Chapter [30]

Of The Species of Animall, Brutes, and Men

1. BRUTE is the Unreasonable liver,1 as oppos’d to the rationall, these have all the forementioned facultyes, but falling short of reason; this is the Commonly received notion, though they say also that Some of them which are Cicurable, (that is most apt to be taught, and tam’d by man) as Dogs, Elephants, horses, etc: have their [Shadow] of reason, I may Add, and of naturall conscience too. for they Seam to have a sence of fault, and guilt if they have offended, and Some [Kind] of [Self] Satisfaction, and pleasure, when they have obeyed their Immediate Lord (man) and done as they have been bid: But no Sentiment of a deity or worship could ever [90] be observed in them, and therefore Some lerned men are inclined to think religion, and not reason is the Essentiall difference of man from a brute.

Shaddows of reason in a brute we Spie

but no religious Sens of Deity.

Brutes are either perfect, or imperfect.

1. Imperfect Such as are without blood or breath cal’d insects, because of the Scissures, and divisions in their bodyes, Such are all the kinds of flyes, Ants, or other Creepers covered with Shells; also fleas, Lyce, Leeches, are accounted of this Sort because they have all their blood in their Stomacks, as food Sucked from other animals. Quere,—If a lous kept fasting a day or two, has he that little parcel of blood which we Se moving in him by the help of a Microscope. Such creatures as want Lungs, and breath have no voyce, therefore the humm of bees, and flyes is all from the vibration of their wings. And the noise of Crickets and Grasshoppers, are Said to be rubbing of 2 Shels of their back one against another by lifting up, and letting fall their tailes.

Without both blood, and breath Imperfect brutes

May buz or Creek, but as to voyce are mutes

As for the Generation of Insects out of Putrid matter; tis taken notice [of] as a mistake before in the Generative faculty.

2. Perfect, is that which hath So much blood, and heat as to need Lungs, or Somthing Analogous to them for refrigeration of the heart. These are Either Amphybous, or heterobious.

1. Amphybious, Living in both Elements air, and water, as froggs, Crocadiles, Land crabs, Sea tortoyses, or if there be any more of that kind which are not only long divers, as Otters, Beavers, etc: but to whom the Water Supplyes the want of Air yea and is Somtimes more convenient for them; so is water to frogs all winter; because its then more warm than the Air.

2. Heterobious, Such as can live in one of the Eliments only, as air or water, (Earth and Fire being unsutable to Animall nature) and tho it be vulgarly Said that Salamanders live in the fire, Moles, and Earth worms in the Earth, yet better observation Shews that Salamanders live but as Creekets, near the fire for warmth, they being of an Extream Cold nature, and moles breath though but that little Air which is strayned through the Earth, which is enough to Serve their turns. Earthworms live more on the moisture of the Earth, and are nearer of Kinn to the Amphybious. These Heterobious are divided according to the places where they mostly reside or delight, as water, Air Earth:

1. Watry, fishes that Swimm, at least live in waters these have their gills instead of Lungs and therefore Even a fish may be drowned in water if [these] gills be tyed up. Fish are of Divers Kinds according to their








2. Airy, birds that fly in the Air, Some more Som less.

3. Earthy, beasts that Goe, Leap, or Creep upon the Earth or dry Land. These two latter airy, and [Earthy], are variously divided into










Their highest degree of perfection, is their nearest approach unto man, and that in likeness, delight, and Servise.

1. Likeness either in

body, as Monkeys,

Soul the most ingenious, and Sagatious as Some

kind of Dogs.

2. Delight in mans Company as Doggs, and tis Said Lizards.

3. Most Serviseable, and Delightfull to man, because all made for his Use, and given to him by the Creator.

Some brutes in air or water are Secure,

All others only one of these Endure.

The Cheif perfection which belongs to these

is likeness unto man to love, Serve, please.

And thus much of the first Species of animall, [Brute].

