INDEX

    A Third Extraordinary Budget of Epistles (1770), 57n

    Account of Corsica (James Boswell), 202n

    Adams, John

    advocate general, Sewall conveys offer of, 137

    Beccaria, admires, 255n

    and FB, 137

    as Hancock, defense counsel for, 110, 137

    identified, 49n

    as lawyer, 6, 137

    on natural rights, 302n

    and Otis Jr., 302n

    patriotism of, 279n

    Rex v. Corbet (1769), defense counsel in, 302n

    and Sewall, 137

    Warren, letter to, cited, 138n

    Adams, Samuel

    anti-monarchism of, 167

    as Appeal to the World, author of, 37, 58n

    Bernard Letters, critiques, 37–39

    Boston Gazette, writes for, 176

    and Boston selectmen, 198n, 215

    as “Candidus,” 124n, 244

    Convention of Towns

    at, 75

    as clerk of, 76

    Cushing, T., “altercation” with, 307

    on Customs commissioners, 168

    FB

    on conspiracy of, 39

    on misrepresentations of, 36–37, 39, 168

    petition to remove, drafts, 32, 361

    House of Representatives

    as clerk of, 296, 299, 301n, 303, 305, 361

    papers of, authors, 26, 28, 32, 298, 305

    and resolves of, publication of, 303

    on Hutchinson, 168

    identified, 49n

    influence of, 32

    as “Journal of the Times,” co-author of, 216, 217n

    king, views on, 167

    on Manufactory House eviction, 100n

    Navigation Acts, repeal of, advocates, 218n

    and Oliver, A., 218n

    and Otis, 280

    and parliamentary supremacy, 218n

    radicalism of, 28

    sedition, accused of, 8

    and Temple, 193

    troops, resistance to, discusses, 8, 167–68

    as Whig party, leader of, 28, 36

    Admiralty Board

    and advocate general of Vice Admiralty, appointment of, 136, 155, 224

    American correspondence of

    published, xxiv

    received, 11

    clerks of, 41

    Hillsborough, letters to, published, 57n

    Hood, letters from, printed, 37

    lords commissioners of, mentioned, 136, 224, 373n

    secretary of, xxiv, xxv, 225, 373n

    secretary of state

    letters from, 42

    letters to, 224–25

    listed, 369

    Admiralty Law, 5, 137, 302n

    Advocate General of Vice Admiralty (Massachusetts), 6, 49, 110, 136–37, 154–55, 156, 157n, 158n, 166n, 224, 225n

    Aeneid (Virgil), 214n

    Aesop, 238n

    Albany, N.Y., 126, 221

    Boston, road to, 126

    Almon, John, 55n

    Collection of Interesting, Authentic Papers, relative to the Dispute between Great Britain and America (1777), 59n

    Almshouse, Boston, 73n

    American Board of Customs

    attorney general of England and Wales, opinion of, seek, 157n

    Auchmuty’s views on, 140

    Boston, retreat from, 6, 19

    FB and cabinet council advise on, 138–40

    Boston, return to

    Governor and Council advise on, 91, 90–91, 104–05, 216n, 335, 354

    Boston, returns to, 5, 82, 107, 140, 193, 318

    British policymaking, influence on, 10

    commissioners

    Britain, criticized in, 161n, 178n

    Council, appointment to, proposed, 186

    families of, 105

    as justices of the peace, 78

    London, depart from, 157n

    mentioned, 140

    popular hostility to, 105, 106n, 121, 139, 171

    removal of, rumors concerning, 285

    as strangers, 188n

    threats against, 316

    conspiracy, accused of, 336, 350

    correspondence with, about, 91, 110, 140, 156

    Council, disrespectful of, 336, 354

    FB et. al, letter from

    Treasury, read by, 140

    FB, collusion with, 19, 26

    British troops, obtaining in, 4, 168

    alleged, 318, 337–38, 343, 350n

    FB, writes to, 103

    FB’s views on

    Boston, retreat from, 139–40

    Boston, return to, 82

    Castle William, residency at, 139

    violence toward, threats of, 139

    Governor and Council, return to Boston considered by, 91, 104–05, 106n, 350n

    Hancock et al., prosecution of, manage, 110, 136

    Hancock, pursue, 5

    Hutchinson

    letters from, cited, 111n

    views of, 140

    king and ministers, mislead, 58n

    letters from

    cited, 5, 110, 137, 156, 177, 193

    received, 91

    Treasury, read by, 140

    letters to, 90–91, 109–11, 138–40, 154–58

    cited, 6, 58n, 82n, 136, 138n, 156, 158n, 178n, 193, 225n, 244, 367

    as enclosures, 156

    FB as co-signatory, 140

    listed, 364–65, 367

    quoted, 244

    received, 140, 154

    as replies, 91, 154

    Treasury, read by, 140, 156

    Liberty riot

    accounts of, presented to Parliament, 36

    conspires to incite, 316

    on Lisle, misconduct of, 193

    minutes of, cited, 111n, 158n

    newspaper article on, 160

    officials of, 172, See also Coffin, Nathaniel; Lisle, David; Venner, Samuel

    Oliver’s views on, 140

    “Paoli” criticizes, 201n, 244

    popular criticism of, 105, 239n, 300, 350n

    protection and safety of, 104, 139

    secretary to, 193, See also Venner, Samuel

    Sewall

    allegations by, about, 110

    competency of, question, 5, 110, 157, 158n

    complain about, 154

    correspondence with, 156

    FB provides reassurances about, 154–57

    letter from, cited, 158n

    suspicions about, 157

    working relationship with, 136–37

    Sewall, dispute with

    about, 6, 110, 136, 156, 244

    FB intervenes in, 109–10, 154–56

    FB reports on, 154–58

    resolution of, 156–57, 193

    and Temple, estrangement of, 49n, 140, 160, 193, 200, 206, 207n, 209

    Treasury

    FB, correspondence with, sends copies of, 156

    letters from cited, 158n

    memorials to

    about, 158n

    Bollan seeks, 31, 56n, 57n

    cited, 158n, 201n

    Parliament, presented to, 35–36

    printed, 57n, 58n, 179n

    published, xxiv

    quoted, 157n

    Venner

    accused of incompetence by, 193

    on misconduct of, 110, 157, 193

    relationship with, 158n

    and Vice Court of Admiralty, prosecutions in, 136

    American Colonies

    agents of, 160n, 229

    assemblies of, 160n, 163n, 170n, 266, 268n, 279n

    and bishop of London, 149

    Boston, support for, 217n

    British Army in. See under British Army

    British friends of, 55n

    as British manufactures, market for, 30

    and British policymaking, 119

    British resentment toward, 196

    British rule in, morality of, 239n

    civil list in, 250–51

    as conquered provinces, 19

    disposition of, 11

    episcopate, oppose, 149

    French and Indian War, and. See under French and Indian War

    governments in, 30, 94, 125, 150–51, 181, 227, 294

    governors’ councils in, 355

    governors of. See under Governors, Colonial

    governors’ salaries, provision for, 92, 251, 252n

    Great Britain

    disputations with, 116

    mail to and from. See under Mail

    mutual interests with, 264

    prospect of war with, 1–2

    reconciliation with, 2, 27, 122, 202, 264, 323n

    prospects of, 10, 25, 30–31, 38, 264, 323n

    relations with, deterioriation in, 25, 122, 173, 174

    union with, 94

    grievances of, 355

    and Henrician treason statutes, 16, 320

    honors in, 187

    independence of, 11, 94, 117, 236, 308

    judges’ commissions in, 113

    land grants in, 127n

    loyalty of, 347

    mentioned, 148, 181, 194, 202n, 221n, 284n, 345, 347

    mispresentations of, 178n

    newspapers. See also Newspapers; individual titles

    obedience and submission of, 150

    Parliament

    and, 30, 116, 123, 144, 238n, 320

    petitions to, 132, 163n, 279n

    presented, 163n

    representation in, 94, 236

    and parliamentary authority, 14, 263, See also Parliamentary Authority

    and parliamentary supremacy, 30, 170n, 261n, 306n

    and parliamentary taxation, 10, 30, 121, 204n

    “pretensions” of, 122

    prosperity of, 22

    Quartering Act, obligations under, 203, 229

    rebellion in, prospect of, 18

    revenue drawn from, 325–26, 341

    royal governments in, 113, See also Government, Royal

    Royal Navy in. See under Royal Navy

    and secretaries of state, xxiv, 2, 4, 9, 41, 50n, See also Hillsborough, Earl of; Secretary of State (Colonial Department); Secretary of State (Southern Department)

    self-government of, 38

    and taxation of, 128, 325–26

    and Townshend Acts, 56n, 150, 160n, 203, 265n, 348

    American Colonists

    Bernard Letters, reactions to, 24–25, 35, 38

    Bollan aids, 15–16, 29, 34–36

    British army, resent, 1

    British colonial policy, opposition to, 24

    cabinet, criticized in, 13

    charter rights of, 27

    England, being tried in, prospect of, 14–15, 19, 28, 177, 204, 208, 228, 273n, 279n, 302n, 320

    England, friends in, 29, 38

    and episcopacy controversy, 218

    FB, misrepresented by, 2, 29, 153, 200

    FB’s conspiracy against, 19

    FB’s relationship with, about, 9, 35, 153, 182, 287

    grievances of, 121

    Hillsborough’s attitude to, 10

    king, subjects of, as. See under King, The: subjects of

    loyalty of, 58n, 76n

    mercantilism, dislike of, 22, 30

    Parliament

    criticized in, 11, 17, 168, 170n, 171n

    debates in, knowledge of, 20

    parliamentary authority

    arguments respecting, 15

    opposition to, 2, 31

    parliamentary taxation, grievances concerning, 19, 30, 149

    Pownall, T., defended by, 19, 29–30, 55n, 56n, 261n

    revenue acts, repeal of, arguments for, 121

    rights and liberties of, 31, 34, 132, 302n, 323n

    Townshend Acts, repeal of, campaign for, 14

    treason of, 33

    “tyranny,” fear, 231n, 310n

    American Declaration of Independence, 4, 33, 299, 362

    American Exceptionalism, 170n

    American Philosophical Society, 233

    American Revolution

    ideology of, 37

    origins of, 5, 37

    revolutionary aspects and tendencies, 311n

    Americans. See under American Colonies; American Colonists

    Amherst, Sir Jeffery

    and governorship of Virginia, 103n

    letter to, cited, 352n

    mentioned, 344

    resignation of, 103n

    quoted, 254, 255n

    Andros, Sir Edmund, 207n, 310n

    Anglicanism, 149, 218–19

    Anonymous

    “Extract of a Letter from a Gentleman in London, to his Friend in Boston”

    quoted, 160n

    letters

    as enclosures, 120

    not found, 120

    Anti-Monarchism, 167

    Antonius, Marcus, 201n

    Appeal to the Public Answered (Charles Chauncy), 149, 149n

    Appeal to the Public in Behalf of the Church of England in America (Thomas Bradbury Chandler), 150n

    Appeal to the World (1769)

    cited, 58n

    Apthorp, Charles, 219n

    Apthorp, James

    identified, 219n

    mentioned, 218

    Apthorp, John

    identified, 219n

    mentioned, 218

    Archer, Richard

    on British troops, withdrawal of, 283n

    on Quartering Act, trangressions of, 101n

    Aristocracy, 65n, 102n, 214n, 232n

    Arts and Humanities Research Council (UK), xv

    Ashley, John, 278n

    Assembly (the Council and the House of Representatives)

    abeyance in, 309, 310n

    answers to FB’s messages and speeches

    Board of Trade, considered by, 299

    as enclosures, 299

    British troops, quartering of, and

    accounts presented, 270

    accounts refused, 84n

    expense of, considers, 80, 83, 270

    requistion for, 271, 332

    business of, suspended in protest, 289, 290n

    Cambridge, meeting in, 32

    and Circular Letter, instruction to rescind, 171n

    disposition of, 32

    dissolution of, 28, 174, 175, 296, 300, 308–09, 310n, 341, 343, 349n, 354, 361

    FB lacks support in, 123, 171, 274

    FB’s messages and speeches to

    as enclosures, 278

    and government officials, salaries of, 251

    and governor’s salary grant, 5, 33, 277, 279n

    Harvard College, meets at, 32

    and Hutchinson, as acting governor, 291, 308

    king, petitions to, protocol for transmission, 115

    legislative year, 319n, 352n

    and libels, prosecution of, 177

    loyalty of, 300n, 301n

    mentioned, 115

    moderates in, 172, 272

    political composition of, 274

    proceedings of, printed, 174

    proroguations of, 310

    and secretary of state, FB’s correspondence with, 177

    in session, 32, 252, 260, 262, 283, 290, 299, 302n, 308–09

    sessions

    about, 132

    commencement of, 7, 252, 295

    dates of, 163n

    end of, 205, 241, 246, 249, 252, 260, 263, 277, 283, 299, 310

    FB issues writs for, 251, 253–54, 270

    length of, 262, 308, 341

    not in, 97

    opening of, 253, 258, 274, 297

    previous, 92

    Province Charter, regulated by, 85

    upcoming, 237, 241, 249–50, 253, 260, 272, 348

    Shelburne recommends conciliation to, 179n

    summon, FB instructed not to, 59n, 85, 103, 161, 205

    summon, FB requested to, 321, 335, 361

    summoned

    Boston, to, 252n, 253, 268n, 270, 274

    Cambridge, to, 289

    summoning of, FB considers, 161–62

    suspension of, FB considers, 161

    Virginia resolutions, considers, 276

    Whig party in, 28, 272, 284

    Astronomy, 221n, 233

    Atlantic Ocean, 30, 50n, 149, 194, 287, 293–94, See also Transatlantic Communications; Transatlantic Voyages

    Attorney General of England and Wales, 157n

    Hillsborough, advises, 115

    Hillsborough, letter from, cited, 117n

    mentioned, 17, 136, 138n

    opinions sought, 158n

    Attorney General of Massachusetts. See also Sewall, Jonathan

    and American Board of Customs, 157

    appointment of, 136

    British soldiers, refuses to prosecute, 268n

    Council, membership of, proposed, 186

    Crown salary

    FB advocates, 135

    tea duty, from, 138n, 252

    and Edes and Gill, prosecution of, 177

    Hancock et al., prosecutes, 137

    House of Representatives, criticized by, 300

    as king’s counsel, 135–36

    and Liberty riot, prosecution of rioters in, 134, 138n, 316, 345

    mentioned, 124n, 137, 210, 252n

    officeholders, about, 49n, 50n, 52n, 273n

    as provincial officer, 100n, 117n, 134–36, 166n

    Auchmuty, Robert

    American Board of Customs, letter to, 139–40

    co-as signatory, 140

    Treasury, read by, 140

    American Customs Board, views on, 140

    as FB, adviser to, 8, 164, 188n, 271, 273n

    identified, 49n

    as justice of the peace, 165, 166n

    newspaper libel on, 243–44

    Sewall and Customs commissioners, dispute between, intervention in, 156, 157n

    and Sewall, 156, 244

    as Vice Admiralty Court, judge of, 136, 166n, 225, 244

    Augeas, King

    mentioned, 216, 218n

    Augusta Sophia, Princess, 116, 117n

    Avery, John

    as justice of the peace, 101n

    “B. W.” (anti-Anglican writer), 219n

    authorship of, 219

    FB’s knowledge of, 218

    Bailyn, Bernard, 37, 58n

    Baker, William, 71n

    letter to, cited, 71n

    mentioned, 266

    Baldwin, Henry

    identified, 238n

    mentioned, 237

    and Wilkes, libels of, 238n

    Balston, Nathaniel

    as justice of the peace, 101n

    Barbados

    governors of, 228n, 242n

    governorship of, FB considers, 94, 150, 181, 227, 241, 281

    Barracks

    accounts concerning, 289

    Boston, in

    lack of, 4, 73, 84

    public buildings, 2–3, 69–71, 96, 329, 331, 333–34

    rented buildings, 65, 83, 100, 114n, 121, 123n

    temporary billets, 72, 79

    and troops’ behavior, 63

    at Castle William, 3–4, 56, 63, 69, 79, 83, 96–97, 101n, 123n, 283, 304n, 305, 317, 329, 331, 333, 344, 361

    in Philadelphia, 266, 268n

    Quartering Act, provisions of, concerning, 99–100

    debates over, 3–4, 8, 69, 79, 230n, 267, 329–35, 344–45, 349n, 361

    Barré, Isaac

    as America, friend of, 323n

    American, reconciliation with, advocates, 19

    Appeal to the World, Boston sends, 58n

    career of, 53n

    on FB, 18–19

    House of Commons

    Council, petition from, favors presentation of, 323n

    speeches in, 18, 231n, 323n

    identified, 323n

    mentioned, 323n

    Barrington, Lord

    as American affairs, hard-liner in, 194–96

    on American “traitors,” 78, 170n

    Bernard Letters, publication of

    FB reports on, 245–46, 246

    thinks harmless to FB, 35, 281–82

    Bernard, Amelia

    sends compliments to, 94, 151, 228, 230, 281

    views on, 282

    Boston

    insurrection in, fears, 103n

    on “late Violences” in, 77

    on troop deployment to, 78n

    British government, disappointed with, 230n

    on British troops, deployment of, 78, 118, 195

    colonial government, reform of

    favors, 10, 230n

    FB urges, 92–93, 93

    colonial policy

    on British government, deliberations of, 150–51

    discussed, 304–05

    colonial politics, ignorance of, 282

    correspondence with, about, 43, 78, 95n, 102, 151, 195, 206, 223, 228, 230, 240, 246, 282, 305

