Chapter 19

Of Animate bodyes in Generall and Speciall Vegitable Sensible

ANIMATE bodyes in Generall are defin’d a perfectly Mixt body consisting of an Organicall, (or Instrumental) body (as the Matter) and A Soul (as the form) of these two Physical parts.1

1. Organical (or Instrumental) body is that which is furnished with fitt Instruments to Exert Vitall Action such as are after Described [under]

the Generall names




2. The Soul Useth to be defin’d the first act of a Physical Organical body, having life in power; which definition is obscure enough. Wee may rather call it the Inward, and Immediate Principle of those actions which are commonly Known by the name of Vitall.

The Affections of Animate bodys in General are either

Primary, or


1. Primary, Life; the Continuation of Union of the Soul in, and with its body; Death is the breach of [that] Union, and Dissolution of [the] Soul from [its] body.

2. Secondary, Health; a perfect disposition of the Animate body, whereby its fit to Exert all its Vital Opperations. Desease, and Sickness, is an indisposition of the body for such opperations.

The Species of livers are

[Vegitable] or

Sensible, which are

Brutal, or


1. Vegitable, (purely So) is plant consisting of an Organicall body, (whose parts are root, Stalk, branches, etc:) and a Vegitable Soul (whose faculties are 3 Nourrishing, Growing, and procreation.)

1. The Nourishing (or Nutritive) power is that whereby it is able to convert Aliment into its own Substance, Its act is nutrition a kind of partially Generation for it partially Introduceth its own form in the matter of the Aliment, for this is required that the Aliment be somewhat like, and unlike. [59]

1. Somwhat like; Else the Constitution of the liver would abhorr it, and therefore a man cannot live upon Stones, Iron, etc:

2. Yet Somwhat Unlike; Else the [living creature] cannot concoct it; for there can be no action, and Reaction upon things alltogather alike. Hence a Man cannot digest mans-flesh; Raw-flesh; Some say Horse-flesh, because these fleshes are too near the nature of his own. Also Dogs, and Cats, and all Carnivorous birds, and beasts of Prey; because they feed too near the feeding of Man. Yet In Necessities of Fammin these things are Eaten, and then they alter them by Salt or Smoak (Called Barbicuing) Or perhaps the bodyes of men are altered by fasting to put them at a Sufficient Distance [for] their food; But If not then the Ill Digestion causeth Sickness; The Plague being an Ordinary comcomitant, Of famine because of foul feeding.

3. And from hence the rule is that Aliment must nourish, and not alter the body for this distinguisheth it from Medicament whose property is to alter and not nourish.

Like, and Unlike, must be for nourishment

Of Medicine to alter is the Intent.

N.B. To this Nutritive Power are Subservient, the Powers Concocting, or Digesting, and what are Subordinate thereunto. Concocting is the Power of Assimulating the Nutriment more and more to the [Substance of the] Nourished. Its action is Concoction commonly distinguis[h]ed into an order of 3. The 1st, 2d, and 3d Concoction whose Acts and [order] are not So manifest in plants because of the [Defect] of Organs we shall therefore treat of it as it is manifestly found in Animalis Allowing to plants Somthing Analogous thereunto.

1. The first concoction is Chylification (or turning the Aliment into Chyle) this work is done in the Stomack, preparitory whereunto are dressing by roasting, boyling, or baking. And after Mastication, (or Chewing) Moistening [it] with the Spittle (that Great natural menstruum) and Swallowing which cannot be done unless the tast be Sufficiently pleased, to intimate to the Stomack that it is convenient for it. This it does by reason that the pallat, and Stomack are both of the same continued Membrane. This [Prelibation], and foretast in beasts lyes more in the Smell, and therefore they Smell to Every thing before they tast it with their mouths; the rather because a thing disliked in their mouths cannot be spit out for the roughness of their tongues. When in this order the Aliment is received into the Stomack, it is Soon turned into Chyle, which is a Mass of Meat, and drink macerated and Altered all into one [similar] Substance, (not much unlike batter) as may be seen in dissection, or Vomit 2 or 3 hours after meat. The Great Question is how it is thus Subacted, and made? The Answer is that the Preperation (before noted) being supposed, the Stomack retains in its self a certain fermenting, Dissolving, and Corroding, Juice, (or Menstruum) which being put in more vigorous action by the heat of the Stomack shrinking Close to the Meat, does open the Small parts thereof, and Make them fitt to mingle, and then the Said contraction dos also Chrush them one among another. To help the Stomack herein Sawces are prepared, either such as are warm to increase the heat, or Acids to Sharpen the fermenting juyce.

