness but Indisposition cannot be helped. The Messenger hath Orders to take your Directions, so that if he goes to Boston I have wrote to Mr. Winthrop to inform him that I shall not be at Salem. If you should go to Salem, there will be no need of the Bearers going to Boston but may return with my Letters directly.

    I will endeavour to take Care of my health so as to be at Charlestown Court.

    I shall be uneasy ’till I hear from You, but I think there can be no Difficulty in your going, for my Advice would be for you to go rather than be absent.2

    If you have any News worth communicating by the Packet, pray let me hear it. I am yours with the sincerest Affection,     Peter Oliver

    Since writing the foregoing, my Son Billy tells me that he hath Business in Town, so that I have dismissed the designed Messenger, & my Son will carry the other Letters to Boston.3

    RC (New York Public Library, Samuel Adams Papers); addressed, “To his Honour Thomas Hutchinson in Milton”; endorsed, “Judge Oliver 30 March 1766.”

    184. To Thomas Hutchinson Jr.

    Milton 14 April 1766

    My dear son, We were all employed in watching you from Milton all the day you sailed and did not wholly lose sight of you until late in the afternoon; the night following & the next day and that night we had here a fine westerly wind and carried ^[illegible]^ you 60 or 70 leagues beyond the capes but a long spell of stormy wether suceeded which ^I fear^ will make your passage tedious. Nothing has occurred in my private affairs which needs mentioning, in publick we have been as usual. Various reports of the repeal of the fatal act come to nothing. Today by a North carolina man who spoke with the packet bound to N Yourk it seems to be made certain and the sons of liberty are making greater preparations for rejoicing & triumph. If the packet arrives & her letters come on before Deverson sails I may possibly have something to say to you upon the subject of my compensation, at present nothing occurs to me beyond what you carried with except that it seems necessary if no provision be made for me that by some means or other the secretary of state should be put in mind of the private memorandum I gave you least Mr B— or some other person to whom the powers may have been assigned should receive the mony.1 Though I think Mr B— writes that he had delivered them to Mr M— who I imagine will not care wether he has any thing to do with them or not.2 I send you inclosed a parcell of little bills which you must receive with as little charge as you can. I could get only 19/. allowed for it here & if any are refused send them back protested. Domatts bill he says he cannot draw until the next ship. Before that time I may possibly have secured a further sum in bills. Sally & Peggy say they will write to you, and every body else desires to be remembred to you.3 I am Your affectionate father,

    List of Bills

    • Isaac Fellet on Jno Fellet &c. Topsham 4.4
    • Jno Limberry on Rebekah Limberry Paington 2.8.6
    • Thos Keats on Sarah Keats Pool 12.
    • Ditto on Ditto —     Do 13.10
    • Thos Bully on S. Parmingtin Exeter 10.6
    • S Terry on M. Terry Kingskewell 2.4
    • Mich Pole on S Pole Sidmouth 4.
    • Jno Sandford on A. H. Oldworth Dartmouth 5.17.3
    • Thos Cheesman on W. [Spurrice] Pool 7.16

    April 15. The news of the packet yesterday tho’ believed by evry body came to nothing & the state of suspense is Returned. The superior court met to day ^at Boston^ when I attended & Mr Otis pressed hard for judgment in his actions but was Refused & we adjourned a fortnight longer.4 I know not what use he will make of this denial. Least I should miss the ship I shall close my letter.

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/45X, 26:225, 224); in WSH’s hand, with minor corrections and postscript in TH’s hand; unaddressed. Enclosure not found.