    Council, royal appointment of, favors, 6, 194–95

    cousins of, 102, 151, 194, 281

    Crown salaries, discussed, 92–93

    Dalrymple, complaint of, discussed, 221–24

    FB

    as advocate for, 281

    baronetcy for

    FB’s acceptance of, 205

    patent for, arranges, 229–30

    as confidant of, 5, 181

    as patron of, 150–51

    FB as governor

    boldness of, discused, 206

    on conduct of, 240

    leave of absence

    FB plans to take, 205–06

    FB postpones, 93

    FB to remain in post, urges, 102

    recall of

    discussed, 235, 246

    should depart at his convenience, 240

    relocation of

    discussed, 92, 95n, 241, 279n

    Hillsborough, discusses with, 281

    options for discussed, 5, 150–51

    options for, FB considers, 94, 227–28

    salary of, discussed, 92–93

    Gage, FB’s correspondence with, discussed, 78n

    Hillsborough

    friendship with, 13, 92

    as interlocutor with, 102n, 118, 204, 235, 240, 281

    and Hillsborough

    punitive measures, favor, 196, 204

    as reformers, 10

    House of Lords, resolutions of, disappointed by, 151

    House of Representatives, proceedings of, FB reports on, 305

    identified, 49n

    “Junius,” vilified by, 55n

    letters from, 101–03, 150–51, 193–96, 228–31, 240–41, 280–82

    cited, 2–3, 10, 12–14, 27, 68n, 78, 95n, 102n, 154, 183n, 195, 200, 201n, 204n, 206n, 228n, 230n, 231n, 232n, 241n, 242n, 261n, 282n

    enclosures to, 230, 240

    as enclosures, 240

    listed, 363, 365, 367–72

    posted, 306n

    private, 194, 229

    quoted, 9, 28, 35, 42, 54n, 235

    received, 78, 95n, 102, 195, 226, 242n, 281–82, 304

    as replies, 77, 102, 150–51, 206, 230, 240, 242n, 246, 282n

    sends copies, 240

    letters to, 91–95, 204–07, 221–24, 226–28, 245–46, 304–06

    cited, 78n, 95n, 102n, 151n, 183n, 228n

    delayed, 196n

    discussed, 227

    enclosures not found, 305

    listed, 364, 372

    private, 245

    quoted, 5, 78n

    received, 77, 95, 102, 150–51, 240

    as replies, 195, 226, 281, 304

    on Massachusetts magistrates, appointment of, 78

    as member of Parliament, 19, 151, 231n

    speeches reported, 78, 170n

    Mutiny Act and Quartering Act (1769), sends, 230

    Parliament

    on American affairs, “tame acquiesence” in, 229

    American representation in, discussed, 94

    FB’s correspondence, presentation of, views on, 118

    Massachusetts, resolutions respecting

    disappointment with, 194

    FB discusses, 226

    Otis Jr., impeachment of, favors, 194

    Pownall, J., consultations with, 95n

    Quartering Act, amendments to

    discussed, 305

    explains, 229

    favors, 77

    proposes, 78n, 230n, 231n

    royal government, weakness of, FB reports on, 226–27

    St. George’s Fields Massacre

    congratulates troops, 79n

    role in, 78, 195

    Temple

    and, 241n

    libels by, FB reports on, 205

    on, 206, 240

    removal of, considers, 206

    situation of, FB reports on, 206

    on Townshend Revenue Act, repeal of, 151

    treason trials, advocates, 28, 194–95

    Virginia, governorship of

    on Botetourt, appointment of, 102

    Virginia, lieutenant-governorship of, FB reflects on, 92, 205

    Wilkes, censure of

    on, 194

    role in, 78, 195

    Barrington, William Wildman. See under Barrington, Lord

    Batoni, Pompeo, 152

    Bayard, Robert

    Gage, FB’s letters to, delivers, 68

    identified, 69n

    Beacon Hill, Boston, 72, 74, 138, 167

    Beaver, HMS, 65, 82n, 123n

    Beccaria, Cesare Bonesana di

    An Essay on Crime and Punishments (1764), 255n

    quoted, 254, 255n

    Beckford, William

    as America, friend of, 15, 22

    Appeal to the World, does not receive, 58n

    Bernard Letters, transcripts of, obtains, 22, 34–35, 53n, 58n

    Bollan, aids, 15, 22

    Council, petition to House of Commons from, presents, 16, 320

    on FB, 18–19, 35–36

    as “angry man,” 18

    House of Commons, speeches in, 18

    identified, 52n, 322n, 323n

    Massachusetts, proposes inquiry into, 18

    portrait of, 23

    Pownall, T., suspicions concerning, 30

    on treason trials, 18

    as West Indies merchant, 22

    Bedford, Duke of

    supporters of, 11

    Bedfordites, 11

    Belcher, Jonathan

    governor, instructions as, 279n

    Bellew, Henry

    identified, 373n

    letters to, listed, 372

    Beresford, Jane

    FB, as benefactor to, 247n

    FB, as friend to, 231n

    identified, 247n

    mentioned, 230

    Berkeley, Norborne, 373n, See also Botetourt, Lord

    Berkshire County, Mass., 127n

    Bernard Family

    advance of, 205, 240

    children, 5, 180

    England, returning to, plans for, 33, 281–82

    mentioned, 5, 102, 151, 194, 231n, 247n

    BERNARD, FRANCIS

    “FB,” referred to as, 45

    AMERICAN COLONIES

    American bishop, his plans for, 146–50

    on “exorbitant Pretensions” of, 122

    on governors of

    relocation of, 94

    salaries of, 92

    Great Britain

    on relations with, deterioration in, 122, 173–74

    union with, proposes, 94

    on independence of, prospect of, 94, 236

    South Carolina governorship of

    declines, 5, 94, 95n, 151

    on troops in, cantonment of, 267

    Virginia, governorship of

    Botetourt’s appointment, learns of, 92, 102

    Virginia, lieutenant-governorship of

    disappointment at losing, 92, 205

    offer, withdrawal of, 102, 118

    BERNARD LETTERS

    Adams, S., commentaries by, 37–39, 168

    American reactions to, 24–29, 178, 247–49, See also Appeal to the World (1769)

    Barrington, opinions on, 281–82

    Beckford, transcribed for, 22–23, 34

    Bollan

    acquired by, xxiv, 14–16, 20–26, 29–32, 34–35, 38, 245, 247–48, 300, 322, 323n, 329, 347–48

    considered by, 29, 34–35

    Council requests copies from, 26, 30, 35, 56n

    examination of, proposed by, 26, 36

    not read by, 20

    read by, 21, 34

    transmitted to Boston by, 25, 35–36, 175, 245, 248, 300, 322, 329, 347

    Boston Gazette

    first printed in (23 Jan. 1769), 21, 25, 56n, 100, 106, 109, 114, 119, 129, 132, 175, 178n, 182, 197, 247n, 300, 365–67

    printed in, 24, 54n, 175, 177, 200–01

    Boston selectmen mentioned in, 197

    Boston town meeting, condemned by, 58n

    Boston, arrive in, xxiv, 24, 26, 35–36, 175, 247–48, 300, 350n

    Bowdoin

    involvement of, 8, 21, 24, 26, 175, 248

    received by, xxiv, 322, 324n

    commentaries on, 15, 25–26, 35–37, 249, 301n, 348n, 328–52, 352–58, See also Appeal to the World (1769)

    Council

    proceedings of, discussed in, 8, 15, 38, 182

    reviewed by, 328–52

    Crown, officers of, considered by, 248

    as enclosures, 248n, 249n, 322, 348

    first parcel of six letters

    about, 8–9, 12, 16, 20–27, 31, 59, 119, 174–76, 201, 246, 248–49, 322, 347–48

    Council, reviewed by, 328–52

    and historiography, 14, 24–25, 38

    newspapers, printed in, xxiv, 89, 54n, 100, 106, 109, 114, 119, 129, 130n, 132, 174–75, 177, 197, 200–01, 218n, 248, 348n

    pamphlet series. See Copies of Letters from Bernard to Hillsborough; Letters to Hillsborough; Letters to The Ministry

    about, xxiv–xxv, 177

    content of, xxiii–xxv, 39

    Popham, transcribed for, 22–23

    publication of, xxiv, 25–26, 36–37, 182, 249, 300, 361–62

    copy text used, 26

    Council, by arrangement of, 25, 245, 249

    his views on, 241, 245–46, 248–49

    imprints, quality of, xxiv

    reactions to, about

    in Britain, 24, 34–36

    in Massachusetts, 25, 35

    people inspect and read, 248

    second parcel of letters, about, 35, 38, 348n, 350n

    as transcripts, 20, 25, 34, 322, 324n

    Whigs, as evidence for, 8–9, 14, 16, 36–39, 168, 177, 182, 198, 214, 248, 300, 348n, 361–62

    BRITISH GOVERNMENT

    American radicals, censure of, hopes for, 173, 309

    British ministers, defends, 198, 214

    colonial government, his proposals for reform of, considered by, 203

    and colonial policy

    and baronetcy, offer of, 229, 232, 234

    conduct as governor, his, 7, 13, 16, 85, 116, 120, 142, 281

    political mediator, his role as, expectations about, 1–2, 7–8

    recall, his, 154, 203

    Townshend duties, partial repeal of, learns of, 263–64

    on colonial policy, 249–52

    leniency in, criticizes, 304–05

    reflections, his, 122, 249–50

    correpondence considered by, 1, 19, 24, 36, 39, 118, 120, 141–42, 144, 153, 178, 182, 208, 247

    defended by, 38

    and governors, salaries of, 92, 252

    Hillsborough

    conduct approved by, 7, 13, 31, 85, 116, 118, 120, 232, 348

    considered expendable by, 13, 31, 119, 153, 201, 348

    correspondence presented to Parliament by, 15–16, 115, 119, 142, 181

    firmness urged by, 153

    his reports evaluated by, 9, 117–19, 154, 222

    Hutchinson as successor, discusses with, 27, 253

    influences, 174, 198, 255n

    opinions of, 222

    Parliament, debates in, reported by, 153–54

    recalled by, 31, 154, 232, 234, 240

    relocation, discussed with, 181

    views on, 14, 28, 262

    Hillsborough, instructions from

    assembly, not to summon, 85, 103, 161, 205

    assembly, summoning of, 203, 234

    assembly, to dissolve, 175, 300

    Circular Letter, rescinding of, 59n

    “illegal and unconstitutional Acts,” to investigate, 115

    leave of absence, suspending, 93, 102, 125, 223

    Liberty riot, to investigate, 2, 6, 8, 204, 208

    official correspondence, communication to assemblies, concerning, 177

    parliamentary authority, to enforce, 208, 263

    province magistracy, to reform, 6, 114

    recall, 234

    Townshend duties, partial repeal of, 263–65

    treason, to investigate, 8, 28, 204, 207–09, 228

    troops, deployment of, respecting, 72, 83, 329

    sends Hillsborough, proposals for

    colonial government, reform of, 141

    Council, royal appointment of, 8, 113, 181–82, 185–88, 191, 199, 300

    sends Hillsborough, reports on

    American Board of Customs, return of, 103–04

    assembly, proceedings of, 273–79, 295–303, 308–11

    British troops, landing of, 79

    Convention of Towns, 75–77

    Council, opposition of, 86–90

    Council, proceedings of, 79–82, 86–90, 95–101, 103–06, 266–68

    Crown lawyers, ineffectiveness of, 133–38

    departure, his arrangements for, 252, 299

    House of Representatives, proceedings of, 273–79, 295–303, 308–11

    “illegal and unconstitutional Acts,” investigation of, 164–65

    justices of the peace, obstructions by, 97–98

    nonimportation movement, 255–58

    official papers, publication of, 86–90

    political writing, 173–79, 209–14, 216–18, 239

    province magistracy, reform of, 111–14

    sedition, 8, 166–79

    Temple, libels by, 209–14

    treason, investigation of, 271–73

    troops, quartering of, Council’s obstructions to, 79–82, 95–101, 103–06

    troops, quartering of, preparations for, 63–68

    troops, requests for withdrawal of, 266–68

    influence on, 9, 16, 175, 191, 317

    intervention in American affairs, urges, 140–42

    misleads, 13–14, 20, 32, 36, 129, 174, 300, 360

    on Quartering Act, amendments to, 305

    reports considered by, 10, 16, 154

    sedition, allegations of, considered by, 9, 12–13

    supported by, 1

    BRITISH TROOPS

    government, authority of, aids restoration of, 121

    landing of

    does not attend, 222–23

    issues orders respecting, 222

    mentions, 69, 79, 93

    not present for, 5, 65, 71, 222

    on, 64, 79, 222

    plans for, 63–64, 69, 83

    resistance to, warns of, 13

    local economy, stimulate, 121

    on “orderly & decent” conduct of, 121

    Quartering Act

    contravening, accused of, 4, 360–61

    on deficiencies of, 98–99, 267

    provisions of, debates, 3–4, 8, 69, 79, 267, 332–35, 344

    and quartering of

    at Crown’s expense, 4, 64, 83, 98–99, 112, 121

    and expenses of, 72

    Gage, discusses with, 65, 68–70, 82–84

    procedures respecting, follows, 4

    on quartering of

    and Boston selectmen, 65

    at Castle William, 4, 63, 69, 71, 79–80, 83, 96–97, 100, 305

    commissary, failure to appoint, 80–81, 99, 229

    Council

    objections raised by, 63–64, 79–82, 95–101

    proceedings of, 63–64, 69, 80–81, 96, 98, 329–35

    Dalrymple

    discusses with, 63, 69, 80–81, 84

    problems encoutered by, unaware of, 70–71

    distribution of regiments between town and castle, preferences for, 71, 84, 293, 317

    in hired premises, 150

    authorizes, 83, 98–99, 121

    justices of the peace, responsibilities of, 97–99, 267

    length of negotiations, 103

    in Manufactory House

    authorizes, 2, 64–65, 69–70, 83, 96, 329, 333–34

    failure of, 96–97

    proposes, 64

    preparation for, opposition to, 3

    in public buildings, authorizes, 2–3, 71

    in public houses, difficulties with, 97, 267

    on townspeople, relations with, 71, 146, 217

    ponders future, 63

    and withdrawal of

    Council requests removal to Castle William, 317

    Gage proposes, 282

    Gage, discusses with, 282–90, 293–97, 303–04

    Hood and Mackay, consults with, 296–97, 303

    and Mackay, consultations with, 283, 285, 287–88, 292, 296–97, 306

    reduction, consents to, 297

    on withdrawal of

    Council, will not consult, 288, 292, 294

    embarrased by proposal, 285

    Governor and Council, authority of, respecting, 294

    objections to, raises, 32, 285, 288–89, 294

    political agenda respecting, 105, 266–67, 276, 289, 293, 295, 297

    requests for, 266–68

    resumption of, concurs in, 303, 306

    retention of, favors, 32, 293–94, 303–04

    suspension of

    concurs in, 296

    requests, 286

    BRITISH TROOPS, DEPLOYMENT OF

    Boston Massacre (1770), as consequence, 38

    Boston, brings to, 24

    conspiring to bring about, accused of, 4, 9, 13–14, 32, 168, 175, 316, 318, 336–38, 343, 350n

    Hillsborough, instructions from

    adheres to, 83

    considers, 72

    Council, communicates to, 329

    his rationale for, 77, 300

    justification for, his correspondence as, 11, 13, 39, 175, 300

    on purpose and function, 78n

    Crown officers, protection of, 1, 93

    keep inhabitants in “Awe,” 294

    on townspeople, relations with, 121, 146

    CORRESPONDENCE

    American Board of Customs, with, about, 91, 110, 140, 156

    Barrington, with, about, 43, 78, 95n, 102, 151, 195, 206, 223, 228, 230, 240, 246, 282, 305

    Becarria quoted, 254

    Board of Trade

    considered by, 146

    with, about, 42

    with, editorial policy concerning, 42

    and British colonial policy, 9–10, 85, 115, 118, 153, 208

    British government

    considered by, 1, 19, 24, 36, 39, 51, 118, 120, 141–42, 144, 153, 178, 182, 208, 247

    correspondence with, about, 41

    as source of information for, 20

    with departments of, 42

    with, about, 41

    British politics, impact on, 9, 11–12, 16, 20, 133, 144

    Calendar of, 45

    classical allusions, 216

    and clerks, 42–43

    conveyance of, concerns with security, 205, 291

    Dalrymple, with, about, 71

    FB holographs, 41–42

    Gage, with

    about, 69, 84, 221, 233, 265, 287, 289, 304

    Council, proceedings of, sends, 265

    Hillsborough, with

    about, 65, 109, 114, 129, 132, 136, 146, 163, 182, 188, 213, 253, 255, 264, 273, 299

    and Bollan, 348

    conclusion of, 33

    delays in, 268

    features of, 32, 214n

    publication of, 39

    as series, 41

    Boston town meeting, his corrrespondence with, sends copies of, 106

    British government, evaluated by, 9, 117–19, 154

    Convention of Towns, proceedings of, sends, 76

    copied as “fatal Necessity,” 249

    Council, considered by, 103, 328–52

    Council, proceedings of, sends, 100, 268–69, 343

    FB’s correspondence with Dalrymple, sends copies, 224n

    FB’s correspondence with Gage, sends copies, 294

    handbills, sends, 257

    Hillsborough’s correspondence with Gage, FB sends copies, 293

    House of Representatives

    answers to messages and speeches, sends, 278, 299, 311

    proceedings of, sends, 280

    resolves of, sends copies, 278, 298–99

    inconsistencies in, 118–19

    informants’ depositions, sends, 165

    inquiry into proposed, 261n

    justices of the peace of Boston, correspondence with, sends copies, 100

    messages and speeches, sends copies, 278, 295, 299, 310

    newspapers, sends, 81, 89, 93, 106, 174, 200, 205, 209, 217, 239, 243, 257

    private, 146n

    Hood, with, about, 284

    Hutchinson, with, about, 291

    Jackson, with, about, 28, 242, 247, 262–63

    Jamaica Farm, prefers to write at, 222

    king, presented to, 85, 142, 153, 182, 208

    letterbooks, 41–42

    Liberty riot, about, 16, 19n, 350n

    List of Correspondence, 362–72

    mentioned, 45

    Martial quoted, 212

    not found, 56n, 71n, 82n, 91n, 95n, 106, 117, 129, 141, 160, 182, 193n, 219n, 221, 224n, 228n, 244, 260n, 284n, 291n

    as official source of information, 86, 117, 129, 247

    Parliament

    considered by, 16–20, 29, 34–35, 323n, 362n

    presented to, xxiv, 2, 9, 11–13, 15–16, 25, 39, 51n, 52n, 59n, 65, 76, 81, 85, 89, 106, 115, 117, 129, 132, 142–43, 153, 175, 180, 201, 245, 281, 320

    on adverse consequences of, 180

    FB reflects on, 181

    learns of, 182

    listed, 363–64, 366

    “peevish and litigious” exaggerations in, 18

    Pownall, J., with

    about, 6, 120, 144, 201n, 203, 280n, 306n

    House of Representatives, resolves of, sends, 296

    newspapers, sends, 122, 160, 218n, 244

    paper on American Board of Customs, sends, 160

    Pownall, T., with, about, 260

    private or secret letters, 6–7, 27, 118, 121, 141, 155, 158, 179, 188, 194, 198–99, 200, 209, 212, 229, 231–32, 241, 243, 245, 248, 250, 254, 269, 284

    publication of

    anxieties concerning, 181

    in newspapers, 21

    pamphlet, as. See Copies of Letters from Bernard to Hillsborough; Letters to Hillsborough; Letters to The Ministry

    scripture, quotes, 122

    Seabury, with, about, 218

    secretary of state, with, about, xxiv, 2, 8, 19, 41–42, 110, 177, 241, 247, 361

    Shelburne, with

    about, 41

    as series, 41n, 42

    Stephens, with, about, 225

    Venner, with, about, 192–93

    CROWD ACTION

    accounts of

    crowds, his depictions of, 97, 145, 167

    Manufactory House, occupation of, 96–97

    against American Board of Customs, reflects on, 139

    on Boston “mobs,” 97, 139, 145, 164, 256

    Liberty riot, on

    rioters, pursuit of, 134

    on Whigs’ participation in, 112, 164

    GOVERNMENT

    Adams, J., offers position to, 137

    American Board of Customs

    Boston, and return to, 103–04

    on commissioners’ families, sufferings of, 105

    on conspiracy against, 105, 121, 139, 160, 285

    Council, membership of, proposes, 186

    on criticism of, 105

    on Hancock, their pursuit of, 136

    Sewall, Board’s dispute with, intervenes in, 109–10, 154–58

    on Temple’s disputes with, 140, 160, 193

    “Rupture” in, 200, 206, 209

    and assembly

    adjourns, prorogues, and summons, 251, 253–54, 270, 274, 289, 310

    Boston

    convenes at, 253, 270, 274

    convening away from, considers, 162, 203, 251

    Cambridge

    convened at, 289

    removal to, 32

    dissolution of, 175, 296, 300, 308–09, 341, 343, 354, 361

    official correspondence, communication of, 177

    proceedings of, discusses, 258–59

    relationship with, 123, 171

    summoning of

    instructed not to, 85, 103, 161, 205

    requested to, 321, 335, 361

    considers, 161–62

    on assembly

    business of, suspension of, 289

    and governor’s salary, 5, 277

    quartering troops, accounts for, unlikely to settle, 80, 83

    support in, lacking, 272, 274

    and Virginia resolves, 276

    Whig party in, 272, 284

    on attorney general of Massachusetts

    Council membership, proposes, 186

    as king’s counsel, 134–37, 177, 224

    on authority of, restoration of, 93, 121–22, 135, 181, 185, 237

    Circular Letter

    on adoption of, 39

    first motion for, defeat of, 39

    and rescinding of, 39, 175, 342

    on constitution, 28, 87

    defects in, 112, 122, 181, 243, See also Government, Colonial: reform of

    “long Intermission of,” considers, 309

    and Council

    agent of, 14, 248, 260

    and American Board of Customs, return of, 103–04

    Bowdoin’s influence in, 3, 21, 87–89, 128–30, 142, 175, 251, 327, 341

    Gage attends meeting, 96

    Hillsborough, his correspondence with, considered, 8, 101n, 103, 107, 128–29, 162, 163n, 258, 299, 317, 329, 328–58

    his misrepresentations refuted, 26, 316, 318, 352–58

    king, petition to, 129, 341–42

    as “major part” of, opposition group, 4–5, 15, 88–89, 130–31, 355

    and military assistance, request for, 7, 85, 125, 285

    minutes of, personal copies of, 331

    and Parliament, petitions to, 326, 341–42, 355, 360

    proceedings of, 79–82, 86–90, 95–101, 103–06, 266–68

    (Jun.–Aug. 1768), 134, 336–38, 341, 343

    (Sept.–Oct. 1768), 64, 79–80, 86–87, 91, 96, 98, 103, 328–52

    (Nov.–Dec. 1768), 107–08, 111, 145, 339

    and publication of, 15, 86–90, 175, 177, 216, 330

    on Council

    address from (14 May 1769), 266–67

    baronetcy, failure to proffer congratulations on, 259

    conduct of, 185

    councilors, private consultations with, 128

    Dalrymple, meetings with, 63–64, 68–69, 79–80

    debates in, 83, 108

    “Delinquency” in, 269

    former councilors, prepares lists for restoration of, 187–92

    friends of government, exclusion and restoration of, 186, 274–75, 280, 284–85

    Gage, address to, 104–05, 337

    “good humour” of, 108

    government officials, proposes restoration of, 144, 186

    king, petition to, 128–29

    and misrepresentation of, 324–28, 341–42

    opposition from, 5, 88, 153, 161, 188, 206, 246, 249, 251, 258–59, 267, 268–70, 292

