sir Francis Bernard and his Successor

    449. From Sir Francis Bernard, 4 November 1769

    450. From Sir Francis Bernard, 4 November 1769

    451. From Lord Hillsborough, 4 November 1769

    452. From Israel Mauduit, 4 November 1769

    453. To William Bollan, 10 November 1769

    454. To Lord Hillsborough, 11 November 1769

    455. To Samuel Hood, 11 November 1769

    456. To Unknown, 11 November [1769]

    457. To Sir Francis Bernard, 14 November 1769

    The death of Sir Henry Moore, governor of New York, in October 1769 set off a round of speculation about whether Sir Francis Bernard would be appointed to succeed him. Bernard sought a new appointment of at least equivalent rank and income to match his present position as governor of Massachusetts. Hutchinson had been led to believe that Lord Shelburne (the previous secretary of state) intended that Hutchinson would succeed Bernard in Massachusetts and that province secretary Andrew Oliver (Hutchinson’s brother-in-law) would step up to the lieutenant governor’s position. Whether Lord Hillsborough and the Grafton administration would honor that intention was an open question. Hutchinson perhaps worried his enemies would interpret anything less than advancement to the governor’s chair as a public rebuke; thus he intended to retire from public life (except for perhaps his position as chief justice) if someone else were appointed governor.

    449. From Sir Francis Bernard

    Pall Mall Nov 4 1769

    No 4

    Dear Sir, I should have wrote to you by the Ships which have lately left London, if I had had anything of Consequence to communicate. But the public Business has been of late so much postponed & particularly that of America, that we know nothing of what is to be done or what is about. Lord Hillsborough arrived here on the 24th of Octr; I have seen him several times; but tho’ I have free Access to him, I can’t make full Use of it as yet, till he is more free from Hurry than can be expected at present.

    Two days ago I received your Letter of Sepr 8th with a duplicate & a ps. of the 11th. and also another Letter which is not now before me; & I have communicated such Parts thereof as I thought proper.1 As soon as I can learn what is like to be done to quiet the Disturbances with which your Town is harrast, I will let you know it. At present I can only say with the ancient Atheist, Cum omnia sint in incerto, fave tibi.2

    I received from Mr Oliver very early Advice of the Death of Sir H Moore.3 I suppose it will raise among my Friends at Boston some Expectation of that Event being turned to my Advantage. It created, just at first such an Idea in me; but it was of short Duration; I soon saw that it would not be prudent in me to sollicit it. And yet I like the Country, I like the People, I like their Manners; and if they would look forward only I see Nothing that could prevent my being easy & happy with them. But, their Vicinity to the Seat of the Faction which has treated me so wickedly & injuriously, the Remains of that Animosity which is too apt to take Root in illiberal Minds, & the present unsettled State of American Pretensions, which may produce fresh Troubles, deterr me from looking for Rest at New York or in any other Government that has taken a principal Part in the late Disputes. I say with Horace

    O Navis, referent in Mare te novi

    Fluctus? O quid agis? Fortiter occupa


    And yet I expect to go to America again but would willingly see the Question of their Relation to Great Britain settled first.

    This is to go by the Packet, & I must send it presently to the Secretary’s Office. I will write again by the first Opportunity. I have just heard that Mr Jackson, who was in France when I came here, is arrived at Dover: so I shall have an opportunity of delivering your Letters to him in a Day or two.5 I am &c.,

    SC (Houghton Library, Sparks 4, 8:13–14); at foot of letter, “Lt Govr Hutchinson”; in an unknown hand.

