Chapter 3

Of The Affections of Natural body, in Generall

THESE are 4. Quantity, Place, time, and Motion.1 (Some add a 5th. Viz: Quality.)

1. Quantity determin’d, which as to its Essence or being (extention) flows from the matter; as to its determination from the form, and from this it is that bodyes are extend-[7]ed, Finite, Divisible.

1. Extended, as to have parts out of parts which cannot be togather, in the same part of the whole space; and hence every body, and all parts of body do so possess space that no other body or part can come thereinto unless that be removed which was therein; See the Chapter of Quantity in Logick.

2. Finite because of the determination; therefore we must conceive bounds to this Universe tho we know not where, (or how far off) they are; Hence one defines body Matter, and figure considered togather (Dr. Petty of Duplicate proportion)2 Now Figure is the termination of Quantity, or at least Supposes the terminations and there is no body but hath its figure.

3. Divisible Infinitely (as is explained in the praedicament of Quantity Namely by our thoughts, though not by our hands) but indeed this is scarse alowable to Physical body, though it may be to mathematical; there is a least Physical (which they call attome, i.e. not able to be cut) but then some of the Atomists, or Corpuscularian Phylosophers3 say Atomes are Indivisible from their Solidity not from their littleness.

Bodyes determin’d Quantity whereon,

Extent, Finitenes, and Division.

2. Locality or place which is commonly distinguished into External, and Internal

1. Internal the bodyes presence in its Space, this is scarce distinguishable, even by our thoughts from its extention or corporeity, and therefore cannot be its accident or affection; This I Suppose Dr Petty means when he [defines] place the Image or Phancy of matter; or matter considered.

2. External with which we have here now to do is defin’d (by Aristotle) the hollow Surface of the containing body (conceived as immovable) of which in the Praedicament of Quantity, and Whereness; (by Cartes)4 the Vicinity, (or neighbourhood) of one body to another. And this indeed seams to be the better of the two, and will better explain the nature of [Locall motion].

This is either Locality or Locability.

1. Locality (or actual place) So it belongs to every body, except the Utmost heaven, which is only in the Abysse or Imaginary Space that hath no hollow Surface or Neighbouring body.

2. Locability (or potential place) and so it also agrees to the Utmost body; for that also hath an aptitude to be in a Circumscriptive place, or Visinage of bodyes, if there had been any such larger or neighbour bodyes created for it.

Bodyes have place; actual Locality,

At least potential Locability.

3. Time in like manner is distinguished into Internal, and External.

1. Internal time is no more than a things permanence, and duration in its existence this is not here meant

2. External defin’d by the Antients the Number or measure of motion according to before and after which they explain thus. The measure of such a motion which hath some parts going before, and others following, whereby it is apt to measure the duration of other things. Such a motion is in the wheals of a Clock; the sand of an hour-Glass; or ones going to a place and back again: and this [applied to] the duration of other things Sheweth them to have lasted one or more hours. But because all those Sublunaries are unsteady, and Variable, and So deceive us (for Somtimes the Clock Strikes Earlier, Somtimes later than it Should) therefore here is principly to be understood the motion of the heavenly bodyes (which is more regular and constant) as that of the Sun, whereby hours, Days, and Years are measured and that of the moon which measureth, and Denominateth months. Thus by the Motion of the Center of the Sun 15 Digrees, or 15/360 East to west of that whole circle wherein it is ([that day] Supposed to move) we measure and account the time of an hour; and by its motion from West to East round its Supposed anual Circle we measure or account the time of a year: then by applying the duration of the Sun in motion to the duration of any other body, or bodyly action we say it hath lasted (or had duration) an hour, a year, etc: Of which see more in the praedicaments of Quantity and Whenness. This Measure of the duration of bodyes is called external time because it’s external [to the Bodyes measured by it, tho it be Internal] to the Sun or its motion. [8]

N.B. Dr. Petty among the Novel deffinitions cals time the Image of motion: but I think it is more intelligibly expressed by the measure of durations or (as Mr Boyle) duration measured5

Duration measured by heaven motion

Gives of External the perfect notion.