    Parliament, petitions to, preparation of, 130–33

    politics of, 132

    politics of, changes in, 185, 269

    popular influence in, 93, 105, 227, 340

    “Principles” of, bemused by, 269

    province secretary, undermining of, 88, 278

    radicalism in, 122, 185

    reform of, proposals for, 268–70

    royal appointment of, 6, 182, 203, 300, 339, 341

    and constitutional reform, 93, 181, 270

    expects, 185

    Hutchinson, disagrees with, 27

    necessity of, 109, 226–27

    as political tool, 8, 113, 122, 188

    prospective nominees, considers and lists, 8, 185–92

    secrecy in, 199

    support in, lack of, 87, 109, 164, 254

    and troops, quartering of, 3, 13, 15, 63–71, 79–82, 84, 95–101, 103–09, 142, 229, 288, 329–35

    troops, request for withdrawal, 266–67

    troops, withdrawal of, and requests for, 83, 104–05, 265–67, 286–88, 292, 294

    vetoes elected councilors

    as tactic, 32, 269, 275, 280

    votes and divisions in, 80, 91, 104, 132

    and Whig party, 171, 185–86, 258, 267, 269, 274–75, 277, 280, 284–85, 305

    on Crown officers

    unpopularity of, 93, 167

    views of, reports, 159, 285, 289, 292

    on Crown salaries, efficacy of, 93

    Crown, on lawyers acting for, 6, 115, 133–38, 224, 252

    freedom of the press, favors restrictions on, 177

    and General Court

    adjourns, prorogues, and summons, 277, 308

    Boston, removal of, 203, 234, 235n, 267, 268n, 290n

    dissolution of, 341, 354, 361

    “ill humour” in, 272

    salary grants, 252, 277, 291

    summoning of, instructions respecting, 234

    on government officers, salaries of, 93, 298

    House of Representatives

    chastises and defies, 33

    messages and speeches to, 295, 298

    House of Representatives, and

    and Adams, S., 26, 28, 32, 296, 298–99, 301n, 303, 361

    answers to his messages and speeches

    Council, considered by, 298

    discusses, 274–75, 277, 295, 298, 308, 342

    printed, 277

    Circular Letter, rescinding of, 39, 175, 342

    Hutchinson, salary of, as acting governor, 303n

    king, petition to, for his removal, 10, 32, 174, 358–62

    Privy Council, dismissed by, 38

    lack of support in, 123, 171

    proceedings of

    (31 May–15 Jul. 1769), 32–33, 234, 251, 267, 274–77, 278, 289, 295–303, 305, 308–11, 361

    (7 Jul. 1769), 296–98

    votes and divisions, 39, 277

    on House of Representatives

    censure of, 309

    confrontation with, 259

    elections to (1769), 274, 280

    moderation of, 75, 171

    parliamentary authority, challenges to, 297–98, 305, 308

    parliamentary taxation, repudiation of, 298

    public finances, jeopardizes, 309

    resolves of (7 Jul. 1769), publication of, 303, 305

    troops, refusal to settle expenses of, 80, 83, 270–71, 298, 332

    troops, withdrawal of

    debates, 275–76

    requests for, 295–97, 300

    Whig party in, 249, 274, 276–77, 280, 303, 308–09

    on Hutchinson

    as acting governor, 291, 308

    preparations for, 27, 234, 276, 290–91, 309

    royal command for, 234, 310

    on judges’ commissions, 113

    on juries, unreliability of, 134

    on justices of the peace

    censure of, 107–08

    commission, reform of, 6, 111–14

    neglect of duty, 112, 134

    new appointments, 111–14, 144–46, 165

    responsibilities of, 98

    as Sons of Liberty, 112, 145

    in Whig party, 145

    on law

    defiance of, 112, 136, 173

    disallowance of, 112

    enforcement of, 70, 93, 97, 112, 267

    reform of, 136–37, 165

    and treason, 272

    and libel, prosecutions for, 177, 251

    on Oliver, A., mistreatment by Council, 88

    on opposition to, 225, 274, 276

    press, favors restrictions on, 25

    on Province Charter (1691)

    forfeiture of, 227

    provisions of, 85, 87, 186, 277

    revision of, 93, 122

    “sacred,” 93

    public finances, averts crisis in, 309

    on “state” of, 125, 226

    on support for

    British intervention, dependent on, 159, 188, 236, 243, 284–85

    decline in, 250, 269, 274, 280

    dependent on reform of colonial government,186, 188

    undermined by

    Bernard Letters, 248

    Council, 109

    intimidation, 146

    populism, 131

    on weakness of, 108

    GOVERNOR OF MASSACHUSETTS

    See also Governor and Council

    abuse of power, accused of

    by Council, 332, 353

    by House of Representatives, 300, 359–61

    advisers, See also BERNARD, FRANCIS: GOVERNOR OF MASSACHUSETTS: cabinet council, advised by

    mentioned 8, 140–41, 273n, 289,

    consults with, 141, 210, 213

    conference, holds, 6, 141

    American Board of Customs

    Boston

    retreat from, advises on, 140, 138–40

    return to, advises on, 82, 91, 104–05, 335, 354

    collusion with alleged, 19, 26, 318

    “Concerted plan” to acquire troops, 4, 168, 316, 318, 337–38, 343

    safety of, urges justices of the peace to ensure, 107

    supports, 140

    as “angry man,” 17–18, 36

    assembly

    summoning of, reviews plans for, 161–62, 267–68

    Barrington, aided by, 102, 118, 150–51, 181, 204–05, 235, 240–41, 281

    Bollan as enemy, 14–16, 35–36

    Boston

    absent from, 68, 222–23, 265–66

    attends meetings in, 68, 70, 109, 128, 222–23, 283

    leaves, 225

    on Boston

    enemies in, 34, 175, 177, 232

    friends in, 209

    on Boston faction

    and crowd action, 96

    investigates treasonable activities of, 271–72

    leaders and printers of, urges arrest of, 173

    at Manufactory House, 96–97

    on Boston Gazette, printers of,

    prosecution of, recommends, 8, 25, 173–74, 176–77, 209

    on Boston selectmen

    disparages, 215–16

    impeachment of, 194

    negotiations with, 65

    sedition of, 18, 165, 194, 197–98, 272

    Whig party, influenced by, 215, 267

    on Boston town meeting

    (12 Sept. 1768), proceedings of, 9, 18, 85, 104, 117, 272

    and Convention of Towns, 122, 164

    and Liberty riot, 119

    Bowdoin, accusations of, refutes, 128–29

    cabinet council, advised by, 138–41, 164, 188, 271

    at Castle William, 222, 331

    as “Civil Magistrate,” 197

    conduct as

    British government, approved by, 13, 16, 85, 116, 119–20, 142–43, 229, 231–32, 240, 281

    defends, 162

    Hillsborough, approved by, 9, 31, 85, 116, 118, 232, 348

    justifies, 125

    king, approved by, 7, 85, 116, 154, 232, 240

    Parliament, debated in, 2, 9, 16–19

    Pownall, J., approved by, 119

    royal observations on, 7, 116

    Council

    and tactical veto, 251

    loses confidence of, 347

    Crown, authority of, defends, 93, 122, 135, 187, 209–10, 229, 293–94

    Dalrymple, complaint by, considers, 222–24

    departure, 34–35

    aftermath of, 2, 225, 362

    arrangements for, 252, 258, 262, 283–84, 299, 310

    Hillsborough, discusses with, 252, 259, 299

    preparations for, 27–28, 35, 259, 283, 299, 304

    Gage, criticized by, 287

    and Hancock, pursuit of, 5–7, 137

    Hutchinson

    as adviser and confidant, 103, 109, 156, 213, 303

    Council membership, 186, 189

    differences of opinion, 27, 291

    misunderstandings with, 291

    relationship with, about, 27

    as successor, 33, 232, 234–35, 290–91

    on “illegal and unconstitutional Acts,” investigation of

    cessation of, 208, 228

    evidence, problems in acquiring, 164, 226

    lack of progress, 164–65

    impeachment and removal, petition for, dismissed, 38

    income as, 199

    on informers, 156

    Whig party, used against, 134, 164, 166–73, 177

    use of, 8, 136, 334

    instructions as

    assembly

    dissolution of, 175, 300

    not to summon, 85, 103, 161, 205

    summoning of, 203, 234

    Circular Letter, rescinding of, 59n

    General Court

    removal of, respecting, 163n, 203, 234

    summoning of, 234

    “illegal and unconstitutional Acts,” to investigate, 8, 115, 204, 208

    leave of absence, suspending, 93, 102, 125, 223

    Liberty riot, to investigate, 2, 6, 8, 204, 208

    official correspondence, communication to assemblies, concerning, 177

    parliamentary authority, concerning, 153

    province magistracy, reform of, 6, 114

    recall, 234

    receipt of, acknowledges, 161, 164, 253

    requests, 87

    salary, concerning, 276, 279n

    Townshend duties, partial repeal of, 263–65

    treason, to investigate, 8, 28, 204, 207–09, 228

    Parliament, proposed by, 12

    troops, deployment of, 72, 83, 329

    justice of the peace

    obstructions by, 98

    commission, reform of, 112

    as king’s representative, 20, 64, 125, 199, 209, 275, 299, 346, 362

    doctrine challenged, 277, 354

    law officers, reviews effectiveness of, 136–37

    leave of absence

    advised to postpone, 102, 120, 150

    plans to take, 199, 205–06, 237

    postpones, 93, 125, 223

    suspends, 125–26

    libel, accused of, 58n

    on Liberty riot, 119

    misconduct, accused of, 336

    by Council, 4, 316–17, 318, 337–38, 343, 351n

    by House of Representatives, 300, 358–62

    troops, in acquiring, 13–14, 32

    “unmanly dissimulation,” 337

    misrepresentation, accused of, 20, 36, 129, 174, 214–15, 300

    by Adams, S. and Boston town meeting, 37, 58n

    by Boston selectmen, 21, 196–98, 215

    by Boston town meeting, 58n

    by Bowdoin, 25–26, 128–30, 324–28

    by Council, 129, 316–17, 328–52, 354, 360

    by DeBerdt, 29

    evidence respecting, 2

    by House of Representatives, 153, 300, 360, 358–62

    by Whig party, 13, 175, 178

    neglect of duty, refutes allegations of, 222–23

    negligence, apologizes for, 71

    on parliamentary authority, duty to enforce, 236, 305

    patronage, exercises, 136, 155, 224

    as politician, British expectations of, 2, 8

    popular resentment of, 26, 34, 246, 248, 347

    on province magistracy, reform of, 111–14

    and Quartering Act

    contravention of, 101n

    on enforcement of, 229, 305

    on provisions of, 99

    recall

    approved, 154, 203, 234–35, 240

    desires, 126, 200, 205, 241, 246, 249

    not a “Disgrace,” 262

    orders for received, 258

    royal command for, 234, 258, 262

    urged by his critics, 19

    relocation of

    options offered for, 151

    options, considers, 94, 125, 181, 227–28, 241, 246, 281

    reconsiders, 92

    removal of sought, 32, 358–62

    replaced, 362

    resignation, 232

    return as, not expected, 33

    salary bill delayed, 276, 296

    on salary of, 93

    servants of, 291

    Sewall

    criticized by, 244

    disappointed by, 6, 135, 166n, 273n

    loyalty of, doubts, 6–7, 135, 137, 225, 273n

    Venner misleads, 156

    Sewall, relationship with

    as advocate general, 154–56

    as attorney general, 100n, 110, 135–36, 141

    cabinet council, excludes him from, 225, 273n

    as legal advisor, 6, 224–25

    as political writer, 7, 244

    Vice Admiralty, as judge of, 224

    speeches and messages to assembly

    as enclosures, 295, 299

    standing legal counsel, proposes, 136

    and treason, investigation of

    apprehensiveness, 144, 228

    evidence collected, 153, 168, 271–72

    evidence, problems in acquiring, 2, 208–09, 226, 228

    opposition to his involvement in, 17

    trial venue, 28, 177

    on treason, investigation of, 271–73, 273n

    evidence acquired inconclusive, 28, 173, 194, 251, 260, 272

    evidence of, 237

    evidence, lacks, 173, 226, 251, 259–60, 272

    unpopularity of, 35, 182

    on Venner, 156

    GREAT BRITAIN

    on British politics, 242

    on Crown

    provincial commissions, power to supersede, recommends, 113

    his critics in, 17–19, 35–36, 51, 177, 281, 362

    king’s speech (8 Nov. 1768)

    expectations arising from, 7, 158–59

    receives, 117, 158, 188

    and Parliament

    on American colonists, “indulgence” of, 130

    on concessions by, 122, 130

    on correspondence being presented to, 181

    correspondence considered by, 16, 20, 29, 34–35

    on disrespect to, 262

    intervention of

    urges, 269

    welcomes, 93, 122, 237, 297

    proceedings of

    awaits news of, 242

    discusses, 259–60

    views on, 14

    resolutions of

    disappointment with, 160, 226, 236–37, 260

    expectations concerning, 126, 158–59

    sedition, allegations of, considered by, 16–19

    on Suffragan Bishops Act (1534), 147

    on Wilkes, 226, 242–43

    IMPERIAL CRISIS

    on American rights, 121, 131, 135, 308

    Americans, on grievances of

    as “Demands,” 121

    British Empire, “Dissolution” of, fears, 236

    civil list, proposes, 92, 250

    colonial government, reform of, and

    cabinet, his ideas discussed in, 10, 154, 204

    on colonial government, reform of

    civil lists, 93, 226

    colonial barons, 187

    disqualification from office, 142

    “future Connexion,” 141

    necessity of, 141, 226

    opportunity for, 159, 188, 243

    and parliamentary supremacy, 122

    proposals for, 13, 38, 140–42

    cabinet, discussed in, 154

    royal commissions, 112, 270

    royal Council, 8, 25, 27, 93, 109, 113, 120, 122, 181–82, 185–88, 191, 195, 199–200, 203, 226–27, 269–70, 339, 341

    royal upper house, 186–87

    and sovereignty, 187

    support for, 10

    urgency of, 92–93

    colonists, on prospective trials of

    England as venue, favors, 14, 28, 177

    on compromise, prospect of

    American Colonies require to make concessions, 122

    on Crown salaries, 92, 125

    non-introduction of, 93, 135, 227, 250

    as political tool, 93, 135, 226

    proposals for, 136, 144

    Parliament, American Representation in, advocates, 94, 236

    on parliamentary authority

    arguments undermining, 131, 204

    defenders of, 211, 243, 274, 285

    legislative supremacy denied, 297–98, 305

    opposition to, 274

    vindication of, 93

    parliamentary intervention, urges, 122, 237, 297

    on parliamentary taxation

    all taxes, and repeal of, 121

    compromise unlikely, 121

    exemptions claimed, 128, 297–98

    “external” and “internal” taxes, 298

    grievances concerning, 121

    on reconciliation, prospect of, 121

    on royal authority

    challenges to, 87, 112–13, 145, 187, 227, 274

    extension of, 14, 136, 187, 195, 339, 341

    weakness of, 226–27

    on sovereignty, 32, 186–87, 237, 284

    LIBERTY RIOT

    accounts of

    Council, reviewed by, 134, 315–16, 338, 350n

    Parliament, read in, 16

    on aftermath of, 19

    inciting, accused of, 316

    on investigation into, abandonment of, 134

    OPINIONS

    abduction and assassination, fears, 206

    on Adams, S., writings of, 215

    American Colonies, “exorbitant Pretensions” of, 122

    on Auchmuty, 164

    on Boston faction

    aims of, 305

    “desperate” leaders, 164

    “Impudence Folly & Invidiousness,” 215

    “Madness” of leaders, 159

    opportunities to “crush,” 141

    on Boston Gazette

    influence of, 243

    libels in, 210–13

    printers of, 8, 173, 209, 238n, 248

    radicalism of, 349n

    and Temple, 209–13, 244

    on Bowdoin

    Council

    as leader in, 3, 36, 87, 89, 128, 175, 251, 280

    papers of, drafts, 133, 246, 277

    as enemy, 142, 251

    on Brattle, 280

    on civil disorder, 122, 187, 236, 267, 294

    on civil order, 121

    on common talk, 2, 69, 121, 212, 247, 256, 262, 309

    “Country People” discomfited by radicalism, 199

    on Danforth, regrets of, 131

    on freedom of speech, 180

    government, “contempt” for, 84

    Grenville, “Respect” for, 212

    on Hawley and Otis, 275

    humor, 326

    on Hutchinson, 27

    on independence of, prospect of, 94

    insurrection “intended,” 198

    on insurrection plots, 164, 198, 200, 205, 251, 272

    on king, loyalty to, 93, 145

    on loyalty, 284

    on newspaper libels, 9, 87, 129, 176, 199–200, 205, 211–13, 239, 243–44, 285, 309–10

    on Otis Jr.