    450. From Sir Francis Bernard

    Pall Mall Nov 4 1769

    No 5.—Private

    Dear Sir, I received yours of Sep 8th–11th & the next Morning, yesterday, I had a good deal of Talk with Lord H. I had before mentioned to him that it was generally expected that you would be my Successor & I hoped it would be so: but this was en passant. I now entered seriously upon the Subject: I represented to him that the Intention of Lord Shellburne to appoint you to succeed me, upon my Removal to another Government, was so universally known that it was generally expected by the Friends of Government; that the Expectation had not been lessened by his Lordship’s Accession to the Administration of America; Since I doubted not but his Lordship had as good an Opinion of the Lt Govr as Lord S had. He interposed & said No one had a better Opinion of Lieut Govr H than he had. I proceeded & observed that if the Government of MB1 was to be put upon a new footing with an Enlargement of Powers & Salary, I did not expect that the Lieut Govr would be disappointed at seeing a Person of Rank put over his Head, & in such case as there must be an adequate Provision made for the other Officers of the Crown. He would be well pleased with the C Justiceship with a Salary of 500£ a Year which was the least that could be proposed. My Lord said that he thought that such an Establishment ought to be made immediately; but he doubted whether it would. He asked me whether I thought you would be easy in the Government if appointed to it: I told him no, nor any one that he could send thither. But that you who was well acquainted with the Humours of the People & the Constitution of the Government would be more able to deal with the bad Men that had got the Power there than a stranger. Besides it should be considered that considering the Distraction of the Government & the paultry Income to support it, it could not be expected that a Person equal to the Office would be found to accept it. Adventurers will be ready for any thing: but a Governor for MB must not be taken out of such People. He asked what was to be done for a Cheif Justice: I said, I knew of no one in the Province fit to succeed you, & you [were] sensible of the same Difficulty but I thought the Office might be kept in Abeyance, if it could not be thought proper that you, after being Governor under the present Government, could with Propriety accept of the Place of Cheif Justice under a new & enlarged Establishment, which belonged to you to determine. I read to him some Passages in your Letters but did not communicate the whole as I thought in some Parts you made your Terms too low. I have put it on this Alternative, either Govr. in Cheif, or Cheif Justice with a Salary of 500£ a Year: & there let it rest for the present. I am Sir &c.

    SC (Houghton Library, Sparks 4, 8:14–16); marked, “Private”; at foot of letter, “Lieut Govr Hutchinson”; in an unknown hand.

    451. From Lord Hillsborough

    Whitehall November 4th: 1769

    No 29.

    The Resolves of the House of Representatives of the Province of Massachuset’s Bay at the Close of their last Session of Assembly; the declarations contain’d in the Answer they returned on the 14th of July to the Governor’s Message; and the Associations to prevent the Importation of British Goods and Manufactures, referred to in your Letter of the 8th of August; are of so important & Extraordinary a nature that I thought it my duty to take the earliest opportunity of receiving the King’s Commands for laying them before that Committee of His Majesty’s Servants to whom matters of the greatest moment are usually referred, in Order that His Majesty may receive their Sentiments what steps it may be adviseable to take thereupon.1 In the mean time it is the King’s pleasure that you do, by proclamation, further prorogue the General Court to the Second Wednesday in March, before which time you may expect to receive such instructions for your Guidance and direction, as the State and Circumstances of the Province shall appear to require.2

    I have this day received your Letters No 3 & 4, with the printed Papers inclosed, and am sorry to see the ill use which has been made of the Copies of Papers which have been obtained from the House of Commons.3

    You judge very right that in the present State of the Colony it will be satisfactory to His Majesty that I should hear from you as often as possible. I am &c.


    Dft (National Archives UK, CO 5/758. ff. 200–01); in an unknown hand; at head of letter, “Lieutenant Governor Hutchinson”; on back of letter, “Draft to Lieut. Governor Hutchinson 4th. Novr: 1769. (No: 29.).” SC (National Archives, CO 5/768, ff. 68–69); at head of letter, “Lt. Govr. Hutchinson No. 29”; in an unknown hand. SC (Houghton Library, Sparks 43, 1:113); at head of letter, “Lord Hillsborough to Lieut Governor Hutchinson”; in an unknown hand.

