The Grand Pensioner

    309. To Nathaniel Rogers, 17 April [1768]

    310. To Richard Jackson, 18 April 1768

    311. To Unknown, [18 or 19 April 1768]

    312. To William Bollan, 19 April 1768

    In mid-April 1768, Thomas Hutchinson at last received a £200 warrant on the commissioners of customs to draw on the proceeds of the Townshend duties, the intended supplement to his salary as chief justice. Hutchinson had initially understood Townshend’s American civil list to include all royal officers serving in the colonies (governors, lieutenant governors, attorneys general, and judges), but Townshend’s premature death put an end to such grand plans, and only a few salaries—including Hutchinson’s and that of the attorney general of New York—were ever actually paid out. Such special treatment prompted the patriots to dub Hutchinson the “Grand Pensioner” and to deny him his usual provincial salary as chief justice. Thus, Hutchinson was, in fact, worse off financially than if he had never received the warrant. His reputation as a pensioner would also work against him in a final effort to reinstate him as a member of the Council in May 1768.

    309. To Nathaniel Rogers

    17 April [1768]

    My Dear Sir, I am obliged to you for writing so particularly by Dixey & Scott. Mr Mauduit has sent me copy of the Warrant.1 It was Reported to be an Annuity settled upon me & the sons of Liberty immediately dubbed me the Grand Pensioner. A strange story was Raised about the same time that Ld Clive had made me a present of 500£ Sterl in India Goods.2 I hope the ministry will make the general arrangement which has been proposed.3 There will be no danger of a deficiency in the Revenue. Until this is done I expect to be the Butt for envy and malice to shoot at.

    Your Cottin has sent me the books & I thank you for your care about them.4 I have not a line from Mr Jackson since September & you have never once mentioned him. I know there was a difference between him & Mr Mauduit & am jealous the latters interposing in my behalf may not be pleasing.5 You know Mr Mauduit was a volunteer. Indeed I have such a value for Mr Jacksons friendship that I had Rather foregone the Grant than have given him the least disgust or been guilty of the least indelicacy. Perhaps I have no grounds for my apprehensions. It will be best to say nothing about them.

    I am preparing the way to gratify Dr Franklin at your Request.6

    A year or two ago a motion was made at an Overseers meeting to confer a Doctors degree on the President & another on a Layman. I was absent but was informed by some present that it would have passed if the Gov. had not disliked it. I propose to Restrain this motion to this particular gentleman & to declare against confering any degree at present among our selves beyond that of Master of Arts. Those to whom I have yet mentioned it approve of it.

    I am sorry our Merchants have so little Prudence. Mr H. it is said had declared in the H of R that when Scott arrived no Custom H Officers should go aboard him however he thot better of it & there was no opposition to the Officers going aboard but after they were on board late in the evening Mr H went down with a number of Attendants Malcolm among them & found the Officers in the Steerage.7 He asked if they wanted to search for any Goods; they told him not at that time but they were ordered to Remain on board until the Vessel was discharged. He replied they should Remain upon deck then & ordered the ships crew to force them up which they did by laying hands on them M---- standing upon the wharffe & crying D---- them throw them overboard. Mr H was escorted up the Wharffe having the approbation of the Spectators & he was obliged to intreat them not to huzza him through the town. This is the account the Commissioners give me who have desired the Attorney General may file an Information in the Sup Court against H which I suppose will be done tomorrow but I know not what will be the event. The Statute of 7 & 8 Wm is the only Statute which gives power to the Officers of the Customs in America except the powers given by the late Acts of Parliament which are confined to the Respective Acts.8 Now the Statute of Wm only gives the same powers which are given in Engd. by the 14 of Charles9 & subjects persons Resisting Officers to the same penalties. If the Resistance is by persons armed with clubs or other Weapons the Penalty is 100£ but here were no Weapons & if there had been there is a particular mode of prosecution directed by the Statute. It can be considered, only, as an Offence against the Statute by [hindering?] Officers from freely staying aboard until the Vessel is discharged which by the Statute they are authorized to do. It will be said they were not [hindered] from staying upon deck but this is evasive obliging them to Remain on deck day & night or Rather not suffering them to go below deck is obliging them to quit the Vessel especially in this Climate.