    “perfectly tame,” 75

    on parliamentary taxation

    revenue “drawn” from colonies, 128, 326, 341

    revenue raised, 326

    on Paxton, 155

    people, the

    on “ill temper” of, 92, 115

    lower orders of, 289, 292

    “respectable” sort, 185

    poor, as “scum,” 97

    on popular power, 256

    on Pownall, T., 200

    on rebellion, prospect of, 18

    “Republic,” Massachusetts as, 93, 227

    revolt, fears, 13

    on revolt, rumors of, 64, 360

    on sedition

    allegations of, 164, 198, 226

    evidence concerning, 226

    his allegations of, 2, 18, 21, 69, 75, 104, 164–66, 173–74, 176, 182, 194, 198, 216, 272

    “seditious Spirit,” 162

    on Sewall

    American Board of Customs,

    and his dispute with, 154–58

    complaints by, unaware of, 154

    on Sons of Liberty, boldness of, 262

    on Temple

    American Board of Customs, estrangement from, 200, 206

    animosity of, 159, 285

    as libel, author of, 9, 199–200, 205, 209–13, 219, 243–44

    removal from office, recommends, 206

    and rumors of FB’s removal, 285

    Whig party, association with, 9, 200, 206, 211, 244

    on Townshend

    civil list, plan for, 92, 250

    “striking at the Root of the American Disorders,” 250

    PERSONAL AFFAIRS

    baronetcy

    awarded, 146n

    accepts, 180, 205, 230, 232, 252–55

    king approves, 28

    patent for

    cost of, anxieties concerning, 205

    paid, 28, 118, 180

    preparation of, 230, 240

    offer of, Barrington conveys, 229, 234

    business agents, 230

    children, about, 5

    country house and estate (Jamaica Farm), 65, 68, 128, 222, 266

    happiness of, 203

    health of, 5, 93–94, 125, 181, 222

    on land grants, 126

    on marital relations and family life, 5, 94

    New Jersey, fondness for, 94

    portrait of, iv

    POLITICS

    on Adams and Otis, 32, 75, 280

    and Adams, S., 8, 28, 36, 218n

    and “B. W.” affair, 218

    on baronetcy, as political tool, 250

    on Boston representatives

    influence of, 277

    and “Candidus,” authorship of, 124n, 244

    on Convention of Towns

    boldly confronts, 75, 199, 205

    deputies’ distrust of, 75

    dispersal of, orders, 75, 76n, 199, 201n

    as illegal combination, 75, 112, 194, 197

    proceedings of, 75, 85, 123, 166

    “moderation” of, 75

    “Resentment,” will provoke, 122

    sedition of, 75, 164–66, 198, 200, 205, 272

    as “shadow,” 120

    on Flucker, 210

    friends of government

    appeals to, 89

    on Council, exclusion from, 131, 285

    Council, restoration to, proposes, 8, 186, 188

    criticized by, 24, 26, 248

    on decline of, 274

    in House of Representatives, 250, 274, 280

    on low morale of, 146, 236, 269, 284–85

    and magistracy, reform of, 114, 145

    on, 285, 293

    views of, reports, 122, 144–45, 158–59, 236, 243, 274, 285

    on intimidation, tactics of, 97, 146, 210, 284, 311

    on nonimportation movement, 256–57, 289, 292

    on Otis family, rivalry with Hutchinson, 206

    Otis Jr., discusses forgery with, 199

    on Otis Jr.

    and friends of government, 285

    Hawley, disagreement with, 275

    on patronage

    as political tool, 113–14, 135–36, 187, 224, 312

    “Punishments & Rewards” efficacy of, 93

    on political campaigning, 210, 274

    on political writing

    anti-British, 239

    anti-government, 173–79, 210–11, 216–18, 237, 239, 242–45

    authors of, 210, 209–14, 243

    malevolence of, 239

    pro-government, 243

    on popular power in, 227

    on “rescinders,” 274

    on Sons of Liberty, 96, 112–13, 134, 181, 199, 237, 249, 256, 260, 262, 269, 292, See also BERNARD, FRANCIS: POLITICS: Whig party, on

    reported, 18

    Temple, libels by, 209–14

    and Whig party

    in House of Representatives, 188, 249, 272, 274, 276–77, 280, 303, 308–09

    investigation of, 164, 173, 272

    relationship with, 6, 8, 30, 123

    on Whig party

    ascendancy of, 32, 226, 274, 276, 280, 284, 305

    and Boston Gazette, management of, 173, 213

    Council, influence in, 3, 185–86, 251, 258, 267, 269, 277, 280

    defiant attitudes of, 277

    disqualification from office, recommends, 226

    divisions among, 164

    divisions in, 307

    in House of Representatives, 305

    internal disputes, 275

    and lawyers, 225

    leaders of, 159, 164

    leadership of, 159, 164, 272, 277, 280, 284

    members of, approaches, 137

    political campaigning, 274–75, 280, 284–85, 309

    punishment of leaders, recommends, 226

    social basis, 105

    SOCIETY

    on Carver’s Travels, 220n

    and Winthrop’s abortive expedition, 219–21, 232–33

    STAMP ACT CRISIS

    on British response to, 42

    TOWNSHEND DUTIES

    on American revenue act

    Crown civil list, praises provision for, 92, 250

    repeal of, 14

    arguments for, 121–22

    civil list, favors continuation of, 92–93, 227, 250

    government officials, will depress, 93

    as political error, 93

    on American revenue acts, opposition to, 121, 297, 305

    Navigation Acts, repeal of, arguments for, 297, 305

    opposition to, “fashionable,” 250

    on trade laws, enforcement of, 93, 136, 206

    WRITINGS

    on colonial government, reform of, (not found), 141

    king, petition to, mentioned, 92, 95n

    Letters to the Ministry (1st ed.)

    Dorr’s copy, 37

    lists of councilors, 188–92

    about, 8

    as enclosures, 188, 190–91

    “Plan for an American Bishop,” 146–50

    cited, 149n

    Select Letters (1774)

    cited, 361, 362n

    publishing history, xxv

    “supplement” on the American Board of Customs, 160

    “The Principles of Law and Polity” (1764), cited, xxv

    Bernard Letters. See under BERNARD, FRANCIS: BERNARD LETTERS

    Bernard, Amelia (née Offley)

    Barrington sends compliments to, 281

    Barrington, sends compliments to, 94, 228, 260

    England, returning to, delays, 282

    as FB’s “greatest Comfort,” 94

    health of, 94

    marriage, state of, 94

    as wife and mother, 5

    Bernard, John (son)

    as justice of the peace, 166n

    Bernard, Thomas (son)

    clerk, as father’s, 5, 43, 95n, 176, 205, 206n, 228n

    graduation, 205, 206n

    papers in handwriting of, 65, 85, 91, 95, 117, 122, 127, 143, 149, 153, 160, 165, 172, 191, 200, 206, 208, 213, 218, 221, 223, 225, 228, 237, 242, 244, 246, 249, 251, 255, 259, 265, 270, 280, 284, 286, 289, 291, 304–05

    Berwick, Maine, 106n

    Bible, The, 56n, 124n

    quoted, 122, 170n

    Bill of Rights (1689), 303n

    Bishops, 146–50

    Blackbourne, Leverett

    Barrington, advises, 230

    Beresford, advises, 230

    and FB’s leave of absence, 241

    identified, 231n

    Bliss, Jonathan, 278n

    Board of Trade

    clerks of, 41

    FB, correspondence with, about, 42

    Hillsborough, letters to FB from, considers, 136, 146, 162, 165, 174, 188, 253, 268, 273, 278, 293, 299, 310

    in-letters, filing system, 42

    secretary of state, letters from, 42

    secretary to, mentioned, 127n, See also Pownall, John

    Bollan, William

    American Board of Customs, memorials of

    acquires copies of, 56n

    seeks copies of, 31

    American policy of, as critic of, 15

    Americans, as friend to, 16, 20, 29, 35, 38

    anonymity sacrificed, 25

    Appeal to the World

    and, 37

    Boston sends, 58n

    Beckford, requests assistance of, 34

    Bernard Letters

    on acquisition of, 22, 34–35, 58n, 59n

    acquisition of, role in, 14–16, 20–22, 25–26, 29–32, 51n, 322

    Boston selectmen, should be shown to, 57n

    Boston, transmits to, xxiv, 25, 35–36, 175, 245, 246n, 248, 249n, 300, 322, 329, 347, 348n, 350n

    contents of, considers, 29, 34–35

    Council requests copies, 35, 56n

    does not read them, 20, 57

    examination of, proposes, 26, 36

    publication of

    advises against, 36

    unaware of, 21

    reads, 21, 34

    transcripts of, supplied with, 22, 53n, 58n

    British government, American policy of, as critic of, 20

    career of, 51n

    Council

    letters from, cited, 130n, 133n

    petitions to Parliament from

    presentation of, arranges, 15–16, 129, 133, 323n

    sent, 322n, 326

    views on, 15

    as Council agent, xxiv

    appointment, 51n, 358n

    British politics, advises on, 29, 36

    “diligence” of, 14, 26

    instructions, 30, 133

    invitation to act, 8, 15, 51n, 129

    mentioned, 53n

    salary grant, refused, 52n

    Danforth

    Bernard Letters, sends, xxiv, 25, 36, 246n, 248, 249n, 322, 347

    letters from

    cited, 130n, 133n

    received, 54n, 320

    letters to, 319–24

    about, 20

    cited, 15–16, 37, 52n, 53n, 54n, 56n, 57n, 59n, 130, 154n, 178n, 246n, 248n, 249n, 322n, 347, 352n

    published, 37

    quoted, 55n, 58n

    received, 322

    as replies, 56n, 320

    DeBerdt, relationship with, 29

    FB as governor

    conduct of, parliamentary inquiry into, favors, 36

    grievances against, 14–15

    on mispresentations by, 16

    views on, 35

    FB’s correspondence

    on influence of, 16

    unfamiliar with, 20

    financial problems of, 52n

    Hillsborough

    Bernard Letters, unaware of his acquisition of, 348

    censured by, 37

    Council, letters from

    advises against publication, 35

    delivers, 30

    transmits, 347, 357

    as critic of, 36

    FB, his correspondence with, requests copies of, 31, 348

    influence of waning, thinks, 31, 348

    meeting with, 31, 34, 56n, 347

    House of Commons, petition to

    division on, 321, 324n

    as enclosure, 322

    mentioned, 260

    presents, 16

    printed, 261n

    Parliament

    friends in, 20–21, 30–31

    on proceedings of, 320–22

    Pownall, T.

    disappointment with, 29, 55n

    FB, shares his dislike of, 29

    rivalry with, 29

    suspicions about, 30

    as province agent, 51n, 52n

    candidate for, 52n, 260

    as Shirley, supporter of, 29

    and Townshend duties, motion to repeal, 29–30, 55n

    treason trials

    legal basis of, challenges, 323n

    prospect of, condemns, 15–16, 144

    Whigs enlist support of, 14–15, 21, 38

    writings of, 51n

    Bonetta, HMS, 65, 82n

    Boston

    Albany, road to, 126

    American Board of Customs

    endangered in, 139

    retreats from, 104, 139, 350n

    return of to, 81, 103, 105, 106n, 110, 139–40, 318, 335, 354

    returning to, 91, 105, 107

    returns to, 140, 193

    safety of in, 91, 139, 216n

    Anglicans of, 219n

    assembly, convening of

    at, 252n, 253, 265, 267, 268n, 270, 274

    away from, 162, 203, 234, 251, 289, 290n

    barracks, lacking, 4, 73

    batteries of, 34

    Bernard Letters

    published in, xxiv, xxv, 54n, 57n, 182, 246, 362

    sent to, xxiv, 57n, 175

    boundaries of, 4, 63, 71, 100, 330–31, 344

    British critics of, 170n

    British government, views of, 36, 38, 49n, 153–54, 160, 174, 195, 343

    and British politics, 9

    British troops

    arrival of, anticipated, 78n, 329

    attitudes to, 2, 217

    civilians, relations with, 146, 217

    deployment of, 3–4, 10–11, 32, 84, 175, 293–94, 303, 317, 329

    protests against, 71

    landing of, 1, 63–64, 66, 68n, 69, 79, 83, 93, 120, 171n, 222–23, 344

    engraving of, 66

    ordered to, 9, 39, 59n, 72, 82n, 83, 329

    plans to bring, 4, 9, 13–14, 24, 32, 76n, 77, 78n, 300, 318, 350n

    quartered in, 4, 63, 68–69, 71–73, 80, 84, 96, 98–100, 121, 150, 229, 231n, 267, 270–71, 310n, 329, 331–32, 333–34, 335, 343–44, 348n, 349n, 360

    on Boston Common, 74

    town of Boston, 72, 317

    reduction of, 297

    resistance to, feared, 13, 123, 171n, 172, 195

    resourcing of, 289

    retention of, 303–04

    troop transports arrive, 69

    withdrawal of, 32, 105, 266–67, 268n, 276, 282, 287–89, 293–94, 296, 302n, 307, 317

    completed, 304n

    Council requests, 317

    government opinions concerning, 288–89

    House of Representatives requests, 295

    proposed, 282–83, 285, 291–93, 293–95

    resumption of, 303–04, 306

    suspended, 286–88

    withdrawn from, 304n

    Church of England in, 149

    civil order in, 10, 13, 85, 108, 121, 153, 157n, 197, 204n, 294, 360

    clergy of, 149n, 218–19

    constables of, 98, 344

    Council records in, xxiii

    councilors

    living in or near, 4, 162, 186, 285, 315, 354

    living out of, 104, 106n

    crowd action in, 26, 106n, 112, 134, 164, 215, 315–17, 336–37, 343

    Customhouse in, 140, 169n

    customs officers in, 155, 157

    defences of, 3, 73, 112, 268n

    “Disobedience” of, 9, 11, 196, 200, 215, 229

    disposition of, 354

    “Faction” in. See under Boston Faction

    FB

    absent from, 5, 222–23, 265–66

    attends meetings in, 70, 109, 128, 222–23

    leaves, 225

    retreats from, 65, 68, 222, 266

    returns to, 68, 70, 283

    revises plans to leave, 102, 120, 125, 150

    FB’s enemies in, 175, 177, 232

    friends of government in, 172, 209, 285, 293

    gentlemen of, 6, 141, 200

    happiness of, 317

    Hillsborough, censured by, 107

    inhabitants of, 3, 63, 65, 195

    juries in, integrity of, 302n

    justices of the peace of, 107, 267

    and king, 343

    in king’s speech (8 Nov. 1768), 9, 11, 117, 160

    latitude of, 126

    lawyers, 51n, 100n

    lower orders of, 317

    loyalty of, 197

    magistrates, 18, 300, See also Justices of the Peace of Boston:

    mail to and from, 18, 20–22, 24, 26, 31, 35, 64, 70, 130n, 158, 160, 175, 194, 199, 232, 243, 248, 254, 257, 258n, 265–66, 273, 278, 290, 296, 299, 304, See also under Mail

    markets of, 121

    members of Parliament, views of, concerning, 17–20, 36, 174, 261n, 273n

    mentioned, 2, 207n

    merchants of, 5, 89, 114n, 219n, 256, 373n

    military occupation of, 54n, 138, 195, 197, 217n, 265–66, 294, 300, 306n, 343

    misrepresentations of, 13, 37, 58n, 82n, 178n, 197–98, 215, 316–17, 337, 350n

    newspapers of, 137, 163n, 170n, 182, 211, 224n, 330, See under Newspapers: Boston, printed in, See also entries by title

    and nonimportation movement, 257–58n, See under Nonimportation

    pamphlets published in, 37–38

    Parliament

    and, 12, 320

    censured by, 320

    resolutions of, concerning, 11, 12, 20, 143–44, 153, 196, 207n, 260, 261n, 300

    people of, 63, 65, 97, 172, 195

    physicians, 169n, 171n

    politics of, 2–6, 23–29, 32–33, 35–38

    poor, as “scum,” 97, 334

    popular opinion in, 2

    popular power in, 97, 172, 195, 256

    population of, 1

    public buildings, 2–3, 73, 83, 96, 333

    radicalism in, 1, 168, 171, 239

    reputation of, 108, 256, 315, 336, 343

    revolt in

    fears of, 13, 195, 360

    rumors of, 64, 360

    revolt in (1689), 310n

    Royal Navy, movements in and out of, 65, 67, 69

    rumors in, 285, 292

    sedition in, 8, 21, 162

    seizures at. See under Seizures: Boston, at

    selectmen of. See under Boston Selectmen

    shopkeepers, 37, 213n

    Sons of Liberty in. See under Sons of Liberty: Boston, of

    Stamp Act riots, and. See under Stamp Act Riots, Boston (1765)

    “state” of, 5, 13, 82n, 85, 103–04, 106n, 196–97, 315, 317

    tax collectors, 172

    trade of, 256

    treason in, 17–18

    treason trials in, proposed, 28, 194

    Vice Admiralty Court at, 166n, 225

    vindication of, 37

    Whig party. See under Whig Party, See under Boston Faction

    Boston Chronicle

    Bernard Letters, prints, 54n

    listed, 365–66, 367

    cited, 54n, 57n, 70n, 77n, 82n, 101n, 106n, 109n, 133n, 149n, 178n, 183n, 238n

    Cushing, letter to DeBerdt from, prints, 76n

    as enclosure, 280

    Grenville’s speech, summarizes, 207n

    king’s speech (8 Nov. 1768), prints, 160n

    Parliament, proceedings of, summarizes, 207n

    Boston Common, 1–23, 65, 73n, 74

    watercolor of, 74

    Boston Evening-Post

    Bernard Letters, prints, 218n

    listed, 363

    cited, 57n, 68n, 82n, 89n, 100n, 124n, 303n

    Council, address to Gage from, prints, 318

    as enclosure, 122, 216–17

    on FB’s baronetcy, 55n

    Grenville’s speech, reports, 170n

    House of Representatives, resolves of, prints, 301n, 306n

    king’s speech (8 Nov. 1768), prints, 160n

    Letters to the Ministry, advertises, xxiv

    London, letters from, prints extracts of, 201n, 306n

    printers of, 217n, 238n

    Rogers, letter by, 123

    “To the Sons of Liberty,” 55n

    Boston Faction. See also under Whig Party

    and Bernard Letters, 21

    and Boston Gazette, 25, 173

    British friends of, 201n

    and British troops, quartering of, 96–97

    divisions among, 164

    FB, foment resentment of, 248

    FB’s correspondence, print, 181, 246

    House of Representatives

    in, 274, 277

    influence in, 274, 280

    influence of, 28, 284

    informers deployed against, 164

    as justices of the peace, 145

    opportunities to “crush,” 141

    Parliament, resolutions of

    attitudes to, 158, 160

    deprecate, 144, 237

    parliamentary authority

    defenders of, intimidate, 284

    opposition to, 305

    as political leaders, 49n, 90n

    defiance of, 277

    desperation of, 164

    “Madness of,” 159

    mentioned, 198n

    punishment of, 226

    radicalism of, 305

    sedition of, 164, 198, 226

    and Temple, 211

    treasonable actions of investigated, 272

    treasonable actions of, investigated, 271

    on troops, withdrawal of, 31

    writings of, 215

    Boston Gazette

    American newspapers, distributes “original Papers” to, 243

    Bernard Letters

    displayed in office, 246, 248

    prints, 21, 24, 54n, 100, 106, 109, 114, 119, 129, 130n, 132, 175, 177, 197, 200–01, 247n, 348n

    prints, listed, 364–65, 366–67

    publication of, defers, 248

    Boston town meeting proceedings (12 Sept. 1768), prints, 171n

    “Bostonian” cited, 55n

    “Candidus” cited, 245n

    circulation, 176

    cited, 54n, 56n, 77n, 89n, 101n, 106n, 114n, 133n, 178n, 303n

    and colonial protest movement, 176

    Council minutes (26 Sept. 1768), prints, 330

    Council, proceedings of, prints

    (23–26 Sept. 1768), 349n

    (26 Oct. 1768), 216n

    DeBerdt, letter to Cushing from, prints, 163n

    as enclosure, 213, 216, 239, 244, 245n

    file of newspapers (14 Aug. 1767–1769)

