Chapter 28

Of Locomotion

THE 3d Primary affection or Power of Animal in Generall (after Sens and appetite) is Locomotion.1 whereby the Animall is able to remove its Self in whole or part from place to place, for the Acquiring Some good or avoiding Som evill, of this consider the Principle the Manner, and the Species or division.

1. The Principle within the Animall is the form intimating to the materiall Spirits in the nerves, that are ingredients into the Muscles of the bodyes whose tendons at Each end are fixed to the bones.

2. The modes or manner of motion is by thrusting in or commanding forth a Sufficient Quantity of Spirits 1st from the brain and then from the Great nerve going through the back bone, Cal’d the pith of the back which are the fountain and [Source] of animall Spirits into these rivelets and derivations of the Severall payres of nerves that proceed from it and are distributed into Each muscle of every limb. Some one particular muscle being thus Inflated (or puffed up) with Spirits, it grows thiker in the middle, and therefore the distance of its Ends must be Shortened. Now one End or tendon of the Muscle being fastened to a fixed bone, and the other to a Moveable one, The Moveable must by consequence [come home], and So the motion of a part is performed. This moved part being thereby applyed to another part of the Earth than that whereon it was before and the Center of the bodyes Gravity being also removed forward by other muscles, hence arises progression or a motion of the Whole.

All the Difficulty lyes in these words (form Intimating) for this form if it be matter how comes it to move its Self, or Give intimation. Objective motion is but by perception, and not Efficatious attingence, and how can matter perceive. Or if on the other hand it be Spirit, that (being Immaterial) canot protrude matter, or push it on, but will rather penitrate it; Somwhat like as we See light goe through a diaphinous body, without removing it. Besides hitherto most Phylosophers have been very Shy of allowing Spirits to brutes lest thereby they Should render them immortal, or Incorruptible because of their indivisibility. Cartes tells us [that objective] motion is no more than pulling the tricker of these machines, or applying the Linstock to a Canon, and So a Small motion may put a greater on work. Thus when I Whistle my Dog, all his Spirits are put in motion, by the Small touch of the Timpanum or Drum of the Ear, from the Air Vibrated by the Whistle. And So by the motion of the finger, a taught Eliphant has his whole [vast] body put into motion, the tricker being in his Eye beholding the fingers little motion. All this they Say is possible because of the Immense knowledge of the Oppificer of the machynes, and therefore mens Impotens to make an Engine like this hinders not its probability. But Still the Difficulty Seams to remain in the perception, and the Direction of motion. The docility of the Eliphant is not only from the memory which they give to it from a Certain perforation of the brain this or that way but from a perception 1st of the difference between the bit and the Knock, (the Reward, and Punishment) which if mear matter doth perceive, Learn be conscious. Remember, etc: I must needs Say as Cartes himself dos in another place, I will not Say, It is impossible to God, but that he has [not] given me Such a Soull as can understand it.

Form is the principle of Locomotions

But of the Mode Men vary in their notions.

The P[h]ainomina in Brutes, and appearrances in their nature Especially as Docile cannot be Solved to my understanding, by figure of matter and Site of parts. And [yet] tis not in my reach to Settle a better hypothysis. however it may be proposed to consideration.

1. That the Souls of brutes are truly Spirits, and do act in brutes as reasonable souls do in men; namly, by Intimation and command to the Spirits that they rush into this or that muscle or member as the Animall pleases. [87]

2. The Spirits that are the formes of brutes are either [mortall] or vanishing as accidents Seperated from the matter or Substance. This Aristotle calls a returning into the Power of [the] matter, Like the figure of Wax. And the Scripture Sayes of the Spirit of a [beast] that it goes downwards to the Earth; (Ecclesiastes. 3.2.) where we may note that they are cal’d Spirits both of man, and beast, that they are determin’d Severall wayes by the Creator, Mans Spirit upwards to God the Judge, Beasts Spirit downwards to the Earth; and then that in those abstruse matters there is a transcendency to the Knowledge of men intimated in the words (who Knoweth) or Else these Spirits of brutes are permanent as mens are; but of this we Know no Use or reason. Supposing therefore these brutall Spirits are true Spirits, and yet perrishing, we may conceive the Gradation of Created Spirits in this order.