    Its very doubtful notwithstanding whether a Jury will Receive this construction of the Law if the Court should be unanimously of their opinion. I expect it will be a troublesome affair & think it not improbable that this foolish conduct will occasion the extending the powers given to Officers in England by later Acts to America also.

    When I see the Governor I will make your complements to him. I am Your Affectionate uncle &c.

    18 The Att Gen tells me to day that upon examining the Evidence he doubts whether the force used was sufficient to support an Information & probably the Affair is over.

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:299–300); unaddressed but the closing makes it clear TH wrote this letter to his nephew; partially dated.

    310. To Richard Jackson

    Boston 18. Ap. 1768

    My Dear Sir, Since my last I have received the copy of a Warrant for the payment of 200£ annually during my continuance in the place of Chief Justice as an addition to my Salary. The sum is not great. If the Court withhold their usual grant it will be rather a disadvantage to me as it makes me the Butt of the Restless party among us. I had no expectation of any grant of this Sort until some other Officers were considered with me particularly the Secretary, however I am not insensible that it is doing me honour thus to distinguish me especially considering the terms in which the Warrant is expressed & I shall make my grateful acknowledgments to the ministry.1

    The Commissioners of the Customs make great complaints of the insufficiency of the laws in being for preventing illicit trade & I suppose have made the necessary Representations. On the other hand the people think the laws already in force to be very grievous & very unwillingly submit to the execution of them. It is very disagreeable to be under constant apprehensions of danger but ^and^ I know no way of avoiding it but by an unjustifiable compliance with the prevailing principles. I hope we shall live to see We are never to despair & when the times are bad should live in hopes of making them better & do all in our power to make them so. I am Sir Your faithful humble Servant,


    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:300); at head of letter, “Mr Jackson.”

    311. To Unknown

    [18 or 19 April 1768]

    Permit me My Lord to make my most grateful acknowledgments for your Lordships favour in promoting a Warrant upon the Commissioners of the Customs for the payment ^Grant from His Majesty^ of 200£ per ann [MS blotted] an addition to my ^the very small^ Salary of Chief Justice The honour done me by the warrant in distinguishing me by this early mark of favour & a consideration expressed in terms which I could not expect. ^of this province^. I have good Reason to believe that I am ^in a peculiar manner^ indebted to your Lordship for the honour done me in this early form of the warrant expressed in terms which I could not expect & which alone His. His Majestys gracious approbation of my services under his sign manual is an honour which exceeds my expectations what I had any Right to claim or expect. I am more than ever obliged to exert my self in His Majestys Service. I know not how to do it more effectually than by endeavouring to convince the people of the Province of their real Interest of the necessity of preserving good government & order & a ^due^ subjection to the in all parts of the Empire to the supreme authority of the whole. And although different ^and very absurd^ principles have been too much propagated in America I cannot ^yet despair^ that ^when^ the body of the people will first or last be convinced find ^and consider^ that it is determined this authority shall at all events be maintained preserved maintained they will forsake their intemperate leaders be concerned ^acknowledge^ that all their imagined fears ^cry^ of oppression and as they are ^have been^ taught to express themselves ^speak^, slavery, all imaginary & groundless ^was false & without foundation^ and that they will return to their former quiet and peaceable state. I have the honour to be with the greatest Respect My Lord Your Lordships most humble & most Obedient Servant,


    Dft (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:301); unaddressed; undated; this letter was written on the same page as a memorandum dated 18 April regarding a certificate for tea sent to Lane, Son & Co., and it is followed on the next page by a letter written on 19 April 1768, thus indicating that it was composed on 18 or 19 April.