    Board of Trade, considered by, 174

    as enclosure, 174

    Grenville, speech of, summarizes, 202n, 207n

    House of Commons, resolutions of, prints, 144n, 183n, 238n

    House of Representatives, resolves of, prints, 301n

    “Hyperion,” about, 170n

    king’s speech (8 Nov. 1768), prints, 117, 118n

    libels, prints, 210, 213n, 209–14, 239, 243

    London Gazetteer, extract from, 178n

    London, letters from, prints, 160n, 207n

    “Palinurus” mentioned, 214n

    “Paoli”

    about, 200, 201n

    cited, 201n, 245n

    Parliament

    address to king from, prints, 209n

    American correspondence presented to, lists, 248n

    proceedings of, summarizes, 207n

    “partisan” of, 243

    “Paskalos” mentioned, 213n

    “Philanthrop”

    cited, 245n

    mentioned, 245n

    printers of, 8, 173, 174, 209, 238n, 248, See also Edes, Benjamin; Gill, John

    “Protographos” cited, 54n

    radicalism of, 349n

    Seabury’s preface, prints, 219n

    sedition in, 238n

    “Son of Liberty” quoted, 240n

    and Temple, 209–14, 244

    Toovey, deposition of, prints, 286n

    treason in, 272

    “Verres,” attack on, prints, 245n

    writers in, 210, 243

    Boston Harbor

    Royal Navy ships in, 65, 68n, 81, 82n, 123n, 284n, 344, 350n, See also Boston: Royal Navy, movements in and out of

    Boston Massacre (1770), 38, 193

    Boston News-Letter

    Convention of Towns, resolves of, prints, 76

    as enclosure, 89

    Boston Overseers of the Poor

    deposition of, as enclosure, 347

    Boston Packet (ship), 57

    Boston Post-Boy and Advertiser

    Board of Trade, considered by, 299

    Bollan, petition to House of Commons from, prints, 261n

    cited, 54n, 55n, 70n, 89n, 95n, 114n, 160n, 247n, 310n

    Council, address to Gage from, prints, 106, 318

    as enclosure, 106, 160, 299, 310

    FB’s messages and speeches to House of Representatives, prints, 311n

    mentioned, 169n

    Parliament, presented to, 106

    Boston Representatives. See also Boston Faction

    Council, influence in, 277

    and crowd action, 167

    FB’s criticism of. See Boston Faction

    identified, 49n

    instructions to, 268n

    Parliament, censured by, 320

    Boston Selectmen

    authority, exceed, 18, 165, 194

    and Bernard Letters, 21, 27, 57n, 58n, 197–98, 214

    Boston faction, under influence of, 198n, 215, 267

    on Boston, “state” of, 197

    Convention of Towns, summon, 18, 77n

    Edes and Gill, censure, 176

    FB

    and, 58n

    correspondence of, request, 198

    meet with, 65

    suspicious of, 198, 215

    FB’s views on, 197, 215

    impeachment of, demanded, 194

    letters from, 196–98, 214–16

    about, 198

    cited, 9, 21, 198, 215, 216n

    listed, 368–69

    letters to

    cited, 198n

    listed, 368

    listed, 197, 215

    Massachusetts towns, circular to

    about, 77n

    cited, 273n

    as enclosure, 76

    Parliament

    discused in, 19, 273n

    not presented to, 77n

    presented to, 273n

    sedition of, 165, 198, 272

    signatories to, 112, 198

    mentioned, 224n

    and troops, quartering of, 3–4, 65, 98, 230n, 329, 349n

    Boston Tea Party (1773), 137, 171n

    Boston Town Meeting

    (14 Jun. 1768)

    Parliament, resolve of, concerning, 12

    (12 Sept. 1768)

    Adams discusses, 37

    British cabinet considers, 117

    discussed, 273n

    FB’s reports on, 9, 18, 73n, 85, 103n, 117, 272

    New York’s reaction to, 64

    Parliament, resolve of, concerning, 12

    as troops, justification for, 104

    (13 Sept. 1768), 273n

    (5 May 1769), 268n

    (18 Oct. 1769), 37, 58n

    Appeal to the World, adopts and publishes, 37, 58n

    and Bernard Letters, 58n

    and British ministers, 198, 214

    British troops

    rumors concerning, 1

    withdrawal of, urges, 268n

    and Convention of Towns, 75, 76n, 164–65, 171–72, 272, 273n

    and Council, 36

    FB

    allegations by, refutes, 215

    misrepresentations by, refutes, 214–15

    removal of, petition for, 27

    requests information from, 196–97

    friends of government at, 172

    king, censured by, 198, 214

    letters to

    cited, 120n

    as enclosures, 106

    Parliament, presented to, 106

    as replies, 215

    meeting places, 3

    officials of, impeachment of, not proposed by Parliament, 196

    proceedings of

    Convention of Towns, respecting, 75–76, 122, 164, 273n

    legality of, 215

    “near to treason,” 273n

    Parliament, considered by, 12, 16, 18, 196, 273n

    printed, 174, 198, 214

    radicalism of, 168, 171–72, 215

    radicals in, 26

    representatives, instructions to, 268

    resolutions of

    cited, 273n

    Parliament, presented to, 273n

    sedition of, 194

    Townshend Acts, repeal of, advocates, 268n

    votes and resolves

    on Appeal to the World, 58

    on Bernard Letters, 58n

    as enclosures, 299

    Whig party in, 267

    Boston Weekly News-Letter

    Boston town meeting, report by, prints, 58n

    cited, 70n, 82n, 123n, 130n

    Convention of towns, resolves of, prints, 76n

    Council minutes, prints, 89n

    Council, address to Gage from, prints, 106n

    as enclosure, 257

    House of Commons Journals, prints extract from, 178n, 183n, 349n

    king’s speech (8 Nov. 1768), prints, 160n

    Letters to Hillsborough, advertises, xxiv

    merchants’ meetings, reports, 257

    Boswell, James

    Account of Corsica (1769), 202n

    Botetourt, Lord

    and Amherst, 103n

    as governor of Virginia

    appointment, 102

    arrival of, 284n

    identified, 373n

    letter to, listed, 368

    “Promotion” of, 92

    Boundary Disputes between Massachusetts and

    New York, 179n

    Bounties, 121

    Bowdoin, Elizabeth, 49n, 89, 207

    Bowdoin, James

    Bernard Letters

    and, xxiv, 8, 21, 175, 324n

    plans response to, 24, 26, 248

    and publication of, 175

    received by, 322

    and Bollan, 21

    Council

    disqualification from mentioned, 142

    election to, 189, 319n, 352n

    election to, vetoed, 270n, 275, 279n, 280n

    influence in, about, 89, 90n, 179n

    leader of, denies being, 327

    leads opposition in, 87–90n, 128, 130, 141, 175, 270n, 280

    minutes of meetings, personal file of, 90n

    papers of

    as co-signatory, 265–66, 268n, 318, 347

    publishes, 89n, 175, 349n

    writes, 24–26, 89, 129, 133, 175, 246, 277, 347

    petition to king from

    discusses, 325

    and FB’s misrepresentation of, 127–30

    prayer of, clarifies meaning of, 326

    records of, access to, 90n

    votes in, 106n, 132

    as councilor, 4, 24, 133n

    and Erving, 90n

    FB

    conversations with, 325–27, 341

    as enemy of, 3, 8, 21, 89, 129–30, 142, 175, 350n

    letters to Hillsborough from, criticizes, 325–27

    on misrepresentations of, xxiv, 25–26, 128–29, 324–28

    Gage

    letter to, cited, 221n

    writes to, 220

    Hillsborough, letters to, 324–28

    cited, xxiv, 25–26, 89, 130, 175, 350n, 351n

    received, 328

    Hutchinson’s views on, 90n

    identified, 49n

    mentioned, 246n

    papers of, about, 324n

    politics of, 4

    portrait of, 184

    and Pownall, T., 29

    Province Charter, revocation of, fears, 350n

    reputation of, 25

    Temple, connections with, 49n, 193, 200, 207n, 241n

    transit of Venus, proposes expedition to observe, 221n, 233

    Whig party, as leader of, 3, 36, 175, 251

    wife of, 133n

    and Winthrop, J., 221n

    Bowers, Jerathmeel

    Council, election to, vetoed, 270n, 279n, 280n

    Bradbury, John

    Council

    election to, 189–90, 319n

    papers of, as co-signatory, 318

    as councilor, 106n

    Bradford, Gamaliel

    Council

    election to, 190n, 319n

    papers of, as co-signatory, 318

    as councilor, 106

    Bradshaw, Thomas

    Pownall, J., correspondence with, published, 57n

    Temple, letters from, cited, 161n

    Venner, letter to, cited, 158n

    Braintree, Mass., 219n

    Brattle Street Church, Boston, 312n

    Brattle, William

    Council

    election to, 189, 190n, 352n

    election to, vetoed, 270n, 279n, 280n

    leads opposition in, 270n, 280

    papers of, as co-signatory, 268n, 347

    politics of, 4, 133n, 355

    British Army. See also Boston: British troops

    106th Regiment of Foot, 53n

    14th Regiment of Foot, 3, 56n, 65, 73, 304, 349n

    16th Regiment of Foot, 271n, 304n

    1st Regiment of Foot Guards, 65

    29th Regiment of Foot, 3, 65, 68n, 73–74, 304, 349n

    3rd Regiment of Foot, 78

    3rd Regiment of Foot (Scots Guards), 78, 79n

    48th Regiment of Foot, 68n

    59th Regiment of Foot, 65, 69n

    64th Regiment of Foot, 3, 56n, 123n, 283n, 292, 296–97, 303, 307

    Boston, arrives in, 65

    Boston, withdrawn from, 32, 304

    65th Regiment of Foot, 3, 56n, 123n, 292

    Boston, arrives in, 65

    Boston, withdrawn from, 32, 304

    artillery companies, 3, 65, 222, See also British Army: Royal Regiment of Artillery

    and Boston Massacre (1770), 38

    Boston, arrival in, 1, 123, 171n, 175, 329

    Boston, deployment to, 39, 175, 204n, 306n

    civil government, assistance to, provides, 78n

    as deterrent, 294

    as garrison, 1, 56n

    mentioned, 72, 139, 270–71, 315

    occupation, as army of, 32, 178n, 197

    orders for, 39, 59n, 72, 82n, 83, 329

    Chatham ministry, issued by, 9

    plans for, 175, 350n

    purpose and function, 1, 12, 93, 140, 282, 297

    Boston, land in, 1, 63–64, 66, 68n, 69, 79, 83, 93, 120, 171n, 222, 344

    (1 Oct. 1768), 65

    engraving of, 67

    FB not present for, 5, 65, 222

    FB’s account of, 222–23

    with “dispatch & parade,” 79

    resistance to, talk of, 172, 166–73

    Boston, relations with inhabitants of, 71, 121, 146, 217, 231n, 343

    Boston, withdrawal from, 203, 266, 268n, 287–89, 293–94, 296, 302n, 307, 317

    64th Regiment, 297, 303–04, 307

    65th Regiment, 304

    Council requests, 105, 317

    government opinions concerning, 288–89, 292

    House of Representatives requests, 276, 295

    proposed, 32, 282–83, 285, 291–95

    resumption of, 304, 306–07

    retention, plans for, 303–04

    suspended, 286–88, 296

    temporary relocation impractical, 267

    commander in chief (North America), 3, 49n, 101n, 103n, 301n, 315, 331, See also Gage, Thomas

    FB, officers critical of, 224

    as “foreign Enemies,” 168–69

    Ireland

    regiments arrive from (c.14 Nov. 1768), 121

    regiments expected from, 96

    regiments leave (10 Sept. 1768), 77

    Massachusetts, economy of, impact on, 121

    mentioned, 266, 329, 333–34, 344–45

    officers mentioned, 3, 64–65, 68–69, 70n, 72, 81, 83, 123n, 144, 214, 223, 230n, 245n, 261n, 283

    quartering of, 72, 74, 231n, 267, 271n, 310n, 317, 348n, 349n

    accommodation shortage, 84

    accounts of expenditure

    General Court, refused by, 289

    prepared, 270–71

    unsettled, 298

    at Castle William, 4, 63, 96

    and civilian commissary, 80–81, 82n, 83, 99, 229

    Crown, at expense of, 72, 84n, 98

    expenses of, 72, 270

    in hired premises, 3–4, 65, 98–99, 114n, 121, 229

    proceeds “quietly,” 150

    legalistic problems with, 98–99, 267, 334, 360

    in Manufactory House, attempted, 96–97, 329, 334

    municipal officers, by, 98

    obstructions to, 68–71, 79–84, 95–101

    opposition to, king’s disappointment at, 142

    preparations for, 63–68, 71–75

    in public houses, 97–98, 267

    temporary accommodation found, 65, 70–71

    in town and castle, 84, 96, 99–100, 329, 331–32, 333, 335, 360

    in town of Boston, 63, 68–69, 71, 80, 96, 121, 271, 331

    Royal Regiment of Artillery, 65, 282–83, 292, 295

    sheriff, assists, 97

    and St. George’s Fields Massacre, 78, 79n

    as standing army, 76n, 300

    British Coffee House

    as “Crown” venue, 168

    British Colonial Policy. See also Imperial Administration

    about, 50n, 53n, 196n, 207n, 323n

    American correspondence, respecting, 118–19

    assembly, communications to, instructions respecting, 208

    Boston, radicalism in, 9

    and British troops, deployment of, 72

    colonial attitudes to, 304–05

    and colonial government, reform of, 154, 188, 203

    conciliation in, 10–11, 20, 30, 251, 264

    continuity in, 9, 30, 251

    credibility of, 11, 15–16, 20, 31, 201, 232, 264, 362

    critics of, 17

    and Crown salaries, 251–52

    FB, and

    baronetcy awarded, 229, 232, 234

    as mediator, 1–2, 8

    recall, 154, 203

    and FB’s conduct as governor, 7, 13, 16, 85, 116, 119–20, 142, 281

    and FB’s correspondence, 2, 9–11, 16, 24, 85, 115, 118, 142, 153, 208

    FB’s reflections on, 249–52

    firmness in, 1, 7, 10, 203, 242

    General Court, removal from Boston, instructions respecting, 163n, 203, 234

    and governors, salaries of, 5, 92, 251–52

    Grafton administration, of, 9–12, 16

    deliberations on, 202–04

    and Hillsborough, 10, 13, 31, 38, 154, 204, 264, 348

    and Hutchinson, as acting governor, 234

    “illegal and unconstitutional Acts,” investigations into, 8, 115, 117n, 204

    legislation concerning, 85n, 229, 265n

    Liberty riot, inquiry into, instructions respecting, 6, 204, 208

    Massachusetts, radicalism in, 160

    Parliament, debated in, 9, 12, 16–21, 153

    and parliamentary authority, defense of, 116, 151, 203, 263

    instructions respecting, 153

    parliamentary critics of, 16–19, 153

    and parliamentary taxation, principle of, 11, 30–31, 151, 263

    policymaking, 56n

    Pownall, J., views of, 202–04

    reassessment of, 2, 30

    representations, transmission of, respecting, 76, 115–16, 163n

    revisions in, 30–31, 38, 229, 264

    and Townshend duties, repeal of, 30–31, 38, 56n, 150–51, 263–64

    and treason trials in England, 204

    treason, investigations into, instructions respecting, 208–09

    British Empire, 57, 116, 122, 180, 196, 236, 264, 301

    “Dissolution” of, FB fears, 236

    and Great Lakes, 220

    growth of, 132

    British Government. See also British Colonial Policy

    American affairs

    conciliation in, favors, 30, 123, 264

    differences of opinions concerning, 304

    interest in, 305

    reviews, 9–10, 20, 85, 116–17, 150, 153, 160, 203–04, 226, 229, 251, 263

    rhetoric in, 11

    sources of information concerning, xxiii, 13–14, 20, 86, 129, 247

    and American colonies, taxation of, 31

    American policy. See under British Colonial Policy

    and Bernard Letters, 35

    and Bollan, 35–36

    Boston

    insurrection in, fears, 117, 123

    rationale for sending troops to, 1–2, 9–10, 78n

    rebellion in, fears, 9

    cabinet

    discussions in, 150

    divisions in, 30

    members of, 50n

    mentioned, 9–11, 13, 30, 59n, 76, 85, 103n, 117, 142, 154, 163n, 166n, 182, 195, 203–04, 229, 230n, 242n, 251, 264, 348

    and colonial civil list, 251–52, 252n

    Colonial Department. See under Secretary of State (Colonial Department)

    colonial government, ignorance of, 6

    and colonial government, reform of, 10, 141, 154, 203–04

    and colonial governors, salaries of, 5

    colonial opposition, impatience with, 2, 11, 18

    colonial policy. See under British Colonial Policy

    and colonial radicals, censure of, 173, 309

    colonists, considers prosecuting

    printers, 25, 176

    rioters, 136

    Whig leaders, 28

    on Convention of Towns, as “unlawfull assembly,” 76

    critics of, 214n, 238n

    English opposition to, 214n

    FB

    awards baronetcy to, 234–35, 252

    recalls, 13, 28, 234–35, 362

    scapegoat, may, 17, 31, 38, 154, 201, 232, 362

    FB’s conduct as governor, approves, 49n, 142–43, 229, 231–32

    FB’s correspondence, considers, 1–2, 5, 8–10, 14, 16, 24, 41, 120, 142, 201

    Boston town meeting (12 Sept. 1768), concerning, 9, 85, 103n, 117, 171n

    as evidence, 2, 11–12, 18–20, 36, 39, 178

    king, presents to, 208

    Parliament

    presents to, 142, 144, 153, 182

    will present to, 115, 118

    General Court, removal of, favors, 234

    Hutchinson complains to, 291

    Massachusetts, reimburses, 51n

    Massachusetts, “state” of, discusses, 9, 115, 234

    ministerial changes, 10, 50n

    ministers

    FB

    ambivalent towards, 9

    and, 207n

    correspondence with, 141, 247

    influenced by, 175, 191, 317

    misled by, 13–14, 16, 20, 32, 36, 129, 174, 300, 360

    mentioned, xxiii, 11, 13, 30, 50n, 56n, 102n, 123, 150–51, 153–54, 180, 306n, 308

    perceptions of, 10, 13–14, 36, 103n, 171n, 174, 197–98, 214–15, 300

    and Pownall, T., 56n

    Northern Department. See under Secretary of State (Northern Department)

    officials, appointment of, 60n

    Parliament

    defends policy in, 11–12, 17–18, 118–19

    majority in, 10–11, 20

    management of business in, 13

    opposition in, 16, 20, 22, 171n, 206, 216

    supporters in, 9, 11, 17–19, 22, 78, 323n, See also Barrington, Lord

    and Wilkes, expulsion of, 78

    and parliamentary debates, reporting of, 177

    and Pownall, T., 200

    prime minister, 9, 17, 30, 50n, 53n, 54n, 58n, 170n, 286n

    records of, 175

    Southern Department. See under Secretary of State (Southern Department)

    and taxation of colonies, 261n

    Townshend duties, repeal of

    considers, 150–51, 251

    favors, 30, 38, 123, 264

    partial repeal of, intends, 263

    treason, investigate, 28, 208

    and Virginia, governorship of, 103n

    and Wilkes controversy, 195, 226, 238n, 242–43

    British Politics

    and American affairs, 2, 7, 9–20, 29–32, 34–36, 53, 59, 146, 153, 170, 195, 262, 264, 320–22, 324, 338, 348