1. Some Spirits Created are without any relation to matter at all as Angell.

2. Other Spirits are created with relation to matter but without dependence, not necessarily or alwayes to be conjoyn’d therewith. as the Souls of men whom the Creator (for holy ends) will make to Subsist in a State of Seperation.

3. Others with relation, and dependence on matter necessarily therein with conjunction thereunto, by the Creators will while they have a being, as the Souls of brutes which may vanish at their Seperation for that they have attain’d their End. And there is no further Use of them.

4. Matter Volatilized, and put in motion, is Somtimes Equivocally cal’d Spirits as the form or Life of Vegitables, and those Steams cal’d natural, Vital, and Animal Spirits in the bodyes of men and beasts

5. Matter fixed, and quiescent, at least in the Greatest, and Cheif parts thereof as in all [Inanimates] that have nothing Cal’d Spirits.

Angels no Use of matter man no need,

Brutes must; All else meer matter is indeed

And thus the Order of things, and harmony of the World appear, without that great Gapp [between] Spirituall, and bodyly Substance. As to those who would have brutall Spirits or Souls to persist in being after their Seperation; for this they fancy a certain generall Spirit or Souls of the world from whence they came first, and to which they return; Like as all waters are from and goe again to the Sea. or Else they conceive [that] the Spirit of a brute when it dyes passes into the Air, and therein houvers untill it be affixed to Some plant, or other nourishment proper to that kind of Animal whence it came, and So may it pass into the body of a Generant, joyn it Self with the prolifique Seed, and So become the form of a New Generated animall of the Kind.

This indeed may be; but I do not think it is, for God can as well create a new Spirit as preserve the Old in this wandring condition; and then there is not the Same reason for preserving these as there is for the Spirits of men who being made Subjects of Morallity are fit objects of Divine Justice, and mercy to be manifested [upon them]. That which has inclined [Some to think that] these Spirits of brutes are not continually created (as the Spirits of men are Generally acknowledged to be) in Every individuall was a care lest this should Depretiate too much the Divine creating power to bring it down to Such minute things; Not Considering (meanwhile) that the Same reason would overthrow Universall Divine Providence, which Extendeth itself also to the most minute matters without Derogation; yea to the magnifying of his infinity who upholdeth all things by the word of his power. Do but Conceive of God as the fountain of all beings, and that all out of him are but Emanations from him, and you may then without difficulty think that any Ray of being which proceeds from him may be withheld at his pleasure, and so there will be no need of a positive Exerting of his power to Annihilate any Creature he hath no further Use for; Seeing a Negative withholding his Influence will Effectually do it. And the Same you may [conceive] of his bestowing beeing where and when he pleaseth.

From hence it follows that the Immortality of humane Souls, yea of Angels themselves is not So much from their Spirituall nature which is indiscerpible, Indivissible, or Incorruptible; for so in all respects is Every atome of matter; but it is from the Will, and Influence of the Creator who will have it So to be. Hence also it follows that the Argument to prove the Souls of brutes not to be Spirits because Perishable, or that the oppinion of a perrishableness in any Spirit will distroy the Immortality of humane Souls, will not hold; for tis enough to say God has not declared the permanence of brutall Spirits nor the reason for their permanence, as he hath of Humane Spirits namly the Gloryfying of Justice, and Mercy to all Eternity and therefore no wonder if he lets them fall into their first nothing when they have Served men their appointed End, and done the work for which they were created. And thus much of the principle, and manner of Locomotion. [88]

Spirits of Brutes do perrish: permanence,

have mens, from divine Ends, and Influence

3. The Division of Locomotion is into totall, and partiall.

1. Totall, when the whole body is removed [for] acquiring some good or removing some Evill. These are Jumping, Going, Creeping, flying, or Swiming.

1. Jumping as Grasshoppers, fleas, tripping of Does etc: Depending on the figure of the hind legs, or Strength of the muscles.

2. Going, when the feet are Interchangeably put forth, and the upper part of the body poysed forwards the better to lift the hinder Legs and bring them Successively into their place; for as one cannot rise from a Seat till the Center of Gravity be removed forwards, as in the Diagram if [one] Sit Erect (as in the first figure) So as the line of Gravity be the pricked line, directly down from the head (a) [and] the heels (b.) being forwards he cannot rise, but if the head (a) be Stooped forwards, and the heels (b.) be Set back (as in the Second figure) that the line of Gravity Come forth to the middle of the Seat, then the forepart will Counterpoyse the hinder part and one Easyly ariseth, So tis in going for a man cant go till his head be over his forefoots heel, and that will Ease his hinder foot to rise, and draw it forwards to take the next Step, Hence falling upon a Stumble is when the Sway of the Center of Gravity forward is too violent to be commanded, and hence wearines is the Sooner, and Greater by an ill, and unsteady poyse of the body Especially of the head.