4. Motion (or rather Mobility) the passive power is a Change from one term to another; the 2 terms are from which, and to which; from which is that which is left in motion; to which is that which is acquired; and from this latter motion derives it’s Unity; for if I move my hand to a place, and make 3 stops by the way, then have I so many terms, and therefore move that distance by 3 motions: whereas if I make no stop tis all but one motion having but one term (to which) at the End thereof.

Species of motion are commonly accounted 6. Whereof Instantaneous, 2. Successive 4.

1. Generation is a Motion from an Essential form not being to its being in the matter; as the Generation of a man.

2. Corruption is on the Contrary from being to not being: as the death of a man. These two are called Instantaneous, not that they are in the same instant; but because they are in 2 Immediatly succeeding Instants; For So a man may be alive in this Instant, and dead in the next.

N.B. ’Tis a common Saying the Generation of one thing is the corruption of another; and So on the contrary; as the Generation of Ashes is the Curruption of Wood. Tis true conseqentially, but not formally, for they are 2 distinct effect of the same a[c]t.

2 Motions Generation, and Corruption,

Of both is Instantaneous production

3. Augmentation is motion from less Quantity to Grater as the filling a Vessel.

4. Diminution is from Grater to less; as in Emptying a vessel.

5. Alteration is from one [Quality] to another; tis either Essential, or Gradual.

1. Essential from one Kind to another; as from hot to cold.

2. Gradual from one degree to another; of the same Quality; as, from Hot, to Hotter.

6. Location (or locomotion) is from one place to another this only is allowed by later phylosophers to be true motion; for Augmentation, and Diminution are included in the same, and the rest they call mutations not motions.

Generation, Corruption, Augmentation, Diminish, alteration

Are Changes, th’only motion is location.

’Tis divided in respect to the line and principle.

1. Line in, or by which it passeth; and So tis either Simple or mixt.

1. Simple, made in one Simple line, and So tis either right, or circular.

1. Right, to and from the Center.

1. From the Center to the Circumference, called assension, proper to light, or less heavy bodyes; they being thrust up to make way for the heavier; as, Wood, or Cork put to the bottom of water assends to the top thereof.

2. To the Center from the Circumference called descent proper to heavy bodyes, as a Stone put to the top of water discends to the bottom thereof. The cause thereof is much disputed whether from a magnetical virtue in the Globe of the Earth or from a Quality in the body discending called Gravity. but let Gravitation be from what cause soever; Certain it is that its necessary to hold all the parts that belong to a Globe togather; or else they would soon disperse themselves, and the concrete body vanish; So that if matter should never perrish, the distroying of but this one Inclination, and common bond, would Soon dissolve the Universe whose Atomes wandring in the [Abyss] would quickly lose themselves.

2. Circular, is made in a line whose parts are Equally [distant] from the Center of the motion so moves a Wheale, a Pendulum, (i.e. a bullet hung up by a line, when it is put a Swinging) So moves the planets about the earth, and the Earth (or [terraqueous] Globe) Probably about its own axis.

2. Mixt motion is done by a line, partly right and partly Circular. Such is the motion of a Arrow Shot Straight, for a while, and then it turns down in a peice of a circle, towards the Earth.

Simple right up, [or] down, or Circular

Or mixt the lines of locomotion [are].

2. In respect of the principle from whence the motion doth arise, and So tis either natural Violent or Mixt.

1. Natural as when the principle of motion is within the body, as the discent of a Stone; that is from Som natural power, either Active whereby it contends or endeavours downwards (as the Antients will have it) or passive whereby tis capable to be attracted to the earth (as latter men would have it.) [9]

2. Violent when the principle is out of the body; as, when a Stone is thrown upwards.

3. Mixt, When addition is made, to the force of nature, as when a Stone is thrown downwards.

The Opposite to motion is Quiet, or rest, which in respect to motion [is either]

1. Ending before, and So tis privation, of motion.

2. beginning after it and then tis the perfection thereof this resolves a doubt whether rest be a positive or privative thing.

All Motion, Nature, force or both commands,

Opposite rest before, and [after] stands

As to the 5th Affection of natural body Quality (as Some would have it reckoned) tis various and consequent upon particular nature of the Several Species rather than one or from the General nature of body and therefore belong to the Special part of Physicks whither we shal refer it.