    452. From Israel Mauduit

    London 4th. Novr. 1769

    Dear Sir, I have so many of your favours unanswer’d, that I am ashamed to look on them, and I doubtless you may Justly wonder at ^not^ hearing from me. But ever since my last I have been chiefly in Hampshire, and know of nothing worth relating which has happend since I came to Town: The truth is I have almost forsworn sending any Letters of News: I can write nothing that is encouraging, and I will write nothing that is otherwise. Let others Triumph and exult in the publick confusions, which they call oversetting a Minister; tis enough for me to lament them in private, without increasing the Evil by dispersing it.

    Lord Hillsborough. By John Downman. Courtesy of the Photographic Survey, The Courtauld Institute of Art, London. Private Collection.

    Indeed any Letter on Politics would be only a Continuation of my last.1 The wickedness of party is just the same, but carried to still greater Excess; and the several Leaders, the Rockinghams, the Shelbourns, and the Grenvilles, having once tasted of Empire, know not how to submit to a private station: and each of them are bent upon throwing all things into Confusion, rather than not gratify each his own private inexpiable thirst of Rule. Not that all of them wo’d Avail if the King and parliament will but assume that steady firmness which you recommend. A King, differing with his parliament, may have reason to fear; but a deluded Multitude differing with the King, Lords, & Commons, will soon find the hand of Authority much too heavy for them to contend with. What you say therfore with regard to your affairs, I can join in with regard to our own: if the King and parliament will but be steady in any thing, we should soon come to a Settlement: but with a Ministry not well united among themselvs, and so weak in the house of Commons; and with all parties concurring to distress them, little is to be expected; and I cannot flatter my self or you upon this head. Not that the Discontent is half so general as the news papers would lead a Stranger to conclude. These are in the hand of a Sett of the most desperate & profligate Imposters, who find that the generality of readers are disposed to beleive any thing which they tell them, and therfore think no forgerries too gross to impose upon them. A great part of the Articles of news are framed in kings Bench Prison, that Mint of Lies, whither the printers resort every day to receive and utter them, as fast as they are coined;2 and these are formd not by the rule of Truth, but merely by the rule of Convenience. Hence the Canterbury and so many fictitious petitions.3 But beside these, in every Town & County there must be some Noisy factious people, ready to adopt any thing, which by creating disturbances may give them importance, and in many of the very places where petitions have been framed, they have first been rejected by the calm quiet people; and then some of the more turbulent sort getting together, with perhaps some gentleman disappointed at the last general Election at their head, agree upon a petition, and call themselvs by the name of that Town or County. The Buckingham, Yorkshire, North Wiltshire, and Cornish petitions are of another sort. In those Counties the Grenvilles, Rockinghams, Shelbourn and Beckford, and Pitts interest prevail; and they have led away a great number of the freeholders of those Counties.4

    I intirely agree with you about the Criminality of your Combinations. That a half broken merchant who has nothing but his Ag——y to support his Credit, should servilely pay his Court to the multitude, is not to be wonderd at.5 Nor do I wonder that at another house, the Merchants at Boston Customers of his late partner, should be exhorted to import no goods from London, while he is pouring in double quantities to his own part of the Correspondents in Rhode Island:6 But that Government shoud look on, and Suffer such practices to go on so long without controul, this gives just matter of Concern. The great end of all Government is to unite all the subjects of its Empire in one Interest, to make every part of the Empire and every individual in it to contribute to the Welfair of the whole; and to apply the force of the whole to the protection of the Individual. Combinations therefore enterd into by the Subjects in one part of the Empire against those of Another, is a kind of Treason to the whole. Such Combinations are in their nature contradictory to all the principles of good Government, and ought never to be permitted in a well orderd Empire. But alas the great question now is, not what is it we ought to do, but what is it we can do? and the great Business of an opposition is to prevent a Minister from doing any thing; and then to abuse him for doing nothing. If however your people build any great hopes upon their raising a Clamour & Tumult in this Kingdom by their distressing our Manufacturers, there does not seem to be the least Tendency to any thing of that kind. Clamours enough we have of other sorts; but such as rather proceed from a fullness of Bread and a plenty of Trade, rather than from the want of it. The Truth is your people greatly over rate their own importance; and are not aware of the variety of other resources of Trade, which the Nation is possessed of, beside that of North America and in fact notwithstanding your Combinations, our trade has this year been as great as ever. In our own house I know we have found no want of it; But the ground I go upon is the produce of the Sinking Fund, which is the sure and never failing pulse of the national Commerce: and that comes out by the last years and by the last quarter Accounts made up to Michs. last, to be as great as ever.7 Nor are the Manufacturers disposed now again to adopt the same sort of Clamour once indeed they were artfully led into it; they have since upon reflection Seen the falshood of it, and it is now a Stale Device, and will not do a Second time. At least certain it is, that there is now no complaint among our manufacturers of want of Imployment.