2. Man (the Other Species of Animall) is commonly defin’d the [Reasonable] animall because reason was thought the Essentiall difference, but indeed there [is] So much like reason in some brutes, (as has been Intimated) that it is not altogather without reason that others have placed the difference in religion, for there is no man but hath a Sentament of a Deity, and there is no brute that has the least appearrance thereof. No man, (what ere they pretend) can be really a Speculative Athiest, but practicall atheists there are too many, who Say in their hearts rather than in their heads there is no God; their Corrupt will, and Affections rather than their Judgment inclining them so to think.

Mans difference in religion you may State

rather than reason which brutes immitate

In Man there are considerable their bodyes, and their Souls.

1. Their bodyes which are wonderfully made with that majesty that Scarce the wildest creature undisturbed by hunger or Anger dares look him in the face, or assault him; God haveing So put the fear of man into every Earthly creature. The humane body is distributed by Physitians,


Bones Muscles

and Anatomists into








Veines, Nerves.

Of all which See their proper treatis in Anatomy.

Mans body’s beautifyed with majesty

Its parts discrib’d are in Anatomy.

2. Their Souls which are considered as beings or forms

1. As being So they are Spirits contradistinct [91] in the predicament of Substance [to] bodyes. Souls are individually created of God (the father of Spirits) [and] in the Same moment infused into man; yet as beings are Capable of Existing Seperate from the body. And thus (as Seperate) they have been formerly handled in the Speciall part of metaphysicks: but of late they are referred (with good reason) to a Distinct Science, Cal’d pneumaticks or [the] doctrine of Spirits, as Physicks is of bodyes.

As beings Souls are Spirits which remaine

Seperate untill they are Conjoyn’d againe.

2. As forms So their Conjunction to the body is necessary to their being such and is of the most proper physicall consideration. They are therefore in the very moment of Creation, and Infusion from God united also with the body, by the plastiek, and formative vertue, in the parentall Seeds So that the parent truly Generates the man though he does not produce the form, because the proper Generation consists in the Union, and not in the production of the parts.

This well considered will help us to understand the propagation of original Sin, tis not from body to body, nor from Soul, to Soul, nor from the body to the Soul but from the man to the man. Nor does it derogate from the Excellency of mans Generation that his Childs Soul is not educed [or] Excited, as they say Dogs and other brutes Souls are by the Generant, because the bare Union of the humane Soul being So [far] more Excellent than others, renders it a more Excellent and noble Generation than that of traduction, (if it be so) of brutal forms.

As forms, Souls must united be; and this

begetting nobler than [traduction] is

The Powers, and facultyes of the Soul wherein it differs from that of brutes belong to it as Spirit, and therefore the doctrine of it belongs properly to pneumaticks. but because their operations, whereby these facultyes declare themselves in the State of Conjunction do Somwhat depend on the body; Especially the temperament of the brain, and heart, and because otherwise man cannot be well Specificated from brute, the other Species of animall, therefore Physicks take notice of them, and they are primary or Secondary.

1. Primary are the Intellect, and the will which [do] immediatly result from the nature of the Soul, and are therefore Cal’d inorganicall facultyes, as not affixed to any member of the body, So as Sensative, appetive, and Locomotive powers are to their proper organs, and yet indeed they Seam to have most to do where those facultyes reside which do more Immediately Serve them; and therefore in those parts they may be Said to have their Cheif Seat, and throne, thus the Intellect having most to do with fancy and memory is Said to reside in the head; and (say the Cartesians) especially in the Glandula Pinealis, a little Kernell in the Center of the brain, formed like the Seed of a pine, though others will not allow that trifle lying among the fœces of the brain that transcendent honour. So the will managing [mostly] the appetites, and Affections, is Said to possess the heart, hence the Phraise (I will with all my heart) and hence also a Good head, and heart are put in a Vulgar metanimy for a good understanding and will.

The Intellect and will [in] head, and heart,

Command, though not oblidg’d to any part.

Of these in particular.