    312. To William Bollan

    Without a receiver’s copy, there is no way to tell which of the following two versions Hutchinson actually sent to Bollan. In both, he turns the subject away from Bollan’s pamphlet on corruption to the subject of the troubled imperial relationship. Perhaps the fact that he drafted two copies suggests that Hutchinson was increasingly wary of Bollan who suspected Hutchinson of not having done enough to prevent his his dismissal as provincial agent six years before.

    Version I: To [William Bollan]

    Boston 19 April 1768

    Dear Sir, I have read with pleasure your Epistle from Timoleon and I am distributing among your friends the whole number received by Freeman which are but just come ashore.1 You are resolved rather to wear out than rust out. Venality is not yet the sin that most easily besets us in America. Preventive physick is some times necessary and if your writings should have no other effect they will raise the Reputation of the Author. I wish you had gone on with the Rights of the Colonists.2 An ingenious Writer who would keep the mean between a slavish subjection on the one hand & absolute independence on the other would do great service, Where the fundamentals of a constitution are unsettled & vague the people must be miserable indeed. I fear this will be the case with the colonies for many years to come. We have the most wrong headed politicians in the World. They bluster & swagger & threaten Revenge by breaking off all Commerce with the mother Country & compelling her to their measures by distressing her. If they could do what they pretend, it is not possible for them to distress GB. without distressing themselves. But they know that all the pretence of lessening importation is meer pretence and if they lessen in one article they increase in another in proportion. And they know that this is known in England and that all their measures can have no other effect than to incense the authority there against them and yet they are so distracted as to persist in them. In return, proposals are made in England to Restrain the fishery to British Vessels. Why this appears as strange as the menaces of the Colonists. It is impossible to distress the American fishery without distressing Great Britain.

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:302); unaddressed.

    Version II: To William Bollan

    Boston 19. April 1768

    Dear Sir, I have read with pleasure your Epistle from Timoleon, and I will distribute the books which I have received by Cap Freeman in the most proper manner. You are resolved to wear out rather than rust out. Venality seems to be the sin which most easily besets the people of Britain, We are not altogether free from it in America.

    I wish you had gone on with the Rights of the Colonists. We want an ingenious Writer upon this subject who would keep the mean between a slavish subjection on the one hand and absolute independence on the other. The fundamentals of our Constitution are unsettled and vague. Whilst this is the case our condition must be miserable. I fear it will be the case for many years to come. Our Politicians are the most wrongheaded people in the world. Every step they take for relief has a direct tendency to increase our distress. Their threats can never intimidate but certainly must incense the Parliament and they are striving to provoke a power they cannot resist.

    The Parliament I hope will pity their weakness. I observe your hint about the fishery.1 Certainly some way may be found this is not [illegible] to maintain the authority of Parliament over the Colonies more eligible than this. Nothing keeps up the opposition here so much as the diversion in sentiments respecting the Colonies in England. No Act can pass which is disliked here but it is immediately suggested that it is the present ministry who have carried it. As soon as it shall be known that it is disagreeable ^may be maintained without this hard measure. The body of the people have never yet been persuaded that the nation is determined at all events to maintain this Authority^. I love you should deal plainly with me. I think with you that it is friendly so to do. I will answer what you say about the person you call my favorite by the next Vessel.2 When we are agreed upon ^do not agree^ exactly in facts we shall not differ upon any other point in sentiment upon it. I will then state them just as exactly as I can. In the mean time I remain Yours sincerely,

    Dft (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:303); at foot of letter, “Mr Bollan.”

    313. To Unknown

    Boston 19 April 1768

    Sir, I am very much My friends write me from London that I am obliged to you for contributing to a Warrant on the Commissioners of the Customs here for 200— per annum addition [MS torn] the Salary of Chief Justice. The royal approbation of my services, expressed in the Warrant, does me great honour & will engage me [MS torn] when added to the Salary allowed usually granted by the [MS torn] would not be thought a competent allow. Perhaps if there should be a general arrangement of Salaries the Sum will ^of 200£^ added to what the Province have usually allowed will not be thought adequate to the labor ^very laborious^ Service ^of a Chief Justice in this province^1. At present, I think it was as well judged as if ^the sum^ had been greater ^larger^. Allow me Sir to express my gratitude to you & to assure you that I shall make it my endeavour more than ever to influence the people of the Province to a more just sense of their relation to Great Britain to convince them of the absurdity of any ^part of a Government being^ independent upon ^of^ the supreme authority of the whole and to persuade them ^that^2 they are ^in no danger of oppression but^ are really happier in their dependent ^present^ state than they could be if they had the should be left to themselves if the Parliament in any other which ^their professed patriots^ I have ever yet heard ^proposed^ for them. I have the honour to be Sir Your most humble & most obedient Servant,

