Chapter 26

Of Interior Senses

INTERIOR Sense (So Cal’d) is Said to have its Seat only within the brain, tis 3 fold Common Sense, Fhantacy, and memory.1

1. Common sense, a Power of the Animall Soul whereby it Judges of the object[s] of Exterior senses, and descerns between them; its Seat is Said to be in the forepart of the head, because there all the Sensitive nerves do meet of this Consider the Objects and [the] Acts.

1. The Object, Every Sensable, Sensated (or perceived) by the Exterior Senses, as also the Acts of those Exterior Senses, which because they cant reflect on themselves therefore they need a Superior power to do it for them.

2. The Acts which are Said to be twofold, Direct, and reflex.

1. Direct, which [act] upon the Sensible object, tis 3 fold, Apprehension, Dijudication, and Discretion.

1. Apprehension of Sensible objects.

2. Dijudication of them, that So there may be

3. Discretion, Discrimination or discerning between them which act is either positive or negative.

1. Positive, which is comparing two objects discerned apart by their positive Essences as when we think by the judgment of Sense, this is bread, and that is Stone; this act is not allowed to brutes who can form no Specifiek notions of things, a Dog can conceit bread as a thing more Sutable [and pleasing] to him than a Stone, but cannot conceive it as bread, or a Nature Specifically distinct from that of a Stone.

2. Negative, which apprehends one particular thing not to be another, as that this is not that, this stone is not that bread without considering the Nature of bread or Stone, and this they allow to brutes; So when a Dog hunts out his master, he carryes with him a Phantasm of his Masters Scent; and then when he Smells t[w]o diverse persons he dos (as it were) pronounce that the Scent of this or that man is not like the Scent which he has already lodg’d in his fancy.

2. Reflex acts of Common Sense, are not So much on the objects as the Acts of Exterior Senses, So that it judges of the Difference between Seeing, hearing and feeling, etc: as Suppose of a Switch, I See the Motion, [I] Hear the quip, and feel the blow.

N.B. Latter men think all this discourse about common Sense needless, nor do they allow Such a faculty to the Animall, but ascribe all those acts in brutes to the Phantasy, or in man to Cogitation, and therefore they Say common sens is but a notion, and Superfluous; Seeing [all] these acts or appearances in Nature can be Solved by other facultyes.

Common sens objects, Acts, Direct, reflex,

And all the rest do but the mind perplex

2. Phantasy, or fancy is the [second] interior Sens, the Seat [hereof] they place in the middle part of the brain, tis defin’d a Sensative power, whereby the Animall Soul can Apprehend, Compare and Estimate Phantasms, which ar[e] Images ([hence] tis Cal’d Imagination,) or representations of things that have been some way or other perceived by [outward] Senses; Without Sens can be no Imagination, we cannot shape a Phantasm of a angel, though we have a rationall Idea of their nature. Their Spectrall appearances in bodyes of [Conglobulated], and Condensed Air, may be Imagin’d; because bodyes and made Sensible Whether any have appeared with wings (as Vulgarly represented) and of a Golden Colour is to be farther considered; But what has appeared and been perceived by the Senses, has made an Impression upon the Animall Spirits in the brain which Signature is retain’d for Contemplation long after the Sensation is Ended; thus I have an Image of my friend whom I look upon with my thoughts, and with him (as it were) converse dayly, though he be personall[y] far distant or perhaps dead.

fancy is Image-maker in the brain

of absent friends we present Shape retain

2. The Acts of Phantasy are 3 Apprehension Composition, and Estimation.

1. Apprehension of Phantasms, Judging of their truth and goodness [absolute], as whether [they] truly represent the thing [thought of], and whether that representation has any thing of Goodness in it to make it Eligible.

2. Composition when by comparation of Phantasms Sensated the Soul Shapeth Such as pleaseth it, though perhaps never perceived [84] by the Senses; thus we may out of fountains Seen at one place, Groves at another, Rocks at a 3d etc: Shape an [Elizium], a Paradise, or a Place such as pleaseth us, though there be none such in nature; and thus we can clap wings of birds to bodyes of men or [horses], etc:

3. Estimation of the Goodness, or truth, not Speculative or absolute (as before) but practicall with respect to convenience, or Inconvenience, and So proper to be Chosen or refused by the Appetite.