1. The Intellect is a power of the reasonable, (or religious) Soul, whereby it understands truth; Its Improvement is by Logick (the art of reasoning) and all the Speculative Sciences, [in this] Consider

1. The Acts of the Intellect are either incompleate, or Compleate.

1. Incompleate or preparitory, are forming or receiving Species.

1. Forming Species Intelligible, or Ideas of things is out of the Phantasms in Clearing them by abstraction from the conditions of matter, and So making that Actually intelligible, that was but potentially So before, as thus. I know a Man that is my friend and has done me freindly offices in a time of adversity; when I think of him I first have a Phantasm of the mans person, and his Action, with [its] Circumstances of time, place, etc: before my thoughts; Hitherto is the work of fancy, but now my mind from this formes [the] Idea (or intellectual Species) of a true friend, and ascribes to him (that he loves at all times) this Idea of a friend, the Subject of [that] proposition (a true friend loveth at all times) is now by Intellect abstracted from the Colour, Stature, feature, and other material conditions of [that] person, and is the proper Intelligible Species of my reall friend.

2. receiving of this Idea So formed, and Abstracted to be the object of my Cogitations, and concerning which I am about to Set my thoughts to work as [92] suppose (in the former Instance) how I ought to Esteam Immitate, reward, and Carry myself towards Such a friend.

Int[e]llect forming Species; matter leaving

fits them for Int[e]llectuall receiving.

2. Compleat which is the formall acting of the Intellect upon this object, whereby that which was before (While a Species) but actually intelligible, is now actually Intellected, or Understood; as Suppose I do now actually think Such a true friend as is before mentioned is to be loved, thanked, Served, trusted, etc: The compleat act is 3 fold.

Apprehension of Simple terms


Of all which in Logick.2

Composition of them in [propositions]



Illative in argumentation


[Ordinative] in method

N.B. These [a]forementioned distinct acts are not ordinarily observed by us in our discourses, no more than all the motions of my Eye, hand, or Pen in writing these lines, are considered by me; and yet tis manyfest when I do think [of it] there were So many distinct motions of them all in [the] writing Every letter.

Intellects formall acts are t’apprehend,

Compound, discourse, to direct Logicks End.

And thus much of the Acts of Intellect, the next is its Object.

2. The Object of the Intellect is truth, Simple, and Complex.

1. Simple is when the Idea Answers to the thing as it is.

2. Complex is when the Affirmation or Negation do So answer; hence falshood in the former begets falshood in the latter, for if I apprehend Alchymy to be Gold, I readyly (though falsly) affirm (this is Gold)

Intellects objects, [truth] when tis display’d

Simple, or Complex as tis thought or said

This of the Object, next follows

3. The distinctions of Intellect into Agent, and patient, and into Speculative, and practical.

1. into

Agent as forming Ideas patient, as receiving them

both these are but the Same Intellect

under a diverse formality of Acting.

Suppose a tutor in teaching represents a notion to his Pupill; the Intellect of the pupill is first patient, but tis afterwards again agent when he thinks Seriously thereupon. This Instance of another mans Idea formed to our hand is proposed, as more Easy to conceive, but the reason is the same when all the Acts are in the Same Intellect; for in them the Intellect is first agent in forming, then patient in receiving, and then agent again in Cogitating thereon.

2. Into

Speculative which is Satisfyed in the naked Contemplation of the thing,

Practical which So Contemplates objects that they may be also practised.

As When a Man Studdyes archytecture, and Contemplates the reason of [the] proportion of parts (as Suppose that it depends upon Musicall harmony, and the Numerall opperations of Arethmetick) this he may do without the Idea of any house in his thoughts, or without any design of building. But if as an Archytect, he would contrive a house, now his practicall Judgment works and forms [an] Idea of what he intends, and Contemplates thereon to Examin whether it be agreable to the Aforesaid Speculations. yea that his Idea do not fleet out of his thoughts he Commands fancy to [shape] a well materiated Phantasm thereof, and to help Imagination he draws visible lines or rather frames a visible, and tangible model; this he Changes according to his aforeconceived Ideas untill he has [formed] one that is in all points to his Satisfaction.