    Dft (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:304); unaddressed.

    314. To Edward Lloyd1

    Boston 26. April 1768

    Sir, I thank you for bringing me acquainted with Mr Chaumiere.2 If I have been or may be of any service to him I shall be extremely glad of it. He has not just that certainty of success in his proposed Scheme which one would desire but I should think his powerful recommendations joined to his own merit will prevent a disappointment.

    We are in a very unsettled state. Government has lost its authority. The publick Officers who will not conform to popular humors are in a very disagreeable situation. I could wish to live in a government circumstanced like yours where the people are near equally distributed through the several parts without any large capital Towns to collect & ferment the ill humors of the whole body but its too late in life with me to think of transplanting. I wish you a long enjoyment of your own easy & happy condition in life & am with great truth Sir Your most humble & most Obedient Servant,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:304); at head of letter, “Edward Lloyd Esq.”

    315. To [Thomas Whately]

    It is impossible to identify with certainty that Whately is the recipient of this letter, especially since there is no receiver’s copy and the letters dated 12 and 23 February to which Hutchinson is replying have not been found. In No. 316, below, however, to his nephew Nathaniel Rogers, Hutchinson refers to a letter he recently wrote to Whately and is sending by the same ship, which suggests a date of dispatch as sometime between 26 and 31 May. Perhaps there was a third version of the letter since version II was marked “not sent.” As was the case in No. 274, above, Hutchinson is clearly writing to a well-connected Englishman with whom he is flattered to have recently opened a correspondence. In this letter, Hutchinson also alludes, as he had done in No. 274, to the unsettled nature of British politics and the ensuing difficulties in establishing a consistent colonial policy. Due to the number of substantial differences between the first and second version of this letter, both versions have been presented.

    Version I: To [Thomas Whately]

    [26 May 1768]

    Sir, You do me a great deal of honour by your very obliging Letter of the 23 Feb. Extracts from many of your Letters to Gentlemen in America which have formerly been communicated to me have discovered such just sentiments of the affairs of the Colonies that I could not help feeling a very high esteem of the Writer and wishing for a fair pretence for begin a correspondence with him. The friends to government here stand in need of more ^the advice of their^ friends than they have on your side the water and both for advice in conducting themselves at so critical a time and for support against the rage & ^and an enlargement of such Correspondence was never more necessary.^ ^The people in general are of one mind that the Parliament has no right to legislate over them as they neither are nor can be Represented but^1 Hitherto the majority of the people have been kept under ^some degree of^ restraint from a sense of the inability of the Colonies to subsist without British protection. The Incendiaries succeed more & more in their endeavours to persuade the people that the Nation wants the Colonies as much as ^is as much afraid of losing the Benefit it derives from^ the Colonies do the Nation as they are of losing the protection of the Nation, and that all that is necessary is a firm Resolution to insist upon their Rights. They are told very often from the Press and sometimes from the Pulpit that the King is one branch of the Constitution, ^the Council & H of Rep. the other branches^ in every colony, that the parliament the Supreme Authority of the Nation has likewise a controuling power over the Colonies so far as is consistent with the Rights of Englishmen but it is advanced at the same time that no Englishman is bound by Laws made where he is not Represented and thus in the same breath they give & take away all power of parliament over the Colonies. This is our confused state at present and every attempt to shew the absurdity of such principles is construed an Attempt to inslave the People. The distinction between a right of Taxation & of Legislation

    Dft (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:305–06); unaddressed; undated; substantially revised; an “X” has been drawn through this letter, although whether by TH or some later editor is unknown.