N.B. The Gymnick arts, Such as Dancing, fencing, Vaulting, wrestling etc: were invented and taught for the regulating of this poyse, and therefore are of Great Use however abus’d by mens Corruptions.

3. Creeping (by Creatures that have no legs) is a Shoving forwards of the Body by the Shells of the Animal hitching in the Earth. So an Earthworm Snail, or Serpent being at length, draw in their tailes, and Clap them against the Ground and there they Stick because the points and Edges of [their] Scales or rings do point backwards; then they thrust their heads forwards which they may Easyly do because their Scales do not that way hinder them then the fore part is fastened to the Ground and the tailes are drawn up again, etc: hence it follows that upon a Smoth, and polished thing Such a Creature cannot move onwards, or have any progressive motion.

4. Flying, or Swiming, (for they are both of the Same nature one with the other, and with rowing in a boat) is when the Wing beats, or thrusts against the Air, or the finn against the water to cause the Animall to move the Contrary way to that thrust or beat, the figure, and opening of the Wing is Contrived with admirable wisdom for this purpose; as we may See by the naked Eye; but the texture of Every feather, gives, in the Microscope a Sight most astonishing. Artificiall wings might be made proportionable to the body of a man, but then the Strength of the Arme could not be Sufficient to move them, however tis Conjectured by Some that as oars have been Substituted for finns to [enable] men to pass on water, So after ages may find out a Substitute for Wings so applyed to an Engine, that may row us in the Air, as a boat doth in water.2

Whole Locomotion with the needs complying

Are Jumping, Going, Creeping, Swimming, flying

2. Partiall motion is of particular members, according to their Use and figure, and this Especially as the Ends of the bones are Shaped, and Joyned to other bones, these are Absolutely Arbitrary. but there are two particular motions of another nature, namly the motion of Air in our Lungs, and [of spirits and] blood in our heart, and Arteryes, these are Generally out of our Cognizance, and are not at our [disposall], I doubt not but the mind causes them but with Such a necessity of nature that it does them without reflecting upon them, in the Intellect or Exercising will about them: tis in this as with a man in a Journey when once he hath begun, and determined his End, and way, the mind makes many thousand Steps with the feet which it never thinks upon nor can do any other wise than make them while the End of the way is designed. These are Cal’d respiration, and Puls.

1. Respiration is a motion of the Lungs, by Dilatation attracting air for the Cooling of the Heart, and attempering of the Spirits, and by Contraction casting it out again with the Heterogeneous fumes, when it hath done its work, The Cheif use Seams not the cooling (only Antiently ascribed to it) but to Supply matter for Spirits and by Ventilation to Sustain the motion of the flame of life which would Soon be extinguished without it.

2. Puls, a particular motion of the heart, and arteries whereby in dilating and Contracting, (Cal’d Systole, or Diastole) the bloods Circulation is continued the Arteryes Still carrying out blood heated, and Impregnated with vivid Spirits, and the veines return-[89]ing it when depauperated to be again recruited (as is before noted) The Difference of Puls indicating the State of the blood and Spirits is variously distinguished by Physitians, into high, Low, hard, Soft, Even, uneven, Swift, Slow, etc: The time of an ordinary puls is [one second], that is [1/60] part of a minute, and then there will be 3600 in an hour, but Anatomists reckon 2000 the least, [and] Some near 5000, as [Spigelius]3 4876. The Quantity of blood passing the heart at every puls, is also variously accounted; Some reckon by Scruples and Drams, others by Ounces. Harvey Sayes, the left ventricle of the heart will hold 2 oz., and if all or most of this be cast out at every puls, (as the latter learned men think) and there be in men [blood] from 15, to 25 lb. then by Computation ’twill appear (taking the puls at 2000 in an hour) that all the mass of blood pass[es] through the heart [about] 13 times in an hour.4

All partial motions are Arbitrary

but Puls and Respiration necessary

And thus much of primary animall powers, Sens Appetite, and motion. Next follow the Secondary Awake, and Sleep.