Agent and patient Intellect’s the Same

Speculative thinks but practical dos frame

This of the Distinction of Intellects

4. The Subservient to the Intellect is the Intellectual memory which is carefull of receiving, Laying up, and returning intellectual Species, and Ideas (as the brutall memory can store up Phantasms) this is Greatly helped by Good method. hence Logick [in this respect] is Cal’d [by some] the Art of memory. The Exercise of intellectual memory dos mostly belong to wise men and Scholars. Whereas fools and Children have the more common Use of the other; for that they are unable to form those abstracted Ideas and are less Capable of rationall method.

Memory Intellectual Serves the mind.

Children, and fools use that of th’other kind

N.B. he that would Gladly hear Sermons, and remember them, had need to understand the Usuall method in which they are made and therefore its most profitable for hearrers that preachers mostly keep to the Usuall method of Explication, Doctrine, Proof, reasons, and Use. for thereby the ordinary hearer has his topicks, or Common places whereto he may refer what he hears and Easyly recall it in Order by meditation.

He that would Sermons profitably hear,

had need to Understand the method Clear.

N.B. that all Speculative learning helps to form mens minds to Contemplation, and therefore mathematecall demonstrations, Arithmeticall opperations Algebra, etc: are very profitable to those who may never have [any] proper Use for them because they beget an Accumen, or Sharpness of wit, and Judgment besides an habit of not being Satisfyed without clear and manifest reason. And then be Sure those Abilityes are Applicable to any other business whatsoever.

To be Contemplative is not Easy unless men Inure themselves thereunto. hence [Easy] Students that love not too much to beat their braines in contemplation; desire to [93] have things represented to the Eye in Diagrams, Picture[s], etc: because they are more inured to Phantasms, than Speculative Ideas. And hence the Grossness of popery, and all sorts of Idolatry appears in that the Objects of their devotion must be Gross materiall, and Sensible, and the Acts of it consist much in bodyly Exercise and outward rites, meanwhile the Spiritual worship which God requires is accounted too fine for them because they will not truble themselves in any abstracting Labour. And this Shews the true reason why Corruption inclines them naturally to Superstition, and Idolatry. Which Else would appear too Gross, fulsom, and absurd for any reasonable Creature. And yet it must be confest the most contemplative men while their Souls are in a [State of] Conjunction with matter and Especially under their naturall infirmityes contracted by the fall will need materiall helps to fix their contemplation; hence many say they can mind better when they hear themselves to read, and can pray with most intension when they speak aloud, at least Audibly; If this indeed to any person be almost necessary in nature tis an Infirmity to be pittyed. But if contracted by the Errour of Education in the Scurvy Custom of bawling at Grammer Schools while they learn their lessons it must be Striven against, and Endeavoured to be reformed: What may be Us’d for an help must not be abus’d in an Idleness or Oscitancy of mind; but by Such helps men should Endeavour to be able not to need them, and to attain what they may an ability of Abstracted contemplation.

Abstracted Science helps wise Contemplation

Idleness is pleas’d with dull Imagination.

And So much for the first primary power of the reasonable soul; Intellect.

2. Will is a power of the reasonable Soul whereby after the information of the Intellect it Closeth with Good, and Shuns Evill of this consider [the] Objects, and Acts.

1. The Objects of will are Good and Evill, So appearing at least under present Circumstances whether they be really So or no.

2. [The] Acts are Either Elicite or Imperate.

1. Elicite acts of the will are such as are drawn forth, and Exercised in, and of its self, without any help of Inferior facultyes; and these are either positive volition of Good, or negative nolition of Evill.

2. Imperate, or rather Imperant whereby it commands the Inferior facultyes, whence acts may be rather cal’d imperate.

Wills objects are appearing Good, or Ill.