    Version II: To [Thomas Whately]

    26 May [1768]

    Sir, You do me a great deal of honour by your obliging letter of the 12 of Feb. Extracts from many of your Letters which the Gentlemen to whom they were wrote were kind enough to communicate to me gave me a very high esteem of the Writer & made me wish for a fair pretence to begin a correspondence with him.

    It is impossible for me to say any thing upon the points in dispute between the Nation & its Colonies which you are not already fully possessed of. The temper & disposition of the people & political occurrences from time to time I think you will not dislike being acquainted with.

    In this Province the Party in opposition to government is as powerful as it has been. They bend their whole strength against me & have made me their Butt for two or three years past. Until then for 30 years together tho I have always been obnoxious to more or less of them they could make no head against me. The number of votes for me as a Councellor is the proof of the strength of the party in the General Assembly. Yesterday was the Election. On the Votes I rose to 67. No other Candidate had so many. Three more would have made a majority. My friends had no doubt of carrying the vote upon another trial. O---- was so alarmed that in a very irregular manner he interrupted the Ballot & declared he knew me to be a pensioner of the Crown paid out of the American Revenue & no man who valued his Country ought to vote for me.2 Altho every body knew before of my warrant from the Treas. yet the mention of it in a menacing way drew off several who had before voted for me & my friends were forced to submit to my enemies. The news of a grant to me arrived at an unlucky time. If it had not been known I should have infallibly have carried the vote & I think it would have turned the Scale. The Council would have been kept firm & the Party in the House would have been dispirited. The Gov. has Refused his consent to six of the new elected Councellors.3 This is one of the defects of the Constitution [MS blotted] the Gov. must either give his consent to men he dont like in order to keep up the number of the 2d branch or else by giving his negative must lessen the number & in that way take from the weight of that branch. The H of late years will not come to a choice in the Room of such as are negatived. I know not how they can answer their Refusal or neglect.

    The Commissioners of the C. will Represent the breaches of the Acts of Trade, notorious enough & yet they are not able to prevent or punish them. Writs of Assistance are issued whenever they have been applied for but the Civil Officers are not Regarded. The laws have lost their force & upon the rising of a Mob I should have no dependance upon any civil or military officer to suppress it. The only chance would be from private persons of spirit who being alarmed with the fears of having their property destroyed might perhaps combine together & make Resistance but this is very uncertain at any time & when a Mob is raised meerly to rescue seized goods such a combination is not to be expected.

    The dissolute state of the Colonies & of this Colony in particular is very much owing to the unsettled state of affairs in England. One steady plan pursued a little while would convince the people that the nation would not give up its authority. At present too many among us are Ready to say they have enough to do in England to take care of themselves we can easily perceive they are as much afraid of losing our subjection as we need to be of losing their protection. But the grand source of the confusion is the undetermined state of the Relation the Colonies bear to the Nation controverted even in Parl. This is jus vagum4 indeed.

    Dft (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:306–07); marked “not sent”; unaddressed; partially dated.