    American affairs, commentators on, 16–20, 29, 171n, 178n, 204, 323n, 324n

    and Bollan, 35

    crisis in, 1

    debates in, 2, 150–51, 154, 195, 204

    developments in, 9, 23

    divisions in, 10

    factions in, 10–11, 22, 29

    FB’s correspondence, impact of, 9, 11–12, 16, 20, 133, 144

    general election (1768), 10, 196n

    and Grafton administration, 232

    libels in, 238n

    mentioned, 8

    politicians mentioned, 2

    Brown, John

    damages, sues for, 101n

    Manufactory House, protests eviction from, 65, 100n

    Brown, Thomas, 219

    Bryant, John, 258n

    identified, 253n

    mentioned, 253, 257, 273

    Buildings, 2–4, 63–65, 68, 70–71, 73n, 83, 97, 100, 101n, 144, 209n, 224n, 235n, 241n, 268n, 295, 329, 331, 333–34, See also Castle William

    Bunker Hill, Battle of, 123n

    Burch, Ann, 106n

    Burch, William

    as commissioner of Customs, 140, 188n

    wife of, 105–06

    Burke, Edmund

    American affairs, as commentator on, 29, 53n

    on American Declaratory Act (1766), 20

    on American grievances, 324n

    House of Commons, speech in, 17, 324

    identified, 53n

    Caesar, C. Julius, 201n

    Cambridge University, 50n

    Cambridge, Mass., 106n, 149, 155, 162, 163n, 233–34, 235n, 251, 267, 268n, 276–77, 289, 290n, 295–96

    Camden, Lord

    Hillsborough, criticizes, 264

    “Candidus” (anti-government writer)

    about, 124n, 201n, 244, 245n

    identity of, 124n, 244

    Caner, Henry

    and “B. W.” letter, 218

    England, travels to, 149

    identified, 219n

    mentioned, 149n

    Canterbury, Archbishop of, 149, 150n

    letter to, listed, 364

    Carleton, Guy

    identified, 373n

    letters to, listed, 370, 372

    Carr, Maurice

    identified, 68n

    as regimental commander, 3, 65

    Carter, John

    mentioned, 237

    Carver, Jonathan

    identified, 221n

    mentioned, 220

    Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America (1778), 221n

    Castle Island, Boston Harbor, 3, 63, 83, 271, 294, 331

    Castle William

    American Board of Customs at, 19, 91, 140, 316, 350n

    attack on, rumors of, refuted, 18, 360

    barracks at, 3, 56n, 79, 96–97, 100–01, 123n, 283, 304n, 305, 317, 329, 331, 333, 344, 349n, 352n, 361

    and Boston, boundary of, 71, 100, 330–31

    British occupy, 3, 72

    British regiments

    deployed to, 84

    ordered to, 317

    quartered at, 3, 99, 282, 304

    quartering at, plans for, 4, 32, 56n, 79–80, 84, 96–97, 100, 283, 293–94, 317, 329–30, 333, 335, 344

    Council meets at, 69

    defenses of repaired, 352n

    defenses of, repaired, 3, 72

    FB at, 222, 331

    garrison at, authority over, 83

    Governor and Council meet at, 68n, 70n, 331

    mentioned, 34, 176

    plot to seize, 251, 272, 316

    HMS Romney stationed at, 316

    Royal Navy ships anchor at, 222

    Cavendish, Sir Henry

    Debates of the House of Commons (1841)

    cited, 51n, 52n, 53n, 79n, 144n, 196n, 238n, 323n, 324n

    quoted, 17, 323n, 324n

    identified, 52n

    Parliamentary debates, reports of, about, 16, 52n, 170n, 261n

    Chadwick, Joseph

    identified, 373n

    letter from, listed, 372

    as surveyor, 127n

    Chalmers, George, 59n

    Chandler, John

    Council

    election to, 190n

    restoration to, proposed, 189

    Chandler, Thomas Bradbury

    and American episcopate, plans for, 149

    An Appeal to the Public in Behalf of the Church of England in America (1767), 149, 150n

    Chauncy, debates with, 149

    The Appeal Defended, Or the Proposed American Episcopate Vindicated (1769), 149n

    Charing Cross, London, 245n

    Charles II, King, 50n

    Charleston, S.C, 267

    Charlestown, Mass., 106n

    Charlotte, Queen, 116, 117n

    Chase, Thomas

    identified, 171n

    seditious views of, 168–69

    Chatham Ministry

    and American policy, 9, 251

    and FB, 1, 16, 31

    mentioned, 22, 54n, 323n

    political support for, 306n

    weakness of, 39

    Chatham, Earl of. See also under Pitt, William

    administration of, 1, 16, 22, 31, 39, 50, 251, See also Chatham Ministry

    Grafton, defers to, 50n, 323n

    illness of, 54n

    as prime minister, 9

    resigns office, 50n, 323n

    supporters of, 11, 22, 54n, 306n, 323n

    Chathamites, 11, 22, 54n

    Chauncy, Charles

    American episcopate, debates, 149, 218

    Appeal to the Public Answered (1768), 149n

    and “B. W.” letter, 218–19

    Chief Justice of Massachusetts. See also Hutchinson, Thomas

    and Crown salary, 252

    identified, 49n, 190n

    mentioned, 100n, 167, 192, 252n

    and Superior Court, 177, 302n

    Children, 105

    Chillingworth Foster, 278n

    Chipping Wycombe, Eng., 323n

    Christ Church, Oxford, iv

    Church of England, 146–50

    America, clergy in, 148–49

    and American episcopate, 148–49, 219n

    as minority church, 149

    in New York, 218

    Church, Benjamin

    fears of, 171n

    identified, 169n

    on Parliamentary taxation, resitance to, 168

    as political writer, 168, 169n, 171n, 179n

    seditious views of, reported, 168, 177

    Churchill, Charles, 261n

    Churchill, John, 261n

    Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero), 201n

    Circular Letter, Massachusetts

    controversy over, 171n

    first motion for, rejection of, 39, 59n

    Parliament denounces, 11

    radicalism of, 11

    rescinding of, 39, 59n, 171n, 175, 342

    Cive (Hobbes), 178

    Civil Disorder, 1, 10–13, 26, 76n, 122, 138n, 187, 193, 196, 204n, 209n, 214–15, 236, 267, 294, 300, 315–18, 343, 345, 350n, 355–56, 360, See also Sedition; Crowd Action

    Civil List. See also Crown: salaries

    FB recommends, 92, 250

    Townshend’s plan for, FB approves, 92

    Clergy, 148

    Clergymen, 149, 160n, 201n, 218, 221n

    Clerk no. 3

    and Bernard Letters, 176

    papers in handwriting of, 110

    Clerk no. 9

    papers in handwriting of, 247, 263

    Climate, 94, 125, 157n, 181, 227

    Cockle, James

    dismissal of, 286n

    identified, 373n

    letter to, listed, 372

    Coffin, Nathaniel

    Cushing, conversation with, reports, 164, 166n

    as customs officer, 172

    declaration of, 171–73

    Board of Trade, considered by, 165

    cited, 8, 166n, 213n

    as enclosure, 165, 172

    identified, 172

    as informer, 172–73

    politics of, 172

    Steuart, letter to, cited, 173n

    Coffin, William

    as justice of the peace, 145–46

    as Son of Liberty, 172

    Collection of Interesting, Authentic Papers, relative to the Dispute between Great Britain and America (John Almon), 59n

    Colonial Society of Massachusetts, xv

    Commander in Chief (North America), 3, 49n, 101n, 103n, 301n, 315, 331, See also Gage, Thomas

    Commissions

    judicial, 340

    provincial, 106n, 111–14, 136, 145

    renewal of, 311–12

    royal, 12, 16, 18, 28, 91, 99, 112–14, 139–40, 144, 147, 206, 224–25, 261n, 340, 350

    Communications. See Mail

    Connecticut

    mentioned, 94

    and nonimportation, 257

    as “republic,” 227

    Connecticut Gazette, 284n

    Convention of Towns

    Cushing approves of, 166n, 172

    DeBerdt approves of, 160, 161n, 164

    DeBerdt, letter to

    about, 76

    quoted, 77

    disperse, refuses to, 18, 76n, 201n

    FB, expectations of, 76n

    on FB, mispresentations by, 77n

    and FB’s response to, 76n

    historical analogies for, 311n

    as inconsequential combination, 120

    king, petition to

    about, 76n

    DeBerdt, sent to, 76n

    mentioned, 132

    letters from

    published, 76

    quoted, 77n

    letters to

    cited, 18, 201n

    discussed, 75, 199, 205

    meeting of, 273n

    mentioned, 171, 300

    moderates in, 172

    Parliament

    censured by, 12, 204n

    discussed in, 16, 18

    “Resentment” of, feared, 122

    proceedings of, 75

    reported, 76n, 85, 123, 166

    resolves of

    about, 76n

    as enclosure, 76

    “moderation” of, 75

    quoted, 76n

    summary of, 76n

    sedition of, 164–66, 198, 200, 205, 272

    summoning of, 75, 77n, 112, 194, 197, 273n

    as unlawful assembly, 76, 201n

    Conventions, 309, 310n

    Conway, Henry Seymour

    letters to

    cited, 362n

    filed, 41

    Cooper, Samuel, 312n

    Pownall, T., correspondence with, 201n

    Cooper, William

    as Boston town clerk, 312n

    provincial office, unsuitability for, 311–12

    Copies of Letters from Governor Bernard to Hillsborough (1769)

    cited, xxiv, 100, 106, 109, 114, 129, 132, 246, 249, 358, 362

    listed, 364–67

    Copley, John Singleton

    FB, portrait of, iv

    Copy of Letters Sent to Great-Britain, by His Excellency Thomas Hutchinson, the Hon. Andrew Oliver, and Several Other Persons (1773), 348n

    Corbet, Michael

    trial of, 302n

    Corner, John

    letters to, cited, 252n

    Cornwall, Charles

    House of Commons, speech in, 17

    identified, 52n

    Cornwallis, Frederick

    as archbishop of Canterbury, 150n, 373n

    letter to, listed, 373

    Corporations, 98

    Corsica, 200–01

    Cotton, John

    as deputy province secretary, 330

    as register of probate, 311–12

    Council. See also Governor and Council; Assembly (the Council and the House of Representatives)

    address from (14 May 1769), 268n

    as enclosure, 265–66

    FB comments on, 266–67

    Gage, transmitted to, 265–66

    Hillsborough, transmitted to, 269

    received, 266

    addresses from, 268, 270

    advice and consent of

    American Board of Customs, return of, respecting, 350n

    British troops, quartering of, respecting, 328–52

    as constitutional requirement, 294

    FB demands, 346

    FB does not seek, 288, 292, 294

    FB seeks, 125

    offices, appointments to and removal from, required for, 114, 135–36

    agent of. See also Bollan, William

    advice from, 36, 248

    appointment of, 14, 260

    appoints, 8, 15, 129

    business of, 14

    FB refuses to recognize, 14

    Hillsborough meets, 31

    and House agent, 29

    identity revealed, 25, 31

    information from, 20

    instructs, 30, 133

    mentioned, 8, 25, 36, 357

    and Pownall, T., 29

    American Board of Customs

    on “Concerted plan” of, to obtain British troops, 316, 336–37, 343, 350n

    conspiracy of, suspicions concerning, 4, 105, 316, 350n

    on misrepresentations of, 26, 315–16, 318, 350n

    representations of, considers, 104

    retreat of planned, claims, 316, 336

    return of, advise on, 91, 103–04, 106n, 216n

    American revenue acts, repeal of, advocates, 15, 20, 29, 31, 129, 204n

    and Andros, revolt against, 310n

    answers to FB’s messages and speeches

    (28 May 1768), 179n

    discusses, 349n, 328–52

    Bernard Letters

    Bollan sends, 21, 35, 39, 247–48, 329

    prints, 248

    proceedings discussed in, 8, 15, 38, 59n, 182

    publishes, xxiv, 24–26, 245, 249

    receives, 52n

    requests more transcripts, 26, 30–31, 34

    responds to criticism in, 24–26, 30, 35–36, 248, 348n, 328–52

    reviews contents of, 348n, 328–52

    Bollan

    advised by, 35–36, 133, See also Bollan, William: Danforth, letters to

    appointed agent of, 51n

    instructs, 129

    letters to, cited, 130n, 133n

    Boston selectmen

    and, 98

    confers with, 329

    Boston, influenced by, 267, 277

    Boston, removal from, 268

    and Bowdoin, 3, 21, 87–90n, 128–29, 142, 175, 241n, 327

    Bowdoin, leadership by, 3, 36, 175, 251

    British troops, provisions for

    sets conditions, 80–81

    British troops, quartering of

    commissary for, refuses to appoint, 99

    Dalrymple explains orders respecting, 63–64, 69

    debates concerning, account of, 328–52

    disputes concerning, 3, 15

    in Manufactory House, approves, 96

    in Manufactory House, considers, 96, 98, 101n, 329–31, 333–34

    objects to, 3–4, 8, 13, 63–70, 72, 80–81, 83–84, 95–101, 142, 229, 329–35

    opposition to, justifies, 329–35

    refuses to provide for, 64, 68–69

    responsibilities respecting, 71, 230n, 288, 328–52

    “undutiful Behaviour of,” 64

    British troops, withdrawal of

    advice not requested, 288, 292, 294

    advice respecting, 288

    advocate, 83

    opinions respecting, 286–87, 292

    request, 265–67

    Castle William in town of Boston, declare, 71

    censure of, 142–43

    on constitutional theory, 351n

    councilors

    Boston, living out of, 106n

    character of, 269, 274

    conduct of, 185

    discussions reported, 326

    election of vetoed, 270n, 279n, 280n

    FB consults with privately, 128

    on FB’s anecdotes concerning, 339

    FB’s removal, predict, 246

    Gage criticizes, 3

    identified, 49n, 133n, 190n, 268n, 270n, 319n, 352n

    intimidation of, 108

    as justices of the peace, 145

    lists of, 106n, 188–89, 190n, 191–92

    as enclosures, 187–88, 190–91

    mentioned, 210

    motivation of, 269

    oaths taken by, 87–88, 90n

    politics of, 133n, 141, 185, 269, 280n, 339

    refuse seats, 275, 279n

    views of, expressed, 83, 106n, 108, 132

    on crowd action, 315, 355–56

    British troops, deployment of, cannot justify, 315, 343

    “detestation” of, 316, 318

    Dalrymple attends meetings of, 63–64, 69, 79, 331–32

    Dalrymple requests provisions from, 79–80, 331–32

    “Delinquency” in, 269

    disposition of, 270, 274, 305

    elected councilors, FB vetoes, 32, 269, 275, 280, 362n

    elections to

    (1769), 161, 274, 280, 284–85

    mentioned, 207n

    procedures for, 190n, 267, 269, 319n, 352n

    FB

    circumvents, 15

    his baronetcy, avoid public congratulations, 258–59

    his conspiracy to bring British troops, suspicions concerning, 4, 35, 317, 337, 350n

    impeachment of, threaten, 351n

    misrepresentations of, refute, 26, 315–16, 318, 352–58

    misrepresented by, 300

    opposes, 4–5, 86–88, 153, 161, 188, 206, 246, 249, 251, 259, 267, 269, 270n

    on FB as governor

    and abuse of power, 359–61

    “wanton Exercise of Power,” 353–54

    “dictatorial” behavior, 332

    “false Representations,” 360

    misconduct of, 347

    FB lacks support in, 109, 164, 254, 318

    FB requests instructions respecting, 87

    FB, praises, 179n

    friends of government

    as members, 145, 210

    not elected, 274, 280

    restoration of, proposed, 185–86

    Whig campaign to exclude, 274–75, 280, 284–85

    Gage attends meeting of, 96

    Gage, address to, 315–19

    cited, 4, 106, 123, 146n, 352n

    discusses, 337–38, 343

    as enclosure, 106, 318

    FB’s observations on, 104–05, 337

    Parliament, presented to, 106, 318

    prepares and presents, 104

    published, 104, 106

    received, 318

    reply to, 318

    Gage, letters from, cited, 319n

    Gage, letters to FB from, discusses, 317

    on Gage, misinformed by FB, 317

    Gage, requests

    to inquire into “disorders,” 317

    to withdraw British troops to Castle William, 317

    “good humour” of, 108

    government officials, restoration of, proposed, 144, 185–86

    Greenleaf, legal costs of, decline to assist with, 101n

    happiness of, 346

    Hillsborough, censured by, 85, 142

    Hillsborough, letters to, 328–52

    Bollan, transmitted by, 347

    cited, xxiv, 24–26, 30, 34, 36, 89, 100n, 106n, 109n, 133n, 175, 249n, 279n, 301n, 357n

    content of, about, 25–26

    despatched, 296

    as enclosure, 347

    FB unable to comment on, 357

    mentioned, 34

    preparation of, 277–78

    published, 26, 35–36, 56n, 357

    received, 357

    Hillsborough, letters to FB from

    discusses and criticizes, 129, 317, 328–52

    extract read to, 101n, 163n

    presented to, 103, 107, 128, 162, 258

    “Remarks” on, 299

    House of Commons, petition to, about, 132–33

    House of Representatives

    answers to FB’s messages and speeches, considers, 298

    influenced by, 207n

    petition to king from

    presentation, delay in, considers, 162

    praised by, 301n

    relationship with, about, 179n

    justices of the peace

    appointment of,

    approves, 146n, 166n

    considers, 111

    censure of, discusses, 107–08

    commission, reform of, 111–12

    king, displeasure of

    reviews and considers, 342–43

    king, petition to

    Bowdoin discusses, 325

    cited, 133n

    as enclosure, 325, 351n

    FB’s misrepresentations of, 51n, 128–29, 342

    Hillsborough, FB sends, 325

    Parliament, presented to, 163n

    prayer of, about, 129–30, 204n

    preparation of, 51n, 89, 341–42

    received, 51n, 128

    respectful, 123

    as “King’s Council,” 186, 215, 315, 343, 345–46, 354

    Liberty riot

    advises on prosecutions for, 134, 138n, 316

    criminality of, 315

    discusses, 338

    inquiry into, abandoned, 338

    “planned,” 343

    as “pretence” to obtain British troops, 316

    rioters, prosecution of, abandoned, 134

    “major part” of

    FB, prepare addresses to, 266, 268n, 322n

    Hillsborough, letter to, prepare and sign, 249n, 277–78, 352n, 353

    legitimacy of, Oliver challenges, 88

    meetings of, 104, 266

    as opposition group, 4–5, 15, 88–89, 130–31, 355

    Parliament, petitions to, prepare and sign, 16, 130–32, 133n, 326, 351n

    and Manufactory House, attempted clearance of, 97, 100

    military assistance, and FB’s request for, 7, 85, 125, 285

    minutes of. See also Assembly (the Council and the House of Representatives): proceedings of; Council: proceedings of (with given date);

    amendments to, 88

    Bowdoin keeps set of, 87

    cited, 338, 328–52

    as enclosure, 65, 81, 84, 100, 106, 352n, 357

    FB refers to, 97

    FB’s personal copies, 331

    Gage, sent to, 83

    Parliament, presented to, 65, 81, 100, 106

    publication of, 69, 86–87, 330

    oath of secrecy, debates, 87–88

    and Oliver, A., 88

    opposition from, discussed, 268–70, 292

    Parliament, censured by, 11, 320, 355, 357n

    Parliament, petitions to. See also House of Commons: Council petition to; House of Lords: Council petition to