    185. To Thomas Hutchinson Jr.

    Milton 18 April 1766

    My dear son, The arrival of Calef [in] a vessel from Scotland, makes it pretty certain that a resolve to repeal the act had pass’d the house of comons; but the resolves preceeding are very grievous to the sons of liberty, and Mr. O— gives out that there shall be no illuminations, & that he had rather the act should not be repealed.1 I have very little expectation that the house of represves. will make any reparation to any of the sufferers; it will therefore be more necessary than ever that an estoppel should be put upon the money I have formerly mentioned to you.2 If New York shou’d comply possibly the people here may follow; but I think it improbable either shou’d do it. Do not let it be known that you gave any intimation of it. Calef says he has had westerly winds a fortnight past, I wish you may have had the same. I am your affectionate father,     Tho Hutchinson

    SC (Staffordshire Record Office, Papers of the Earl of Dartmouth, D[W]1778/II/191 [This item has been examined and published with the permission of the Earl of Dartmouth and the Dartmouth Trust]); docketed, “Copy of a lt. from Lt. G. Hutchinson to his son, dated Milton 18 April 1766.”

    Hutchinson’s country house, “Unquity,” located high above the Neponset River in Milton, Massachusetts. It commanded sweeping views of the town of Boston and its harbor. Built in 1743–1744 by Hutchinson and his wife, they used the Milton house as their summer home, although Hutchinson lived there during two winters, those of 1765–1766 and 1773–1774. Watercolor by John Ritto Penniman, 1827. Courtesy of the Milton Historical Society.

    186. From William Bollan

    Gerard street, April 19th. 1766

    Dear Sir, Not long since Mr. West & Mr. Gray at different times mention’d to me such an indemnifying bill being brought into the house of comons as wou’d contain a clause providing relief for you & other sufferers by the late outrages.1 I cou’d not well understand how this cou’d be done at present, consistently with the several votes of the two houses. I have since seen Mr. Fuller, who brought in the bill, who told me that it is intended to indemnify the persons who thro’ necessity had made use of unstampt paper; but that you & Mr. Oliver might depend on being indemnified.2 He supposed that the general assembly will certainly make you satisfaction; but said that if they did not the parliament cou’d impose a tax for that purpose, speaking in a determined manner. And, without entring farther into particulars, other persons have since expressed themselves hereupon in the same positive manner.

    Our affairs are not settled; for some time we had considerable hopes that Mr. Pitt would coalesce with the present ministers; but he was lately very severe upon some of their measures.3 I hope the genl court will not be enclined to lay any difficulties in the way of your reimbursment; and it is needless for me to recommend your providing proper written evidence of your losses & damages. Dear Sir, Yours sincerely,     W Bollan

    DupRC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/45X, 25:70); only the closing and signature are in Bollan’s hand; at head of letter, “(Duplicate) with additional letter”; at foot of letter, “Lt. Govr. Hutchinson”; enclosed in William Bollan to TH, 28 April 1766.

    187. To [Richard Jackson]

    Boston 21. April 1766

    Dear Sir, Your letter of the 3d of March acquaints me with several additional obligations you have laid upon me the principal of which is the great pains you have taken in procuring the repeal of the stamp act for although I am but one of many who share in the benefit of it, yet. The very being of us all as British subjects seemed to depend upon it for no judgment can be made to what lengths the madness of the people would have carried them or into whose arms they would have thrown themselves. The report of the resolutions of parliament & the bill declaring the right of taxing at first caused some of the sons of liberty to declare there was no grounds for rejoicing but they ^soon^ began to think better of it and I hear the grand incendiary declared today in a town meeting ^in a town meeting called for that purpose^ that we could expect nothing less ^the Resolutions were such as he would have drawn himself^.1 I suppose he considers them as meer matters of course & form, and ^therefore^ advised to the greatest expressions of joy as soon as the news came of the repeal having passed through all branches.

    Certainly there was a necessity of quieting the minds of the people. They will be better prepared to receive such regulations as are absolutely necessary in order ^What shall we do^ to restore & support authority?