    316. To Nathaniel Rogers

    Milton 31 May 1768

    My dear Sir, I was at Nantucket when Jarvis arrived so had not the pleasure of seeing Mr Wheeler he having left the Town before my Return & I received your Letter with the packet & the Warrant from Dr [illegible]. It was unlucky that this affair had not been delayed a little longer. I should have been in the Council by a considerable Majority & the Gov says there would have been, in consequence, quite a new face upon our publick affairs. As it is when 71 Votes would have been a majority I rose to 68 & their being only 17 chose & no other so high as I was my friends depended upon carrying it at the 2d Trial but Adams interrupted the Vote & asked whether any gentleman was certain that the LG was a Pensioner. Otis stood up & declared that he knew that I was & ran about the house with votes for one Ward, who I obliged with a L Col commission in the Army after Mr Pownall went away crying out Pensioner or no Pensioner & so carried his point.1 The Govr has admitted Dexter but negatived the other four who were negatived last year & added Ward & Hancock to them so that there will be but 22 Councellors this year & the House, being 170, in all matters of Election the Board have no weight & but little in any other matters.2 Some extraordinary behaviour of Hancock in matters of the Customs which will be publick enough made it altogether necessary for the Governor to [negat]ive3 him or notice would certainly have been taken by the [Minis]try, without this I fancy he would have been accepted. Lord Shelburnes letter was Resented & said to be a fescue4 to point out who to chuse.5 Notwithstanding my friends could not prevail to bring me into the Council I have no doubt I could get a vote for Agent if I would give out that I would accept but how can I undertake to defend a cause against my judgment? There is such an absurdity in American principles of Government that I should be ashamed to own them. They call themselves Brit Subjects & admit the Parl. to be the supreme authority & yet claim an exemption from all Acts of Parl. which do not please them. For our Patriots say & perhaps justly eno that even in Engd it is problematical whether Americans ought to be taxed because as English men they ought not to have their money taken from them by any power where they are not Represented. If this be granted it is equally doubtful whether Americans be bound by any Act of Parl. whatsoever for notwithstanding the late distinction they say it is as much an Englishmans birthright to be governed by Laws in general made by his Representatives as by Laws for Taxation. If they would cease urging the point of Right & denying their obligation to submit to Acts when made & urge their peculiar circumstances which deprive them of the Rights of Engmen as an Argument to induce the Parlt to leave them to their internal Legislatures, as they do Ireland except in special cases where preserving the subjection of the Colonies or their neglect of doing what equity manifestly Required made it necessary I should have no scruple to appear in their behalf. But I see no prospect of such a temper until they find that at all Events the Parlt will maintain their authority & they see it must prove their Ruin any longer to oppose it.

    We have just Received the news of the infatuation in Middlesex.6 Old O— publickly in the H pronounced it a glorious piece of news.7 I am not sure a R_______n would not have been still more glorious.8 Whatever such men think we shall stand or fall with the Nation & should Rejoice in its prosperity if we knew our Interest as [illegible] as in our own.

    The G has wrote for leave to go to Eng. I should like well enough to make a Trial to introduce a better spirit. I do not know that I should succeed. I certainly have many friends more strongly attached to me than they are to him tho my friends in general are his also. But this must be left to the Ministry. Mr Erv.’s family give out that Scot if he had lived would have had this government by the interest of his brother.9 It may be so. I should have had no dislike to Colo Scot but when any governor is appointed in the Room of Mr Bernard I shall desire a LG may be appointed in my stead. No LG since the Charter has done & suffered so much as I have done. Each of them except Povey who was [tired] in a year or two was a great part of his time Comand in chief.10 In 11 years I have had a run of only two months.

    I came home 3 or 4 days before Election from a long fatiguing circuit to the Southward & am [Recruiting] a little while in the Country to prepare for such another tour Eastward.

    I was going to close my Letter without telling you that there have been less Rumors of Riots at Boston for a month past than at any time since the fall. Some attribute this calm to a very good Ship of 50 Guns that Resides a little distance from the Town.11 [MS blotted] some of my North end Neighbours mutteringly ask what [MS blotted] comes there for.

    I have an obliging Letter from Mr Whately which I answer by this Vessel. He writes me that he shall be glad to do you any service in his power.

    I saw Mrs Rogers yesterday in Town. She seems to think that you will leave Engd before this Vessel arrives. Sally is going to spend part of the Summer at Dracut.12 Mr Prouts father has left him a 6th. part of his lands which will be 3 or 400 Acres & may be worth 800 or 1000£ sterl. He wanted them enough. I am Your Affectionate Uncle,

    Judge Oliver has sevral times askd what security you have for the pay for the Middleb. Lands. He says the men that bought them have cut all the Timber & that the Land is of no value & they will spend if they have not already all the Money the Timber sold for. I enquired of Sally but she can give me no account.13

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 25:258–59); unaddressed but the closing makes it clear that TH is writing to his nephew, Rogers; TH has used the bottom of the page to do some addition and subtraction, but it does not appear to be relevant to the above letter.