    American colonies, as first from, 322

    Bollan

    and, 16, 129

    received by, 320

    sent to, 15, 129, 133

    cited, 133n

    copies of, 133n, 351n

    as enclosure, 320, 322n

    FB misrepresents, 326, 341–42, 355, 360

    House of Commons, debated in, 321, 323n

    mentioned, 8

    prayer of discussed, 15, 51n, 129, 131–32, 325–26, 342

    preparation of, 8, 15, 129–33, 326, 355

    presented, 16, 29, 129–30, 320–21

    presention of, 130n

    published, 130n

    signatories to, 132

    transmission, protocol respecting, 15, 132, 321

    and popular power, 93, 105, 166n, 226

    FB’s allegations concerning, reviews, 340–41

    populism of, 111, 131, 133n, 135, 316–17, 350n, 357n

    as “privy council,” 131, 164, 186–87

    proceedings of

    (13 Jun. 1768), 338, 350n

    (27 Jul. 1768), 336, 350n

    (29 Jul. 1768), 134, 138n, 336–37, 341, 343, 350n, 352n

    publication of, 350n

    (19 Sept. 1768), 333

    (19 Sept.–26 Oct. 1768), 328–52

    (22 Sept.–03 Oct. 1768), 349n

    (23–26 Sept. 1768), 349n

    (26 Sept. 1768), 349n

    publication of, 349n

    (29 Sept. 1768), 64, 68n, 70n, 331, 349n

    (3 Oct. 1768), 79, 82n, 349n

    publication of, 86, 90n, 350n

    (5 Oct. 1768), 71n, 80, 82n, 349n

    publication of, 86, 90n, 350n

    (12 Oct. 1768), 87

    (17 Oct. 1768), 96, 98, 100n, 101n, 332

    (22 Oct. 1768), 329–30, 349n

    (24 Oct. 1768), 98, 101

    (26 Oct. 1768), 90n, 91, 98, 101n, 103, 106n, 335, 350

    (9 Nov. 1768), 107, 109n, 339, 350n

    (10 Nov. 1768), 108, 109n, 339, 350n

    (7 Dec. 1768), 111, 114n, 145, 146n

    (28 Dec. 1768), 101n

    (22 Feb.–01 Mar. 1769), 221n

    (5 Apr. 1769), 166n

    (3 May 1769), 259n

    British troops, and quartering of, 3, 217n

    Council papers, publication of, concerning, 15, 86–90, 175, 177, 216

    “Journal of the Times,” reported in, 138n, 217n

    Parliament, mentioned in, 18, 20

    radicalism of, 122, 185

    secrecy in, 87–88

    province secretary

    excluded from business, 277–78

    insult, 88

    Quartering Act, responsibilities under

    and, 101n, 349n

    on, 98, 344–46

    records of

    about, xxiii

    access to, 175

    on rights and liberties, 132

    riots, propose inquiry into, 318

    royal appointment of

    candidates for, 185–86, 188–92, 270

    colonial support for, 185

    Hillsborough proposes, 230n

    and Pownall, T. 199–200

    proposal for, criticizes, 339, 341

    proposed, 6, 8, 27, 59n, 93, 109, 113, 120, 122, 181–82, 185–88, 195, 203, 226–27, 270, 348n, 350n

    separate agent

    appointment of, 51n

    mentioned, 53n

    on “state” of province, 315

    “Enemy’s Country,” as an, 343

    “peaceful,” 315

    and Superior Court, 101n

    and taxation, right of, 302n

    and Temple, 241n

    votes and divisions in, 59n, 80, 91, 104, 106n, 132–33

    Whig party in, 25, 49n, 132, 133n, 146n, 258, 267, 269, 270n

    and Whig party, 25, 171, 277, 280

    Whigs, restoration of, considered, 185–86

    Winthrop’s expedition, considers supporting, 220, 221n

    Council Chamber, Boston, 8, 80, 88, 97, 104, 108–09, 131, 176, 185, 239, 339, 348n

    Council of Trade and Plantations. See under Board of Trade

    Court of St. James, 144, 209n

    Court Party. See under Friends of Government

    Courthouse, Boston. See under Town House, Boston

    Credit, Financial, 237, 309, 373n

    Crime, 194

    high crimes and misdemeanors, 120, See also Treason

    “of a popular Nature,” 164

    penalties for, 362

    prevention of, 255n

    Crowd Action

    American Board of Customs, against, 139

    Boston (18 Mar. 1768), 315

    Boston (10 Jun. 1768), Liberty riot, 315–16

    Boston “mobs,” 97, 139, 145, 164, 256, 356

    celebrations, parades, and processions, 139

    commemoration, festivals of, 112, 174

    crowds

    composition of, 167

    participants in, 97, 145

    size of, 97

    demonstrations, 97

    justices of the peace as participants, 145

    Manufactory House, occupation of, 96–97, 100n

    and nonimportation, enforcement of, 256

    as political weapon, 78n

    suppression of, 345, 356

    “trained mobs,” 78n

    Crown. See also King, The

    assembly, representations from, protocol concerning transmission of, 115

    authority of, 187, 290n, See also Government, Royal: authority of

    challenged, 11–12, 53n, 93

    FB defends, 229, 293–94

    and British regiments, expenses of, 4, 64, 72, 83, 84n, 98–99, 112, 121, 331

    commissions of

    and power to supersede, 113, 340–41, 350n

    and treason, 18, 204n, 144

    and Council, 142

    appointment of, 6, 194–95, 300, 348n, 355

    dignity and honor of, 135

    and judicial appointments, 340, 351n

    lawyers acting for, 6, 49, 115, 134–37, 166n, 224, 252

    licences of, 234

    loyalty to, 135

    officers of, 13, See also BERNARD, FRANCIS; Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts; Province Secretary of Massachusetts; Province Treasurer of Massachusetts

    Council, excluded from, 359

    FB, advise, 164

    FB, criticize, 26–27, 248

    fears of, 32

    insulted, 289

    legal penalties respecting, 362

    protection and safety of, 1, 93

    and Temple, 206

    unpopularity of, 93, 167

    views of, reported, 159, 285, 289, 292

    patents issued by, 230

    patronage of, 49n, 255n

    prerogatives of, 354, 359

    property of, 3, 72, See also Castle William

    revenue of, 286n, 300

    rights of, 122, 135, 209–10

    salaries, 5, 30, 33, 92–93, 95n, 117n, 125, 135–36, 138n, 144, 226–27, 228n, 231n, 250–52, 303n, See also Townshend Duties: tea duty: salaries from

    servants of, 9–10, 24, 93, 115, 117n, 118, 135, 167, 180, 197, 208, 240, 263–64

    in service of, 93, 135, 142, 185, 209, 252

    treason against, 78

    and Winthrop’s expedition, expenses of, 220

    writs of, 270, 277

    Cushing, John

    Council

    election to, 190n

    restoration to, proposed, 189

    as justice of the Superior Court, 190n

    royal council, appointment to, proposed, 191

    Cushing, Thomas. See also House of Representatives: Speakers of

    Adams, S., “altercation” with, 307

    as Boston representative, 49n

    and Coffin, discuss landing of troops, 171

    Convention of Towns, as chairman of, 76n, 166n

    DeBerdt reports to, 161n, 163n, 261n

    DeBerdt,

    letters from

    cited, 55n, 77n, 362n

    discussed, 163n

    printed, 163n

    quoted, 161n, 163n, 261n

    letters to

    cited, 361

    quoted, 77

    as signatory, 76n

    FB, as enemy of, 172

    FB’s views on, 164, 166n

    House of Lords, resolutions of, DeBerdt sends copies, 261n

    House of Representatives

    papers of, in handwriting, 299, 361

    resolves of, views on publication of, reported, 303

    as Speaker of, 49n, 299, 361

    Hutchinson, as enemy of, 172

    identified, 49n, 278n

    letters from, cited, 273n

    as moderate, 8, 171–72, 218n

    Navigation Acts, discusses, 218n

    Otis Jr., criticizes, 171

    troop landing, discusses, 172

    Customhouse. See also American Board of Customs

    in Boston, 140

    British troops, protection of, required, 12

    mentioned, 216

    seizures by, 139, 336, 350n

    smuggling, collusion in, 286n

    Customs Officers

    Boston. See also Hallowell, Benjamin; Harrison, Joseph

    depositions of, published, 57n

    Customs, Commissioners of. See under American Board of Customs: commissioners

    D’Ennery, Count

    identified, 373n

    letter from, listed, 371

    letters to, listed, 371

    Dalrymple, William

    Baker, FB’s orders to, FB sends copy, 71n

    Boston harbor, Royal Navy to remain in, recommends, 68n, 81

    Boston,

    landing of troops in, leads, 3, 63–65, 68n

    troop deployment in, plans for, 72

    Castle William, occupies, 3, 72

    correspondence with

    about, 71

    Barrington, FB sends copies to, 223

    Council

    cooperation from, on lack of, 81

    meeting of, attends, 63, 69, 80, 331

    objections from, 82n

    FB

    apology from, 71

    complains about, 3, 221–24, 281

    criticizes, 3, 223–24

    meets with, 63, 69, 70n, 79–81, 84

    relations with, 222

    Gage

    letters from

    cited, 68n, 70n, 84n

    FB delivers, 84

    Montresor delivers, 64

    letters to

    presented to Parliament, 144

    orders from, discussed, 82n

    Goldthwait, advises, 81

    letters from

    Council, presented to, 82n

    as enclosures, 224n

    as replies, 224n

    letters to, 70–71

    cited, 65, 68n, 149, 224n

    enclosures to, 71n

    as enclosures, 224n

    listed, 363

    as replies, 224n

    mentioned, 70n

    Quartering Act, makes requistions under, 79, 82n

    troops, quartering of

    and Council’s objections to, 82n, 230n

    Council’s objections, contests, 4, 63–64, 331, 349n

    hires buildings, 83

    his problems with, FB unaware of, 70–71

    Manufactory House, FB authorizes his occupation of, 69

    temporary accommodation, locates, 3, 65

    Dana, Richard

    as justice of the peace, 101n

    stamp distributor, resignation of, attends, 114n

    Danforth, Samuel

    Bernard Letters

    receives xxiv, 20, 36, 246n, 248, 249n, 322, 347

    Bowdoin, passes to, xxiv

    plans response to, 24, 26

    Bollan

    Bernard Letters

    received from, xxiv, 20, 36, 246n, 248, 249n, 322, 347

    acquistion of, explained by, 22, 34

    Council’s petitions to, sends, 322n

    letters from, 319–24

    about, 20

    cited, 15–16, 37, 52n, 53n, 56n, 57n, 59n, 130, 154n, 178n, 246n, 248n, 249n, 322n, 347, 352n

    quoted, 55n, 58n

    received, 54n, 322

    letters to

    cited, 51n, 130n, 133n

    enclosures to, 347

    received, 320

    Council

    election to, 189, 190n, 319n, 352n

    papers of, as co-signatory, 268n, 318, 347

    as president of, 4, 15–16, 130n, 131–32, 133n, 248, 323n, 356–57

    votes in, 132

    as councilor, 24, 106n, 133n

    FB meets with, 131

    Hillsborough

    explains Council’s petition to king, 129

    letters to, 352–58

    about, 129

    cited, xxiv, 24–26, 30, 34, 36, 89, 106n, 109n, 133n, 175, 249n, 279n, 357n

    received, 357

    sends package to, 347

    politics of, 4, 131

    Danforth, Thomas, 220

    De Grey, William

    Boston, treason of

    evaluates FB’s reports concerning, 17

    views on, 17

    career of, 50n

    Hillsborough, as adviser to, 50n

    House of Commons, speeches in, 17

    identified, 50n, 52n

    Death of General Wolfe (Benjamin West), 53n

    DeBerdt, Dennys

    Appeal to the World, Boston sends him, 58n

    on Convention of Towns, 160

    Convention of Towns, petition to king from

    Hillsborough, transmits to, 76

    receives, 75–76n

    will “use,” 161n

    Cushing

    House of Lords’ resolutions, sends copies to 261n

    letters to

    cited, 55n, 77n

    discussed, 163n

    printed, 163n

    quoted, 161n, 163n, 261n, 362n

    letters from

    enclosures to, 76n

    quoted, 77

    on FB, representations of, 29, 261n

    Hillsborough

    defends, 163n

    misled by, 163n

    places advertisement concerning, 162, 163n

    House of Representatives

    as agent of, 7, 49n, 362

    petition to king from

    Cushing sends, 76n

    delays transmitting, 115, 163n

    delivers, 361

    FB, for removal of, presents, 362

    identified, 49n

    Debt, 160n, 240n, 301n, 309

    Declaratory Act (1766). See under Parliament, Legislation: American Declaratory Act (1766)

    Delaware River, 126

    Devil, 216

    Dexter, Samuel

    Council

    election to, 189, 190n, 319n, 352n

    papers of, as co-signatory, 318, 347

    votes in, 132

    as councilor, 106n, 133n

    politics of, 4

    Di Lullo, Mauro, 255n

    Disorder. See under Civil Disorder

    Dissenters, 148

    Dixon, John, 23

    Dominions, 116, 147, 265n, 266, 301, 315

    Dorr, Harbottle

    annotations by, 37, 169n, 202n, 213n, 214n

    Dowdeswell, William

    American policy, as critic of, 16–17

    on FB, correspondence of, 17

    House of Commons, speeches in, 16–17, 19

    identified, 52n

    Downshire, Marquess of, 50n

    Draper, Richard, 214n, 301n, 349n

    Drums, 65

    Dublin, 202n

    Dunning, John

    on Crown, influence of, 53n

    House of Commons, speech in, 18

    identified, 53n

    on treason, 18

    Duxbury, Mass., 106n

    Dwelling Houses and Private Buildings, 3–4, 65, 82, 98, 155, 167–68, 229–30, 231, See also Jamaica Farm

    Economy, 121, 132

    Edes, Benjamin. See also Boston Gazette: printers of

    Boston selectmen, censured by, 176

    and FB, 25

    identified, 174, 238n

    impeachment of, 168, 169n, 177, 209, 237

    jury, intimidates, 177

    “Philanthrop,” letter from, 245n

    as printer, 8, 24, 26, 36, 54n, 55n, 57n, 58n, 173–76, 178n, 179n, 238n, 301n, 303n, 348n

    prosecution, threatened with, 177, 238n

    as Son of Liberty, 176

    and Whig party, 25, 176, 178n

    Editorial Method, 43–47

    biographical sources, 60n

    and Council records, xxiii

    Editorial Policy, 41

    Edwards, Owen Dudley, xv

    Elections, Provincial. See under Politics: provincial elections

    election day (1769), 268

    Enclosures

    in-letters

    House of Commons, address to king from, 117

    House of Lords, address to king from, 117

    king’s speeches to Parliament, 117

    not found, 208, 230

    Parliament, presented to, 117

    out-letters

    American Board of Customs, letters to, 156

    American Board of Customs, “supplement” concerning, 160

    American Quartering Acts, 230

    anonymous letters received, 120

    assembly, answers to FB’s speeches, 299

    assembly, speeches and messages to, 278

    Boston Chronicle, 280

    Boston Evening-Post, 122

    Boston Gazette, 174, 213, 239, 244

    Boston News-Letter, 76, 89

    Boston overseers of the poor, deposition of, 347

    Boston Post-Boy and Advertiser, 106, 160, 299, 310

    Boston selectmen’s circular to the Massachusetts towns, 76

    Boston town meeting, votes of, 299

    Coffin, declaration of, 165, 172

    Convention of Towns, resolves of, 76

    Council

    address to FB from, 106, 265, 268

    address to Gage from, 270, 352n

    minutes of, 65, 81, 84, 100, 352n

    petition to king from, 351n

    Dalrymple

    letters from, 223, 224n

    letters to, 223, 224n

    Gage

    letters from, 293

    letters to, 287, 293

    letters to Mackay from, 282

    Goldthwait, J., orders to, 100

    handbill to “To Fellow Citizens and Countrymen,” 257

    Hatfield selectmen, letter to the Boston selectmen from, 81

    Hillsborough, letters to, 141

    House of Representatives

    answers to FB’s messages and speeches, 278, 299, 310

    messages and speeches to, 278, 299, 310

    petition to king from, 361

    proceedings of, 280

    resolves and resolutions of, 299

    justices of the peace of Boston, letters from, 100

    lists of councilors, 188, 190–91

    Mackay

    letters from, 293

    letters to, 293

    Massachusetts Gazette, 257, 278

    Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News-Letter, 81

    Master and Council of the City of Strasbourg, letter to, 160

    newspapers and extracts, 76, 81, 89, 106, 122, 160, 174, 217, 237, 239, 244, 257, 263, 278, 280, 299, 310

    New-York Gazette, or Weekly Post-Boy, 160

    not found, 77n, 84, 95, 106, 114, 117, 120, 132, 141, 160, 174, 217, 223, 244, 253, 260, 265, 273, 280, 293, 305

    Oliver, A., anecdote by, 217

    Parliament, presented to, 65, 76, 81, 89

    Parliament, resolutions of, concerning Massachusetts, 144, 208

    Providence Gazette, 237, 239

    report of a meeting of the Boston merchants and traders, 257

    Silvester, declaration of, 165, 169

    England

    American Colonies

    mail packets to and from, 18, 57n, 63, 92, 121, 188, 194–95, 199–200, 232, 236, 240, 243, 248, 254, 258n, 278, 296, 299, 304

    and “Old-England,” 240n

    support for, 121, 123

    aristocracy of, 22, 214n

    attorney general of. See under Attorney General of England and Wales

    benefices in, 147–48

    Bernard Letters sent from, 21, 175

    counties of, 22

    Customs commissioners from, 188n

    exiles in, 201

    FB recalled to, 28, 235

    FB’s correspondence forwarded to, 306

    FB’s return to

    in aftermath of, 235

    delayed, 93, 125, 223

    departure, 35, 41, 283, 299, 304, 307

    expectations of, 28

    orders for, 258

    preparations for, 93, 126, 205, 241, 246, 249

    journalism in, 177

    judges’ commissions in, 340, 345, 351n

    justices of the peace in, 98

    law officers, 136

    laws of, 167–68, 237

    letters from, published, 170n, 182

    manorial lords in, 187

    mentioned, 41, 51n

    news from, 273n

    nobility of, 232n

    ordination in, 218

    Parliament of. See under Parliament of England

    political writing in, 177

    private correspondence from, 201n

    radicals in, 195

    solicitor general of, 136

    travelers to, 50n, 149, 149n, 157, 158n, 193, 195

    trial of colonists in, prospect of, 14–15, 19, 28, 177, 204, 208, 273n, 279n, 302n, 320

    English Liberties, 348n

    Englishmen, Rights of, 34, 204n, 303n, 343

    Epigrammaton Libri (Epigrams, Martial), 214n

    Erving, Elizabeth, 89, 133n

    Erving, John, Sr.