    Had our confusions, in this province, proceeded from any interior cause we have good men enough in the country towns to have united in restoring peace and order. In the town of Boston ^and would have destroyed the pow put an end to the influence of the^ plebeian party always had and I fear always will have the command and for some months past they have governed the province ^in the town of Boston over the Rest of the province^. But ^as^ our misfortunes come from ^are attributed to^ a cause without us, ^many of^ Those persons, who in the other case would have been friends to government are now too apt to approve of measures inconsistent with government & unite with those whom they would otherwise abhor under a notion of opposing ^by a common interest^ a power which they had ^we have^ no voice in creating & which they say has a distinct and seperate interest ^from us^. I am convinced that in the nature of the thing it cannot be otherwise. ^They are not satisfied with being told that^ We are colonies and our case cannot be just the same with that of the parent state, subject however we ^that there^ must be a supreme authority. ^&^ A confidence we must ^be^ place in the justice and wisdom of that authority in exercising their power. As we cannot otherwise subsist I am [prin] ^This is singing to the deaf. It is certain that through the continent opinions are propagated which are contrary to the fundamental principles of government & the people have swallowed imbibed such notions of liberty as have quite intoxicated them^ consulting the best interest of my country when I propose measures for maintaining this subjection. You have passed an act declaring us subject. The difficulty lies in carrying your acts into execution. A bare declaration that we are subject though in an act of parliament does not, in fact, make us so. You will say perhaps it had the proposed effect with Ireland. When The act was made for Ireland ^was immediately executed^ the [decree] ^judgment^ of the house of Lords which was the occasion of it although before resisted was afterwards submitted to. ^All concomitant & subsequent proceedings were consistent with the Act.^ The very act which occasions the declaration at this time is refused & therefor repealed.2 Besides Ireland is under your constant inspection every act of disobedience is known immediately, time enough to be restrained before it is compleat, or speedily punished. The colonies are too remote. Something further is therefore necessary in order to secure their obedience. Is it not very necessary they should explicitly acknowledge a general subjection. Every person in publick office, every member of the legislature especially, in every colony, should understand this subjection.3 As Chief justice I am sworn to judge according to law. I look upon acts of parliament, ^not restrained to the realm,^ as binding the colonists where the local laws are silent, and controlling those laws themselves where they are made to respect them. The chief justice of Rhode Island supposes no act of parliament can controul a law of that colony.4 Should there be allowed such dissonance in a point of this importance? I wish to see known established principles, one general rule of subjection which once acknowledged any attempts in opposition to them will be more easily resisted and crushed.

    When this is done, will it not be convenient to familiarize us to acts of parliament made immediately to respect us? Should a session pass without one or more acts of this sort, sometimes general, sometimes they may respect a particular colony? Proper subject will always occurr. Such were the acts respecting paper currency, such the act respecting an interested witness to a will. These are bound up in our law books. In judicial proceedings many acts which pass for amendment of the law in England might be made expressly to extend to the colonies but in order to this the constitution of the colonies & their system of law & rule of practice should be well understood. What if the molosses or sugar act should be so altered as that the whole produce of the duty should be paid into the treasury of the province or colony.5

    You have ^But at the same time you pass an act declaring the subjection of the colonies you are forced to pass another which^ now givens countenance to refuse subjection at the same time you are declare it to be done. I am not impeaching the proceedings. Perhaps the state of the nation & the state of the colonies would not admit of better. I only conjecture what will be the effect. Will it not [illegible] Resistance ^such a declaratory act discourage^ the minor part of the people small bodies & even individuals ^in resisting^ every act of the supreme legislature which shall not be agreeable? If this be admitted ^it should not^ can the authority of government be supported? Your declarations such resistance [illegible] it will be [illegible] ^they say^ are meer words. [Besides?] [illegible] too [important?] were against [illegible] a declaration [illegible] The resistance lately made has been justified by some persons of great figure. If it was justifiable now it will6

    Dft (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/45X, 26:227–28); heavily revised, with large passages of text crossed out and made illegible; usually TH copied out a new AC for any letter so heavily revised but he did not do so in this case, nor was an RC or any other version of this letter found; therefore, TH evidently did not send this letter (although he did not mark it as unsent); unaddressed, but the volume index lists “Richard Jackson” as the recipient.