    317. From Richard Jackson

    Southampton Buildings, 3 June 1768

    Dear Sir, There is no man in England that I hear from with more pleasure than yourself; yet I fear I often neglect writing to you longer than I should; I have seldom any thing agreable to write to you, I have had a thousand disappointments & mortifications in the Points I have had at heart not for your sake, but for that of our Country, & in which you have been concerned. I am too idle to take pains on a Subject that makes me uneasy & therefore after having endeavoured to put you in the light you deserve here, I have for want of being able to write what I wished omitted to write altogether. However since you wrote to Mr Rogers that it was a long time since you had received a Letter from me, I believe you have received 2 or 3.1 In one I acquainted you that the Treasury had appointed you a salary of £200, in this appointment not so much meaning to reward your merit by its measure as to give a general Proof of their Attention to it. In another I informed you that Government had at last adopted the plan I have had so long at heart of leaving the Administration of the Massachusetts Province to you, providing for Mr Bernard to his mind. I confess I could have wished the Province had been Barbadoes or in England, but Virginia has advantages over New England. The People in the former will hardly be perswaded that Mr Bernard is not a friend to the Colonies & the Salary of the LGovr is much better than that of Govr.2 I hope it will not be unacceptable to him.

    I have not before advised you that I had received your Indian Axe, & have deposited it as you desired with its Inscription in the Museum.3 I am Dear Sir with sincere Esteem your most Obedient humble Servant,

    R. Jackson

    RC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 25:260–61); unaddressed.

    318. To the Duke of Grafton

    Boston 4 June 1768

    My Lord Duke, As I had the honour of receiving a Warrant from the Right Honorable Board at which your Grace presides1 for an addition of 200£ per annum to my Salary as Chief Justice I should be culpable if I was to omit, ^not only^ making my most grateful acknowledgments to your Grace for this favour but also acquainting you with the Effect it has had in the Province. At the close of the last Assembly ^A little before the News of it arrived^ my friends determined they were strong enough to have ^in the Genl Court were very sanguine that they could^ carryied a vote ^by a great majority^ for restoring me to my place in the Council but upon hearing of the Grant they were sensible it would be improved to draw off some who were before attached to me. However they resolved to use their endeavours & upon the day of Election. ^It is^ The practice at the Election of Councellors to vote first for 18 in one list who are to be inhabitants or proprietors of that ^part of the Province which is included in the bounds of the old^ Colony of Mass. Bay. It hapned that 17 only had a sufficient number of votes to make a majority which was 71 the whole number of voters of the Council & House being 141. My votes rose to 68 no other person not of except the 17 chose having so great a number. My friends flattered themselves that at another ^the next^ trial they should carry it, but our great incendiary was enraged and ran about the House in a fury2 with votes for my Competitor crying Pensioner or no Pensioner a term which, ^among Americans^ conveys a ^very^ odious Idea upon a third trial prevailed against me. As inconsiderable as ^Altho^ the Salary of a Chief Justice allowed by the province is very small ^yet^ if I could have foreseen that an addition ^to it^ would have defeated prevented my Election I would willingly have foregone it. A seat in Council has no pecuniary Emolument yet ^but^ I have good reason to believe I should have been enabled to have done a great deal towards suppressing the prevailing spirit of opposition to Government and the father of my principal opponent who is also a Member of the House was so sensible of it that he declared before the Election he had rather not only renounce any share in the government himself but also lose his whole Estate which is not a small one than the LG should be chose.3

    The Gov. has shewn his resentment by negativing the person who was set up against me4 & also five others all inflammatory tempers ^of^ exceptionable Characters.

    The LG & S ^for the time being^ ought to be standing Members of the Council not subject to be thrown out meerly for being Officers of the Crown.5

    In the present State of America ^it may be excusable to communicate^ occurrences which at any other time would not deserve your Graces notice it may.