Chew, tast, and Swallow food, and in a While

The Stomack heat, and ferment make it Chile

But a Greater difficulty is whence hath the Stomack this dissolving menstruum? The Antients thought it was from the Capsulæ: Atrabilariæ (2 Grandules that arise from the emulgent Veines near the kidneys) but Anatomists find no such Acid Juice in them, nor a way how to convey it from them into the Stomack. Others have thought it is [rather] some remainders of the last Chyle reposited as a leaven between the wrinkles of the Stomack which is rough within, thus an Irish bonny Clauber pot being never washed by the remainders of Sower milk that sticks to the Sides presently Sowers, and Curdles any other milk that is put into it. Dr. Charleton2 will have it to be acid flegm seperated from the blood in its Circulation, by that branch of the Cœliac Artery which comes to the Stomack; now the Mass of blood being an Aggregate of many Juices, deposites them severally into divers places according as the pores of one or other part are suited to the Magnitude or figure of the particles, which are constituents of this or that liquor; So the Liver Seperates Gall the Kidneys Urine, the Grandules of the head Incipid flegm (or Spittle) and So [60] the Coates of the Stomack being full of Such little Grandules draw out this Acid Juice of which we speake. This Seperation (saith Dr Cole in his Animall Secretion)3 is Effected by the brisk Motion of the nervous liquor, Cross the Course of the blood, whereby it stricks out those particles that have adjacent pores fitted to receive them, and so this Active liquor passes in part with them, the rest go on with the blood augmenting its vivacity; so that according to this hypothicis, the Chylyfick ferment of the Stomack, is a Compound of the residue of the blood, and the Active Nervous liquor heightened to the best natural state by convenient causes, and sometimes (on Occasion) lifted above the natural state by medicines, when there is no food left for [this] Acid to feed upon; it Velicates the Coates of the Stomack it self, the pain, and perception whereof we call hunger, or Appetite, which by a metonimy of the Effect makes Good the proverb (hunger is the best sawce) because the Natural ferment, if it be ready for your food, (which [is] intimated to you by your hunger) is better than any artificiall which you can provide.

Better the Stomacks ferment naturall,

than any which is artificiall.

That all men have not Equally Digesting Stomacks nor the same men at all times; tis partly from the Quantity, [and] Quality, of this Acid ferment; partly from the food more or less digestible, partly from the tone of the Stomack, which if it be flaccid, and cannot contract it self Vigorously the digestion is weak; upon any of these accounts the meat either lyes, and putrifies whence follows looseness, or some deseases, or else it passes away unprepared to yeald out its [benign] Juice for the nourishment of the body, hence it follows that it is not much or Good meat, but Convenient Quantity seasonably taken, and well digested, make fat and vigorous. Tis observed in feeding hogs that when they too much raven their food, barley, and Oates will come through them so Intire, [as to] do them but little Good; and then other hoggs, and poultery will feed upon it. Tis also observed that for feeding hoggs which are shut up and cannot walk to preserve the Stomack, cleare water is better for drink than fatt wash; and that it is good somtimes to let them run abroad. The like is practiced in feeding Geese, for if once their bills Grow pale they will never feed unless they walk, all this is said to shew how considerable it is to hold up the Stomack, and its ferment in Good plight; and indeed the work of Chylification, is of so great concernment, as that the Stomack doing its office Ill, Herein is said to be the Shop or mine of deseases, because (say Physitions) an Error in the first concoction cannot be corrected in the 2d and [Bad] Chyle yeilds bad Chyme, bad blood, Spirits, [bad] humours, etc: Conducent to Good concoction are somtimes medicine somtimes fasting, to carry off unconcocted food, and Insiped flegm; but, Ordinarily Convenien[t] Exercise Digestible food, and that well drest, and eaten in Moderate Quantity; Also very considerable is the due mastication (or Chewing before mentioned) of which I shall give 2 or 3 Instances.