    Sr. Francis Bernard, tho Abused here as well as in America by some Lying Anonymous writers, yet is well approved of by Government, and all thinking people. Tho, I confess, it was but a poor satisfaction made by Lord Hilsborough, to the complaint of his having Sufferd all his Letters to be laid before parliament, to tell him that they all do him honour.8 I was in hope that he would have had the Government of New York: but that seems gone off. However he can write you much more authentically himself, about his own affairs. Certainly he will not go back to boston; where I hope you will be continued Governor. If any man could please the province, it should be a Native, whome they had long known, and so universally esteemed. But the quarrel really is with Government and not with Governors and bad men once got loose may be restrained by fear, but never will obey from Love. I heartily wish the Chair as easy to you as possible, and as the evil of the times will permitt; but am sorry you have no better prospect. However things must come to their worst, and the nation must, soon rouse & resume its authority. If any thing interesting occurs I will be sure to let you know it.

    I am glad to hear of your design of publishing the first Charter, and wish much to see it; Tho the Controversy now is got past the reach of Argument; and must be determined by Authority, and not by reasoning, if ever our Government arrive at strength enough to assert it.9

    For a Subject to say that the King Lords & Commons shall not govern him, ought surely to be made as direct Treason, as to say that the King shall not govern him, I am to the last Inch of my paper you see & am most heartily Yours,

    Israel Mauduit

    SC (British Library, Add. MS 38,570, ff. 9–10); at head of letter, “To Lt Govr Hutchinson”; at foot of letter, “Lt Governor Hutchinson.”; in an unknown hand. Contemporary printing: Boston Gazette, 30 October 1775 (misdated 19 November 1769).

    453. To William Bollan

    Boston 10 Nov. 1769

    Dear Sir, It is a long time since I wrote to you & longer since I heard from you.1 Indeed I have had nothing worth communicating which you could not see in the News papers. Such absurd notions of government have taken place here that I see no possibility of a reconciliation with the mother country. We are told that no Acts of Parlt. are binding any further than we think fit to admit them & that King Council & Representatives are the Supreme Legislature of each colony. Some talk of a constitutional subordination but they are words without any meaning. The combinations to compel Parlt. by breaking off all commerce with the nation to repeal their Acts is said by some Lawyers to be legal & constitutional. To a man who has but a small share of common sense they appear one of the higher offences & incompatible with the fundamental notions of government.

    Others acknowledge that if we were represented in Parliament we ought to submit to its Acts but they say we never can be equally represented & therefore we ought to decline any representation at all. In this confused state of things the most that can be hoped for is to keep the people from running riot & this requires great prudence when we have every week something or other inflammatory in the publick papers on purpose to provoke to it. So far as the publications are intended against me they have been treated with infinite contempt & they have really increased the number of my friends & the principal person concerned in them is reduced to despair which he discovers by fits of frantick impotent rage followed by other fits of sullen silent malice.2

    I have never seen sufficient reason to depart from the principles I thought right at the beginning of this controversy. In conformity to them I ever endeavoured & for some time succeeded to prevent the Assembly from flying in the face of Parlt. & telling them they would not submit to their Acts & I ever wished that Parlt. would not pass those Acts which are so unniversally in the Colonies deemed, whether justly or not perhaps is not ^very^ material to be grievous & oppressive. We are in a perplexed state how we are to get out of it God only knows. We must grow better or worse. I am with sincere regard Sir Your affectionate humble servant,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:402); at head of letter, “Mr Bollan.”