Acts are Elicite, imperate, will, nill.

besides what [is] mentioned there are appartaining to the will its imperfect motions called Veleity, and Noleity. Expressing themselves by would, as I would or would not, instead of I will or will not. And Its mixed inclinations which will for one reason, and will not for another. Also its Obsequiousness to the Last dictates of the Understanding, Its Liberty in rationall Spontaneity, Its Concern in Vertue and vice, and its different volition of End[s], and means, etc: of all which having Spoken Largly in Ethicks, we shall now pass them here. These 2 Understanding, and will are commonly accounted the only primary facultyes; but there seams to be a third Cal’d Conscience I know this is accounted an act of the practicall Judgment, concerning a mans Self and his actions; Defined, the Judgment of a Man Subjected to the Judgment of God. In Which the Word (Subjected) carryes a yeilding and Subjective act of the will. So that I should rather think tis either a Complex of both; and may be defined an Aptitude for, and Inclination to religion; or an higher facultye comprehending both the other; as we See reason doth all the powers of a brute, and then it may be defin’d the Differentiall power in man, whereby he can Acknowledge God. having intellect, will, and all other facultyes Subservient thereto; for (as is before noted) piety (rather than Science or prudence) does Commend a man as transcending other Creatures: Tis this that Sets him furthest from a brute, which hath no Sentiment of a deity; and therefore why not mans Essentiall difference. tis this that doth advance men to a nearer approach to the Angelicall nature, yea to the holy God himself.

Conscience, that makes a man all beasts Surmount,

we well among the Cheiffest powers may count

And thus much of the primary facultyes of the Soul Intellect will and Conscience.

2. The Secondary facultyes of Man are his propertyes arising from his Difference (Supposing it to be rationality, as is commonly Said) are Speach, Admiration, humane passions, and Laughter.

1. Speach, or the power of Speaking, is that whereby a man can with articulate Sounds of the Voyce make known the [inward] Sentiments of his mind, or rather more Generally thus; a power to impose Signifycation on outward, and Sensable things thereby to Express inward, and Secret thoughts, and this Seames to be right, because.

1. It [includes] writing and all other Signs by agreement among men which do as well attain the End of Speach as, [the] articulate words.

2. It Excludes what answers not the End of Speach. as [94]

1. Parrotising, or the Immitation of articulate Sounds as in parrots, and other birds for that they have no designed Signification.

2. All naturall voices of brutes, as having no Arbitrary Institution or imposed Signification.

3. The words of Common Lyars, who have lost their Credit, for they have no Certain or knowable Signifycation. These therefore that do abuse this faculty, have in Effect lost it.

Speach writing Signs are mans [propriety]

N’ere had by birds is lost by men that ly.

2. Admiration which I take to be the next power to this of Speach, which though it be the Daughter of Ignorence, yet it is the mother of Science. for it intimates a desire of knowledge, and prying into that which we wonder at. There is a Shaddow of it in brutes starting or Surprise which are but the Acts of Suddaine, and uncertain fear and therefore differs from this in man which is more deliberate.

3. All the Humane, and proper passions Such as Gratitude commiseration, Indignation, etc: which bespeak Somthing of morality in them.

4. Laughter the Expression of mirth, by Contraction of the face muscles, and weeping the Expression of Greife, by Compressing the Grandules, in the Inner corners of the Eyes, and thereby Shedding teares. These 2 are the most common instances of humane properties but it Seams with no great reason, for Doggs shew the former, and a Hinde or do Hunted down the Latter, and perhaps some other brutes who can Express these and other passions as Anger, fear, Greife, etc: Signally in their very countenance. Besides Suppose they ware peculiar to man; these only Express passions which belong to the Sensative appetite (Except the Laughter which arises from contempt. or that weeping which comes from Shame [and] disgrace,) [whereas] the other properties (before mentioned) have in them Signall Stamps of reason; I take these therefore to be meane if any propertyes at all. As for the Addition of these words (in a humane face) Used in the Deffinition of Laughter, tis ridiculous, and Imports that [the] humane face is rather the property than Laughter.

Admiring humane passions propertyes,

Laughter, and weeping Seam Communities

We have done now with Naturall bodyes both [in] Generall and Speciall distributively taken. We come now to the Same taken Collectively, in one mass or [Compass], Called World.