Fancy dos Apprehend, Compound, Esteam

proper to Appetite, as it dos deem

3. Its Strength, or Vigour gets other Denominations as from the Strength of

1. The two former acts ariseth that which is Cal’d wit, or invension, (or contrivance) as also docility (or aptness to learn)

2. Of the latter act ariseth Vehemence of Passion, as of Love to Dotage, Anger to raving, etc:

4. Its Vitiation is the distemper cal’d madness, which Seams to be but a hig[h]er degree and more fixed State of the last act mentioned; for when the tone of the brain is So altered, and misshapen that it continues in that deformyty, as that the reason cannot act for the fancyes Extravigance, then tis madness; for as a Maimed body is unfit for motion, So a distempered, and distorted brain is for ratiocination. The Difference therefore between madness, and Ext[r]avigant passion Seams to be this; that madness is a broken limb, or a Crooked body which renders it utterly unapt for some motions, whereas the Wild Vehemence of passions (before noted) is but as a [Sprayn], or a Short temporary [and] Voluntary, bowing of the body out of its naturall posture this indeed hinders a Convenient motion for the present but takes it not [quite] away.

from fancyes Strength, and Industry is had

and vehement passion too much makes one mad.

3. Memory the 3d Interior Sens, a Power receiving, retaining and returning Phantasms. Of this the Seat, Object, Acts, Kinds, and Arts.

1. The Seat Commonly Said to be the hinder part of the head; for there in the [Cerebellum] (or little brain behind) we may perceive a working of Spirits, when we would recall Somthing to our [mind], which we have almost forgotten, the hand also by Instinct is directed to rubb or Scratch behind when we cannot readyly recall a thing. The finger (as it were) feelling for the notion, or rather thereby Stirring up the Spirits that are there or drawing more thither to do the Office we require.

2. The Object, Phantasms which if they be materiall Images, they had need be much Contracted, because of the multitude lay’d up in that little Storehouse they may be Somwhat apprehended by those little pictures of outward objects that are deliniated in the Retina of the Eye, where a Whole Hemisphere may be, and is usually contracted to the breadth of a Pea, and yet all the varyety of Colours, and figures is Exactly represented therein now the memoriall Species may be a contraction of these again, and So contain in them only as it were the Seed of Conceptions, which brought forth to the fancy may Soon in [that] fertile Soyle, grow up, and Expatiate themselves to a convenient magnitude for contemplation.

Memorys place is hinder part of th[e] head,

Its Objects, Phantasms are diminished.

3. Its Acts are the before noted reception, [retention], returning.

1. Reception, when the fancy commits to it the [Image] it hath formed, and of those on which it hath wrought it gives the memory Speciall Charge. Hence the most common cause of defect in youthfull memoryes is [I]nadvertency; in Age it may be plenitude of Images.

2. Retention, this depends partly on the Strength of the Impression and partly on the temper of the brain, and its Spirits which if more dry and Solid, it retains well, though receives ill.

3. Returning, or reproposition to the fancy as oft as it cals for the Species to begin a new contemplation of them.

Memoryes act[s] are taking into trust,

Retaining Safe, and rendering them as just.

4. The kinds of memory are 2. Simple, and Complex.

1. Simple memory is that which is now Spoken [of] common to man, and beast, yea Idiots have it Sometimes, and that in an admirable manner. The reason may be not only a peculiar temperament in Some part of the brain but that all or most of the brains Spirits are only imployed about this work, and few cal’d of[f] or Spent in the Servise of the Understanding. [85]

2. Complex or Intellectual Joyn’d with Serviseable to, and Established by the understanding. This is Peculiar to men, and is Eminent in wise men, Especially as to things rather than words. The tr[e]asures of this are not only Phantasms, but also Intellectuall Ideas; and it can recal its objects by a Small hint or Circumstance. This by way of distinction from the former common memory is termed Reminiscence, or Recordation.

[Bare] memory in fools, and brutes, is found

Mans Reminiscence hath in reason Ground

5. The arts concerning memory are some meerly fancyfull, Such as making a Romance in the mind, thereby to connect independent words and things. As also that device of making a Strong fancy or Imagination of a room and its furniture, and then referring to the parts thereof the things that one would remember; Such a Course (It Seams) was that Preachers, who mistook his fancyes for his notions, Saying (and now beloved, having [done with] the great windows, we come next to the bell-ropes) but these are toyes. The true rationall helps of memory are more considerable. Such are Serious advertency, frequent Repetition; Especially when one is going to Sleep. Distinct consideration, Ingenious Succinctness, Poetry in referring things to memoriall verses, But above all rationall method. Hence Logick is Cal’d by some the art of memory, for that its distinctions, Topicks Schemes, and methodycall dispositions do lay all things So as we may know where to find them.

True arts of memory Industrious care,

Succinctness, wit, Poetry, memory are.