    188. From William Bollan

    Gerard street, April 28th. 1766

    Dear Sir, Upon receiving yours of the 27th. of Feb. I sent imediately to lord Rockingham an extract of such part as relates to public affairs.1 Waiting upon him on the 24th. instant he express’d a favorable regard for your merits, & gave me leave to mention the same to you, which I particularly ask’d, in consequence of his haveing formerly declined giving me leave to mention his name on the like occasion.

    I send you by cap. Hunter a box containing 80 copies of a pamphlet which I published when our political contests ran high.2 The former part contains many things written, tho’ not expressly, with regard to the colonies. At the desire of several persons of consequence, I published, in great haste, 500 copies of the latter part, that relates directly to the colonies, which were chiefly given away to the lords & commons, several of whom gave me thanks. Be pleased to give some to my friends, and likewise to the governour, council & house of representatives, if you shall think them worthy of their acceptance.

    My time since the receipt of the secrs ^last^ letter, as well as before, having been employed in hard labours to promote the province service, the genl. court will, I hope, excuse my not having sent an answer.3 I shall certainly write as soon as possible. Tomorrow the new regulations intended for the American trade are to be consider’d.4 I have attended to the melasses affair, in consequence of a letter wrote by the committee of merchants some two years ago, which did not come to hand in season to do them any service; and writing to Mr. Lee this morning upon other matters I have given him some account of the present state of that affair, to which I must [refer]5 you, as it is impossible for me to write at large, according to my intention.6

    Be comforted; I am fully persuaded that you will be relieved, and wou’d fain flatter myself that sooner or later you & your family will reap some considerable benefit from your misfortunes. In haste Yours Affectionately,     W Bollan

    RC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/45X, 25:70a–71); only the closing and signature are in Bollan’s hand; unaddressed; endorsed, “W Bollan Gerard Street 19 & 28 April 1766.” Enclosure: No. 186, above.

    189. To Thomas Hutchinson Jr.

    Milton 29. April 1766

    My dear son, I count the days since you sailed, & as near 4 weeks have now passed I hope you are not a great way from your port.1 The long expected advice is not yet arrived our last intelligence being of the 7 of March by Jacobson. I attended the S. court to day & without any great difficulty continued business still further and I hope having held out so long I shall be able to persevere to the end. I have a very kind letter from Mr Jackson by Jacobson.2 I am loth too often to trouble him and shall therefore defer an answer until another opportunity. He writes that parliament have voted that the Assemblies in America ought to compensate all sufferers by riots intending if it be not done to pass an act for that purpose next session. I am at a loss whether he intends an act to compel the assemblies to do it or an act for granting a compensation. If the former it will Renew all the calamities of the stamp act. But as he had just before said that he believed the future rule in America would be that they have used for Ireland I think he must mean the latter. What if you should ask him whether it would not be practical

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/45X, 26:230); unaddressed.

    190. To Thomas Pownall

    Milton 11 May 1766

    Dear Sir, As I am setting out upon a journey which will take up about a fortnight I am unwilling the ships should sail in my absence without acknowledging your favour of 21 Jan.1 Our advices are as late as the 8 of March & tho’ we do not know the act of Repeal has passed thro all branches yet we are told it certainly would pass. We were in such a state that nothing short of an armed force in every colony could have carried the stamp act into execution, nor do I think the people ever will submit to internal taxes. It is well if no opposition is made to other duties. I am told ^hear^ the great haranguer told the inhabitants of B in town meeting last week the merchants were fools for submitting to duties & Restraints upon trade.2 P— had information of a vessel unloading dutch goods from Statia a few days ago but he did not think it safe to go himself nor could he find any body else who would venture to seize her.3 Possibly when we have more full accounts of the proceedings in parl. there may be a restoration of authority. At present there is none subsisting. The officers of the crown say it will be hard to have their houses pulled down & their substance destroyed.

    I will acquaint you in what manner the gen. court entertain the intelligence from Eng & endeavour on every occasion to [approve] my self Sir Your faithful humble servant,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/45X, 26:231); at foot of letter, “Gov Pownall.”