    I have the honour to be with the greatest Respect Your Graces most obliged faithful Servant,

    Dft (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:308); substantially revised; unaddressed but Grafton was the only duke TH was corresponding with at this time.

    319. To Richard Jackson

    Boston 4 June 1768

    Dear Sir, I was in hopes to have seen a turn in our Affairs [MS torn] the meeting of a new Assembly but the Anti government party [MS torn] prevails. I should have had a Vote for C if it had not been for the 200£ grant from the Crown to the Salary of Ch Justice.1 The sons of Liberty gave it the name of a Pension than which nothing can be more odious but notwithstanding all their Arts I came within three votes of a choice. Even this somewhat lessens their triumph & they would have been most effectually humbled if my friends had succeeded. The Governor says they would have carried no one point afterwards during the whole year. The Secretary wanted many Votes. The same Interest which kept us out brought in half a dozen obnoxious to the G. to all of whom he has Refused his consent so that the C this year consist of 22 only instead of 28 for the House are sullen after a negative.2 If any who are chose, refuse, the H will consent to chuse others in their stead but if any are negatived they Refuse to fill their places. This they would not be able to justify if they should be called to account for it. The annual Election of the C spoils the Constit. & we have no 2d branch.

    We have no expectation of any important news from England for near a twelvemonth to come & some among us say the party spirit in England will probably prevent any thing being done concerning the Colonies when the Parliamt. meets.

    Virginia by their three Addresses seem to have made some sort of answer necessary.3 I believe this is part of a concerted plan & that there will be an Attempt for something of the same sort before our Assembly rises. I am not sure it will be carried for I think the two parties are nearer an equality than they have been for 2 years past. I suppose it to be a concerted plan because a regular correspondence is kept up ever since the Congress from Virg. as far Northward as the Massach.4 I am Sir Your most humble & most Obedient Servant,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:309); at head of letter, “Mr Jackson.”

    320. To Thomas Pownall

    Boston 7 June 1768

    Dear Sir, A brief account of our Election will perhaps afford you as much amusement as a common News paper.1 After the Report of a Warrant on the Commissioners of the Customs for 200£ per annum in addition to the Salary of Ch Just many of my freinds thot an attempt to bring me into the Coun. would be in vain & many of my Enemies thot there was no danger of my being chose & to the surprize of both at the first voting for the 18 as usual I had 68 votes when 71 would have made a majority. There being but 17 chose my freinds then imagined that at the next trial they should carry it no body else standing so high in the list, but Otis like an enraged Dæmon ran about the House with votes for my Competitor crying Pensioner or no Pensioner and intimidated some who had voted for me before & made a majority for one Ward a very sulky fellow who I thought I could bring over by giving him a Lt Col’s Comission in the Provincial forces after you left the government but I was mistaken. They left out Chandler & Belcher & chose this Ward & John Hancock both of whom the Gov. has negatived together with old Otis Gerrish Bowers & Sanders who had been twice refused before.2 Ward was sacrificed to my [illegible]. Hancock has I am sorry for it been so officious in opposing the Commissioners of the Customs & encouraging illicit trade that the G. supposed he should be censured by the Ministry if he accepted him. Edes & Gill have printed yesterday a most infamous burlesque upon the Councils address to the Governor & his Answer for which it is said there will be an attempt to call them to account.3

    I could fill my sheet with Acts of Government come into by the Town of Boston by the Cadet Company & by several Fire Clubs for we have no sort of Company but what look upon it they have a right to do something or other in Publick affairs but I will only tell you that a certain Insurance Office at the N. End where one Malcolm is a principal underwriter have resolved to address Mr Wilkes thanking him for the glorious confusion he is putting the Government into at home & praying he would afford them his countenance & encouragement in the like measures here.4 It is said the Address goes by this Ship. The Office keeper some time ago christened one of his Children John Wilkes & No. 45 was figured on the breast. From the [state] of Anarchy Good Lord deliver first you and then us. I am Sir Your most faithful humble Servant,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 25:262); at foot of letter, “To Gov. Pownall.”