1. The first is lobsters which (either because they want a Sufficiency of the Acid ferment, or that their mouths are not shaped conveniently to Chew) have by nature given to them teeth in the Stomack (commonly called the lady in the lobster) for the due grinding, and cominution of their food.

2. Another instance is in ruminating beasts who having [Swallowed] their food too Intire return it again out of their Paunch into their mouths, where they work it over afresh in Chewing the Cud.

3. Lastly fernelius4 reports that Zachutus Lusitanus when he was an Old man found at Padua a Woman of his own Age, that was fresh, and fair, as if young; only by the Constant Use of Spirits of Sulphur or Vitrioll mingled with Water to preserve the teeth; which at a Great age were all Intire, and thus much of the first Concoction.

Chew well Good food what’s hungry Eaten pleases

and Profits; bad digestion [feeds] deseases.

2. The 2d Concoction is Chymification, (or the making of Chyme); this was antiently supposed to be in the Meseraick veines; but that is a mistake, and indeed it is not made at all by any Concoction, but only by Seperation and that in this order. When the Stomack has made any part of food into Chyle, tis by the Contraction thereof thrust out into the Guts The first receiver is the Duodenum where it has a mixture of Gall from the Gall bladder in the hollow part of the liver; this contributes to it a further preperation, and renders it more fitt to have its Sweet, and [Alimentary] parts seperated from [those] that are Useless; for the Gall by its fatty Smoothness, makes the Guts Glabrous, and the [feces] slippery, for their better discharge; and yet by its Acrimony is pungent to the Guts, and Stimulates their peristaltick motion; (a motion in the Coates [61] of the Guts, much like that in the body of a creeping snail or Earth worm) and hereby at once they Chrush the [feces] downwards, and the Usfull Chyme into the lacteall Veines, The Liquor in these Vessels is at least like milk, if [it] be not perfectly the same; the Lactealls are Certain small conducts Quite distinct from the Multitude[s] of Arteryes, and veines disperced throughout the mesentery [yet are everywhere amongst them, and conveigh the Chyme in a common Receptacle, scituate at the Roots of the mesentery,] whose place is above, and near the Vertabras of the loines (that is those parts of the back-bone next under the ribs). Hence by two Channells or Streight pipes (Called Ductus Chiliferi) tis carried up by the back-bone to the Subclavial branches of the Venacava, (or those parts of the Great hallow vein which are under the Collar-bones) and near the External Jugulars (or the Great neck-veins) Its intermingled with the blood; and through the Upper trunck of the hollow vein is carried in the right ventricle of the heart. This passage of the Milkey liquor from all parts of the Guts except the rectum (that is about a foot of Gut at the lower end) into the heart is called Galaxia, in allusion to the Milkey way that [we see] in the heavens, and here Ends that which [is called] the 2d Concoction.