    454. To Lord Hillsborough

    Boston 11 Novemb. 1769

    No 10

    My Lord, Mr Mein, to whose care I shall commit this Letter, is one of the persons who for several months past has been proscribed as an enemy to the country for importing goods from Great Britain. His character has been very roughly treated in the News papers. He has not only attempted the vindication of his own character, but has also attacked the characters of several of the principal confederates against importation. One of them assaulted him in the street, near to the main guard.1 He drew his pistol & presented it, which brought divers others upon him one of whom struck at him with a spade. He then2 retreated into the guard room for shelter. During the affray, a person who was in company with Mr Mein and who was also furnished with pistols fired one of them which, he says, being cocked in his hand, went off by accident as he was falling to the ground, being thrown down by the assailants. It was reported that Mr Mein had fired the pistol and upon application to a Justice of peace a warrant issued to apprehend him, search was made in the guard room but he had withdrawn & secreted himself. A day or two after, the warrant was returned to the Justice and the Complainants gave over the prosecution, there being plenty of witnesses that Mr Mein was first assaulted with great violence. Upon this, he made a representation of his case to me in writing and set forth that he intended to pursue, in the Law, the persons who had assaulted him but he was unable to do it, having been threatned that if he appeared abroad he should be made a sacrifice, and he therefore applied to me to protect him3 and to call in the military power for that purpose.4 In places where the people have been long used to the military, perhaps, upon an apprehension5 only of violence from the populace such a measure might have been advisable. In the present state of the Colonies I could not think it so and rather thought it advisable for him to forbear prosecuting his complaint for some time. He thinks it unsafe for him to appear and many others are of the same mind. Being unable to carry on his business, he is going to England and threatens to complain of the weakness of the civil government here. I am as sensible of it as he is and I see no prospect of its recovering it’s vigour in any other way than by the interposition of Parliament for the combinations against importing, which have brought all this trouble upon Mr Mein are subversive of government and yet are justified as legal. As I have no doubt that in two or three months the sentiments of Parliament will be known and as it could be to no good purpose for me, without any aid from the Council, to make a publick declarations6 against the confederates I have forborne and make it my chief view to avoid every thing which may, unnecessarily, irritate the minds of the people until we are relieved by that power which, only, can give us relief.7

    I am fully convinced8 that Mr Mein is a very great sufferer and that his sufferings took their rise from his opposition to the doings9 of the Merchants and I could not deny him a just representation of his case to your Lordship. I have the honour to be &c.10

    Boston     [blank space in MS] November 1769

    My Lord, I should not have presumed to trouble your Lordship with the minute and personal circumstances in the foregoing letter if the combination to which they relate did not appear to me to be of a most dangerous tendency, an high contempt of Parliament as well as an assumption of powers which ought to be exercised by none but the known established authority and which nevertheless is acquiesced in or connived at by the authority in, this Government, as the like assumption has been in almost every other Government to the southward of it as far as Georgia. I humbly hope that this may be an apology for me with your Lordship. I have the honour to be with the greatest respect My Lord Your Lordships most humble & most obedient Servant,

    Tho Hutchinson11

    DupRC (National Archives UK, CO 5/758, ff. 222–23); marked, “Duplicate”; at foot of letter, “The Right Honorable the Earl of Hillsborough”; docketed, “Boston 11 Novr. 1769. LGovr Hutchinson. (No 10) Rx 19 Decr. (Dup. orig. not recd).” RC (National Archives UK, CO 5/894, ff. 3–4); at foot of letter, “The Right Honorable the Earl of Hillsborough”; transported to England aboard the schooner Hope, according to No. 457, below. SC (National Archives UK, CO 5/768, ff. 43–47); at head of letter, “Boston November 11th, 1769 Lieutenant Governor Hutchinson No. 10 Rx 19 Decr. Dup: Original not recd.”; in an unknown hand. AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:403); unaddressed; postscript (26:404) is an unaddressed draft, substantially revised. Enclosure to DupRC: Massachusetts Gazette and the Boston Weekly News-Letter, p. 1 (17 November 1769).