3. The 3d Concoction is Sanguification or turning the Chime into blood, and onwards into compleat nourishment of the body. The liver was antiently supposed the shop of blood, and that thither only the Chime was carryed to be perfected; but Since the Circulation was found out (by Dr. Harvey about 60 or 70 Years since)5 the Vogue is that blood makes blood by assimulation, for in running the rounds with it, and the blood acting all along upon [it by] its Vitall Spirit (being 10 times as much in Quantity, and 100 times [more] in Vertue) it must needs Subdue the Chyme, and conform it to its own likeness. The Circulation of the blood (whereby this act of Nutrition is performed) may be thus Explained. The vessells of the body Containing blood, are the Arteryes and veines. The Arteries carry forth the blood hot, and vivacious from the heart to the Several parts in Every pulse; This from the Ends of the Small Capilary branches is thrust out into the flesh or Substance of Every Member, Then being percolated thro the flesh, and having left there what is fitt, and Sufficient for Nourishment it is received into the Capilary branches of the veines [passed] on by the Greater branches, and by them again is conveyed into the heart; there to receive a new Vigour. So then the Chile (or Chime) being mingled with the blood in the right Ventricle of the heart (where we last left it) it proceeds with the very next pulse (or Systole, or Contraction) of the heart through the artereous veines; into the lungs, there it is attempered with the Air of our breathing; thence it returns by the Veinous Artery into the left ventricle of the heart thence tis pressed forth into the Great Artery thence Several wayes for the Depuration, or nourishment: for Depuration into the Stomack to deposite acid humours; to the Guts, to leave there Insipid flegm, to the Kidneys for Urine; to the Liver for Gall; to diverse Grandules for Spittle, tears, [Sweat], etc: and for Nourishment to every part of the body, Externall and Internall always returning to the heart by veins which every where in due proportion do accompany the Arteryes. The Circulation in an In fant Unborn is somwhat otherwise; for the Mothers blood filling the placenta (or Secondine) Vessel[s] it passes thence by the Navell Vein, into the Childs liver; thence by the Vena Cava (or hallow Vein) [to] the right Ventricle of the heart, thence (not to the lungs because as yet there is no [respiration] or breathing,) but by the artereous veins and a peculiar [passage] into the Aorta, and the left ventricle of the heart, thence into the great Artery, whereby it is disperced over the body sufficient for its nourishment, but the Greatest Quantity Goes forth, by the Navel Artery; and thence returns as before.

The Quantity of blood in an healthfull, and well Grown man is between 15 and 24 lb All which passes through the heart between ¼ of an hour, and 2 hours. The Quantity of blood passing in every pulse, or beat through the heart is from 1 oz. to 2 oz. the Number of pulse in an hour is from 5000 to 2000 for so much do authors differ in their Oppinions thereof. In Men that drink, [and] Urinate much some have fancied there must be a shorter way for the Liquor to pass than in this Circulation but tis said that no such wayes are found by Anatomists; and that those mentioned are sufficien[t] because the assumed liquor in such Quantity Continues not Circulating with the blood as the [62] Chile does; it is therefore not mingled with the blood, but abiding lax and disunited in the first passage by the Kidneys it falls away through its own weight.

In Women that give suck the Chile is supposed not at all to mingle with the blood, but Immediately from the Subclaviall vessels to pass (Milk as it is) into the breasts. This seams to be the best account of the 2 last concoctions, and therefore the Antients discourse (of the Chile being turned into Chime, the Chime into blood, blood into Certain humours, then Steamy dew, then Gelatine Glue which applyed to the parts to be nourished, [is] by the nutritive power converted into its Substance, all this I say) is of no Great Signification.

blood, Circulating through the Arteryes

The Veins, [and] heart, with nourishment supplyes

The Subservient powers to concoction, are accounted 4 Attracting, Retaining, Altering, and Expelling.

1. Attracting whereby the Member that is to be nourished by right Fibers or along between them draws convenient nourishment to its self but this drawing is now abdicated, and the matter Explained by pressure; as when the full tide comes into the river, the Gurts, outlets, or by-Channels in the Marshes, do not attract the [water] into them but its pressed in by the weight of the following waters.

2. Retaining by transverse [fibers]. This also may be explained by the pressure.

3. Altering, and Assimulating by its inward heat.

4. Expelling what is Superfluous, [or] inconvenient, in Excrement Internally by Urine, and Seige; Externally by Sweat, [and] Insensible perspiration.

N.B. Insensible perspiration (as Sanctorius asserts)6 evacuates dayly more than all the Other wayes of Excretion; that the best nourishment expires more, and that the body is then in best health; the Obstruction of this by the pores stopping Causes a feaver and makes the blood ferment, the Cure [thereof] is by opening the pores again in a breathing Sweat. And indeed alwayes where the putrifaction becomes Malignent tis best drawing outwards (to the Circumference) by Sweats, and blisters; whereas stool, and bleeding draws it in, and then it dain[g]erously flyes to the heart.

N.B. The Defects of the first concoction are helped by Vomit, of the 2d by [Stool], of the third by Urine, Sweat, blister, and in case of more fullness than malignity, by bleeding, So that the remainder may better Circulate.

The Power Concocting has Subservient

to take, hold, Alter, Cast off Excrement.