    455. To Samuel Hood

    Boston 11 Nov. 1769

    Dear Sir, Mr Mein of whom I gave you a hint the 30 October it seems intends to Halifax & so to London.1 He has been excessively ill used tho I think it not well judged to attack so many of the heads of the populace when they have all power in their hands but he was greatly provoked. Calef left London the 2d of Sept & thinks he met the Rippon going up channel.2 I omitted thanking you for your favour by the Rose.3 I am with the most sincere esteem &c.

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:404); at head of letter, “Como Hood.”

    456. To Unknown

    Nov. 11 [1769]

    Calef is just arrived with your favour of 23. Aug. I have only time to tell you the account given me of the offer made by the of does not surprise me.1 It is very encouragement with the encouragement which several of my friends wrote me had been given to them but I have learned to expect nothing. If the encouragement finally fails it will excuse me from any farther concern in matters of government.

    Whilst I am in I will discharge my trust with fidelity & as much skill as I am capable of. I shall go out without being discomposed. Yours as before


    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:404); unaddressed; partially dated.

    457. To Sir Francis Bernard

    Boston 14 Nov 1769

    No 16

    Dear Sir, Calef arrived here from Lond the 11 but had a long passage having been in no port after the [4?] of Sep. The next I hope will bring us news of your arrival. A Gentleman writes me of the 23d of Aug. —[Earl of Bols letter]1 I have &c. to — add

    I should be less mortified if I could not look about me & see governors who I think had less pretences. However I only attain a little earlier to that retirement which most profess to be fond of before the close of life for I rely upon it you will signify my desire to resign my post of Lieut governor & I wish as I wrote you before it may be given to the Secretary.2 It may have the effect to convince the people in these colonies that all who have been sufferers for supporting government are not passed by & if a due proportion in the reward is not always observed it may be attributed to administrations not having a full acquaintance with the circumstances of each case. Be this as it may I cannot continue in my place of L. G after a new governor is appointed & I am the more confirmed in it because you concurred with me in sentiments when we were in conversation together upon this point. If I do not openly disapprove of the governors measures the odium of them will fall as much perhaps more upon me than upon him my person & property both be exposed to the rage of the people who consider the Commander in chief as the Kings immediate representative & any violence offered him is more criminal than to a L G who when the G. is present they consider as a meer private person at the same time I must live at a much greater expence than otherwise I should do have nothing but my private fortune to support me or next to nothing. I have been in this situation for ten years past. I wish my successor may have better fortune than I have met with. Take my case in all its circumstances he need not fear worse.3

    Mr Mein sailed yesterday in the Hope Scooner which is to touch at Halifax for the Commodores pakets & so to London. I wrote by him a particular account of his case to Ld Hillsboro duplicate of which goes by this vessel.4

    I have been 2 or 3 times at the Castle to see Mr Bernard.5 The last time the 11 I saw no difference from his usual state only much reduced in body by the course he has been in. He is very desirous of being released & says he has no inclination to be in the town & will keep wholly in the Country. I have since talked with Perkins who agrees that he may be kept too long in the Regimen he has been in & seems principally concerned least he should visit Lady Bernard & distress her who I saw about a week ago & thought her much better in health than she had been but, upon the whole, I imagine he will not advise to his continuing above a week longer at the Castle.6 Paxton has Letters which say that Temple having been very earnest with the D of G. for leave to come home to defend him self against such charges as you may make his Grace has consented to it but I do not hear that he has received an order of leave.7 If he does the cause of government no hurt by his representations in England I am sure it will not suffer by his absence from hence for his acquaintance here is altogether with such as are & have been in opposition to government. I am glad you will be on the spot to confront him. I am with the most sincere regard & esteem,

    AC (Massachusetts Archives, SC1/series 45X, 26:405); unaddressed but this numbered letter falls within the sequence of TH’s letters to Bernard. Contemporary printing: Boston Gazette, 1 January 1776.