    Bollan

    FB’s letters, requests copies of from, 35

    letter from

    cited, 57n

    receives, 57n

    letter to

    as reply, 57n

    cited, 51n, 57n, 358n

    and Bowdoin, J., 89

    Council

    election to, 189, 190n, 319n, 352n

    minutes of meetings, personal file of, 90n

    papers of, as co-signatory, 268n, 318, 347

    votes in, 106n, 132

    as councilor, 133n

    Danforth, letters to, cited, 57n

    politics of, 4, 132, 133n

    Espionage, 8, 21, 134, 163–66, 176, See also Informers

    Essay on Crime and Punishments (Beccaria), 255n

    quoted, 254, 255n

    Essex Gazette, 169n

    Bollan, petition to House of Commons from, prints, 261n

    cited, 54n, 82n, 123n

    “Journal of the Times,” reprints, 217n

    king’s speech (8 Nov. 1768), prints, 160n

    London, letters from, prints, 207n

    Europe, 160n, 237, 239n, 255n

    Exchequer, Chancellor of, 5, 50n, 53n

    Factionalism

    and Council elections, 274

    in Massachusetts, 207n, 281

    in New York, 218

    in Parliament, 11, 22, 50, 52n, 54n, 56n, 153, 183n, 286n, 323n

    Falmouth (Portland), Maine, 256

    Families, 22, 89, 160n, 172, 210–11, See also Bernard Family; Otis Family; Royal Family

    Faneuil Hall, Boston, 3, 65, 224n

    Fauquier, Francis, 102

    Fawkener, Lady

    identified, 261n

    mentioned, 260

    Fawkener, Sir Everhard, 261n

    Feke, Robert S., 184

    Fenton, James

    identified, 214n

    and Temple, 211, 243

    Fifes, 65

    Fisher, Kitty

    allusions to, 244

    identified, 245n

    mentioned, 243

    Fitch, Samuel

    advocate general of Vice Admiralty, appointed, 225n

    mentioned, 137

    FitzRoy, Augustus Henry, 152, See under Grafton, Duke of

    Flags, 65

    Fleet, John

    identified, 217n

    mentioned, 237

    as printer, 238n, 301n

    Fleet, Thomas, Jr.

    identified, 217n

    mentioned, 216, 237

    as printer, 238n, 301n

    Fletcher, Samuel

    as importer, 257n

    Flucker, Thomas

    Council

    does not vote in, 106n

    election to, 189, 190n, 278n

    excluded from, 248

    as friend of government, 146n

    not elected to, 274, 280n

    votes in, 106n

    FB, as adviser to, 210, 213

    as friend of government, 210

    Gray, meets with, 210

    justice of the peace, appointed, 165

    justice of the peace, appointments to, reports on, 145

    politics of, 24, 210

    royal council

    appointed to, 191

    appointment to, proposed, 191

    Folger, Timothy, 161n

    Fort Hill, Boston, 72

    Fort Pownall, 126

    Fortifications. See Castle William

    France, 195, 201

    Francis, Sir Philip

    as “Junius,” 55n

    Franklin, Benjamin

    Appeal to the World, Boston sends, 58n

    and Hutchinson-Oliver Letters (1773), 29

    province agent, appointed, 52n

    on Townshend Acts, repeal of, 160n

    Franklin, William

    identified, 95n

    relocation of, FB proposes, 94

    Freedom, 168, 238

    expression, of, 180, 212, 348, 353–54, 359

    press, of, 25, 58, 177, 202

    rights of, 168

    speech, of, 177, 180

    writing, of, 180

    Freiberg, Malcolm, 53n

    French and Indian War, 132, See also Seven Years’ War

    Friends of Government

    Council

    in, 4

    not elected to, 131, 278n, 280n, 284–85, 341, 353

    restoration to, 188

    restoration to, proposed, 8, 185–86, 188

    criticize FB, 24, 26, 248

    decline of, 286n

    despondent and discouraged, 146, 236, 269, 284–85

    as faction, 89

    FB, consult with, 188

    House of Representatives, in

    numbers, 274

    weakness of, 24, 36, 250, 280

    as informers, 169n, 172

    intimidation of, 210

    as justices of the peace, 145

    refuse commissions, 114

    king’s speech (8 Nov. 1768), approve, 158

    mentioned, 114n, 166n, 176, 185

    Parliament, resolutions of, unenthusiastic about, 144–45, 236

    parliamentary authority, defend, 122, 243

    as rescinders, 274

    sentiments of, 159, 243

    views of, 285

    Friendship, 13, 22, 27

    Fruit, 286n

    Fuller, Rose

    House of Commons, motion in, 19

    identified, 53n

    Gabbett, Joseph

    FB, letters to Gage from, delivers, 307

    identified, 304n

    mentioned, 303

    Gage, Thomas

    Boston

    landing of troops in, expects resistance to, 72, 73n

    “prejudice against,” 58n

    retention of troops in, FB requests, 294

    troop deployment in, plans for, 3–4, 73, 329

    troop deployment to, instructions for, cited, 4, 49n, 77, 78n

    visits, 96, 315, 332

    Boston, and withdrawal of troops from

    about, 283n

    authority regarding, 105, 266

    Council requests, 82n, 266–67

    favors, 282–83, 288

    FB opposes, 294

    FB, discusses with, 32, 282–83, 286–89, 292–97, 301n

    FB, does not discuss with, 285

    Hillsborough, instructions from, concerning, 301n

    House of Representatives’ request for, refuses, 266

    orders, 283, 285, 292

    proposes, 32, 282–83

    resumption of, FB agrees to, 303

    on resumption of, 306–07

    suspends, 287–88

    suspension of, FB requests, 286

    Bowdoin, letter from, cited, 221n

    and British army accounts, presentation of, 289

    as commander in chief, 3, 301n

    correspondence with, about, 69, 84, 221, 233, 265, 283n, 287, 289, 294, 304

    Council

    address from, 315–19

    about, 318

    adoption of, 104–05

    cited, 4, 106, 123, 146n, 352n

    Council comments on, 337, 354

    as enclosure, 106

    Hillsborough, FB sends to, 318, 343

    responds to, 318

    signing of, 131, 146n

    address to FB from, FB sends copy, 265–66

    attitude toward, 3

    letters to

    cited, 319n

    as replies, 106n

    meeting of, attends, 96, 332

    minutes of, FB sends copies, 84

    proceedings of, concerning quartering of troops, FB reports on, 68–70, 82–84

    Dalrymple

    letters to, cited, 68n, 70n, 84n

    orders to, presented to Council, 82n

    FB

    congratulates, 271

    criticizes, 287–88

    and departure of, 223, 304, 307

    letters to Pownall from, FB transmits, 306

    replies to, 304

    FB writes to, 65, 292–93, 297

    as governor, 56n

    Hillsborough

    instructions from, 301n

    letters from

    cited, 49n, 78n, 283n

    published, 57n

    letters to

    Bollan transmits copies to Boston, 245, 247, 249n, 322

    published, xxiii, xxiv, 178n

    Council comments on, 356

    as enclosure, 248

    enclosures to, 287, 294, 318, 322

    Parliament, presented to, 320

    published, 26

    House of Representatives

    letter to, read in, 271n

    proceedings of, FB reports on, 303–04

    resolves of, criticized in, 58n, 300

    identified, 49n

    letters from, 71–75, 270–71, 282–83, 287–88, 306–08

    cited, 32, 68n, 69n, 70n, 266n, 286n, 287n, 288–89, 293n, 295n, 319n, 348n

    Council, presented to, 329, 333

    as enclosures, 287, 293

    Hillsborough comments on, 85

    Hillsborough, Gage sends copies to, 287, 289

    House of Representatives, read to, 271n

    listed, 363, 371–72

    Montresor delivers, 64

    quoted, 3, 287

    received, 73, 233, 271, 282, 286, 288, 292, 294, 306–07

    replies not found, 221

    as replies, 71, 287

    letters to, 68–70, 82–84, 219–21, 232–33, 265–66, 286–90, 293–95, 303–04

    cited, 3, 32, 65, 68n, 69n, 73n, 78n, 84n, 223, 268n, 283n, 288n, 293n, 302n, 306n, 307n, 350n

    considered by, 293

    discussed, 296

    as enclosures, 268, 289, 293–94

    Hillsborough, sends copies to, 294

    listed, 363–64, 369–72

    quoted, 2, 32

    received, 69, 71, 287, 306–07

    as replies, 233, 282, 286, 288, 293–94, 306–07

    Mackay

    letters from

    by express, 296

    cited, 302n, 306n

    letters to

    cited, 283n

    as enclosures, 282

    sends FB copies, 282

    orders to, sends, 282

    mentioned, 7, 68n

    military assistance

    explains position regarding, 78n

    ready to provide, 336

    papers of, about, xxiv, 271n

    Town House, removes canon from, 295

    troops, and quartering of

    accounts of expenditure, settlement of, requests, 270–71

    Council’s objections to, contests, 4, 96, 100

    at Crown’s expense, 71–72

    in defensive positions, 72

    FB reports on, 65, 68–70, 82–84

    legality of actions, about, 101n

    premises, hires, 99

    in private houses, no plans for, 4

    public buildings, appropriation of, favors, 3, 71–73

    in public houses, 4

    reports concerning

    Parliament, mentioned in, 231n

    temporary billets, wishes to avoid, 72

    troops, retention of, FB requests, 303

    Venus, transit of, expedition to observe

    cancellation of, informed of, 232–33

    does not fund, 221n

    FB requests assistance for, 219–21

    supports, 221n

    Garth, Charles

    Quartering Act, amendments to, proposes, 229

    Gaspee, HMS, 28

    General Court

    adjournments and prorogations, 33, 277, 308

    and Boston, removal from, 163n, 203, 234, 267

    British troops, expenses of, refuse, 289, 332

    and British troops, withdrawal of, 267

    Cambridge, moved to, 235n, 268n, 290n

    composition of, 268n

    and Council, election of, 267

    dissolution of, 315, 341, 343, 349n, 354, 361

    Governor. See under BERNARD, FRANCIS: GOVERNOR OF MASSACHUSETTS

    Governor and Council. See under Governor and Council

    Governor’s Council. See under Council

    House of Representatives. See under House of Representatives

    “ill humour” in, 272

    legislation. See under General Court, Legislation

    not in session, 277, 332

    proceedings of, radicalism of, 168

    prorogations of. See under General Court: adjournments and prorogations

    salary grants, 138n, 252, 277, 291

    session dates (1769), 163n

    in session, 32, 235n, 252n, 268n, 274, 283, 341

    summoning of, Hillsborough’s instructions respecting, 234

    General Court, Legislation

    acts and resolves. See also under General Court, Legislation

    about, 45

    Annual Supply Act (1769)

    cited, 311n

    mentioned, 258, 301n

    passage of, 309

    Annual Taxation Act (1769)

    cited, 311n

    mentioned, 301n

    passage of, 309

    appropriation acts, 301n

    continuation acts, 301n

    governor’s salary act

    failure to enact, 277

    instructions concerning, 276

    impost and excise acts, 301n

    Impost and Tunnage Act (1769), 301n

    Indian trade act, 301n

    Genoa, 201n

    Geography, 219–21

    George II, King

    death of, 311–12

    George III, King. See also King, The

    accession of, 312n

    children of, 117

    kidnap, plan to, 117n

    queen of, 117

    Georgia Gazette

    listed, 363

    Germans, 160n

    Gerrish, Joseph

    Council, election to, vetoed, 270n, 279n, 280n

    Gerrish, Joseph (N.S)

    identified, 226n

    mentioned, 225

    Gibbs, Mr., 373n

    Gill, John. See also Boston Gazette: printers of

    and FB, 25

    identified, 174, 238n

    impeachment of, 168, 169n, 177, 209, 237

    jury, intimidates, 177

    “Philanthrop,” letter from, 245n

    as printer, 8, 24, 26, 36, 54n, 55n, 57n, 58n, 173, 175–76, 178n, 179n, 238n, 301n, 303n, 348n

    prosecution, threatened with, 177, 238n

    and Whig party, 25, 176, 178n

    Glasgow, 202n, 280

    Glasgow, HMS, 65n, 82n, 123n

    Glass

    duties on, 228n, 263

    Glorious Revolution (1688–89), 207n, 311n

    God, 170n, 236, 240, 359–60

    Goddard, Sarah Updike, 238n

    Goldthwait, Joseph

    commissary general, declines appointment as, 81

    identified, 82n, 373n

    letter to, listed, 364

    mentioned, 80

    orders to

    as enclosure, 100

    Parliament, presented to, 100

    Gossip, 7

    Government

    autonomy in, 38

    and conspiracy theories, 195, 329, 361

    “contempt” of, 84

    “disobedience” to, 9

    and general welfare, 181

    “good government,” 94, 250, 340

    openness in, 87, 281

    punishments and rewards in, 93

    Government of Massachusetts

    acting governor, Hutchinson as, 234, 276, 290, 309

    American Board of Customs, protection requested by, 139–40

    annual supply acts, 258, 295, 301n, 309–10

    authority of undermined, 12, 84, 115

    “General Despondency,” 93

    authority of, restoration of, 93, 121–22, 135, 181, 185, 237, See also Government, Colonial: reform of

    and Bernard Letters, publication of, 247, 249, 300

    Boston, removal from, 162

    British government, communications with, 247–48

    British troops

    assisted by, 12, 78n, 93, 140

    barracks for, provides, 332

    business of, 285, 301n

    “civil power and authority suspended,” 85

    commissions under, 106n, 111–14, 136, 145

    constitution of, 28, 87, 112, 122, 181, 243

    and Council, 357

    “Dignity” of, 234

    dissolution of (1689), 310n

    expenses of. See Public Finances

    FB accused of quitting, 276

    informers, 172

    insurrection, facing, 117, 164, 166

    internal disputes, 109–10, 154–58

    law officers in, 100n, 134–37, 156, 165, 225, See also Sewall, Jonathan; Attorney General of Massachusetts

    newspapers, criticized in, 7, 176, 210–11, 245n

    newspapers, support in. See “Philanthrop” (Jonathan Sewall)

    officers of. See also Attorney General of Massachusetts; BERNARD, FRANCIS; Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts; Province Secretary of Massachusetts; Province Treasurer of Massachusetts

    appointment of, 136, 224

    commissions of, 348n

    competency of, 273n, 357n

    Massachusetts, misrepresent, 197

    mentioned, 5–6, 49, 110, 114, 136–37, 201n, 225

    as newspaper writers, 311n

    protection of, 282, 289, 292

    salaries of, 93, 252, 279n, 298

    in secret discussions, 6

    threats against, 164

    opposition to

    and Council, 90n

    from Whig party, 225, 274, 276

    overthrown, feared, 117

    pluralism in, 7

    private animosities in, 159

    property of, 97

    and public buildings, 97, 100n, 334, See also Buildings

    and public finances, 220, 352n

    publications by, 214n

    Quartering Act, obligations under, 82n, 98–99, 230n, 231n, 261n, 288, 329, 332–33, 344–45

    reform of. See under Government, Colonial: reform of

    and sedition, 162, 176, 215–16

    “state” of, 108, 116, 118, 125, 142, 226

    Parliament considers, 142, 144, 153, 162, 202

    support for, 4, 8, 24, 26, 36, 89, 114, 122–23, 131, 146, 158–59, 186, 188, 236, 243, 248, 250, 269, 274, 280, 284–85, 286n, 341, 353, See also Friends of Government

    “tolerably quiet,” 102

    and treason, investigations of, 12, 208, 228

    weakness of, 109, 226, See also Government, Royal: weakness of

    and Whig party, ascendancy of, 32, 226, 280, 284

    Government, Colonial

    constitutions of, 119n

    functions of, 6

    reform of, 10, 30, 38, 59n, 93, 122, 141–42, 140–42, 154, 159, 181, 186–87, 188, 243, 339, 348n, See also Council: royal appointment of

    parliamentary legislation required for, 6

    Government, Royal

    in American Colonies, 113

    authority of challenged, 33, 227

    authority of, restoration of, 2, 14, 93, 113, 187, 226

    and colonial government, reform of, 8, 109, 112, 186, 226, 269, 339, 348n

    and Council, reform of, 6, 8, 25, 27, 59n, 93, 109, 113, 120, 122, 181–82, 185–88, 191, 195, 199–200, 203, 226–27, 230n, 270, 339, 341, 348n, 350n

    elements of, 227

    extension of, 14, 114, 136, 187, 195, 339, 341

    and governors’ responsibilities, 346

    governors’ salaries, 5

    governors, authority of, 114, 359

    honors in, 187

    as “King’s Government,” 3, 72–73, 112–13, 145, 153, 161, 165, 210, 216, 274, 280, 310n

    loyalty to, professions of, 342

    Massachusetts in, 261n, 290n

    officials. See under Crown: officers of

    opposition to, 112

    Province Charter (1691), under, 87, 310n, 350n

    royal appointed councils, 355

    royal commands, 64, 79–80, 88, 115, 208, 226, 234, 258, 262, 267, 288–89, 310, 348, See also under King, The: royal commands

    royal commissions, 12, 16, 18, 28, 91, 99, 112–14, 139–40, 144, 147, 206, 224–25, 261n, 340, 350

    royal writs of mandamus, 8, 191

    weakness of, 112, 227

    Governor and Council

    authority of, 97, 112

    British troops, authority to request, 1, 78n

    British troops, quartering of, sequence of debates respecting, 328–52

    and justices of the peace, reform of commissions, 106n

    meetings of, 63, 68n, 70, 79, 91, 96, 98, 107, 223, 277, 299, See also Council: proceedings of (with given date)

    General Council, 103, 315

    minutes. See under Council: minutes

    Quartering Act (1765), obligations under, 82n

    Winthrop’s expedition, do not fund, 221n

    Governor’s Council. See under Council

    Governors, Colonial

    Barbados, of, 227, 228n, 242n

    Hillsborough, circulars from, See also Hillsborough, Earl of: circulars from

    about, 264,

    cited, 59n

    instructions to. See also Hillsborough, Earl of: FB as governor: instructions to

    Martinque, of, 373n

    Massachusetts, of, 18, 29, 53n

    mentioned, 42

    New England, of, 207n

    New Hampshire, of, 219

    New Jersey, of, 95n

    powers of, 341

    Quebec, of, 373n

    salaries of. See also Crown: salaries

    South Carolina, of, 95n, 151n

    St. Domingue, of, 373n

    Virginia, of, 102, 284n

    Windward Islands, of, 373n

    Grafton Ministry

    American policy of

    about, 2, 9

    conciliation in, 10, 31, 264, 323n

    criticism of, 15

    failures in, 154, 362

    and FB, 232

    flaws in, 31

    further taxes, no plans for, 263

    imperial rhetoric in, 11

    on Massachusetts, 16

    and Parliament, 11–12

    Parliamentary debates on, initiate, 153, 207n

    tea duty

    repeal of, 38

    retention of, 30

    cabinet, 9–10, 50n

    tea duty, repeal of, divisions on, 30

    critics of, 10, 51n, 171n

    end of, 195

    FB’s reports, consider, 10, 16, 154

    FB’s supporters in, 201

    formation of, 1–2

    governors’ salaries, provision for, 251

    ministers in, 10, 50n, 153

    identified, 50n

    opposition to, 39

    Parliament, majority in, 10–11

    Townshend duties, repeal of

    considers, 30–31

    favors, 264

    treason commission, proposes, 16, 273n

    Grafton, Duke of

    administration of, 1–2, 9–11, 15–16, 31, 38–39, 151, 153, 171, 195, 201, 207, 232, 251, 264, 273, 323, 362

    cabinet, outvoted in, 30

    in Chatham ministry, 50n, 54n, 323n

    and factionalism, 11

    and FB, 153

    identified, 50n

    mentioned, 218n

    portrait of, 152

    resignation of, 58n

    supporters of, 306n

    tea duty, repeal of, favors, 30

    Gray, Harrison

    Council

    election to, 189, 190n, 319n

    papers of, as co-signatory, 268n, 318, 347

    votes in, 106n

    Flucker, meets with, 210

    politics of, 4, 133n, 355

    Temple, libel by, receives, 210, 213

    Great Britain

    American Colonies

    concessions to, 122

    friends of, 55n

    imperial power in, 17

    and independence of, 117

    mutual interests, 264, 325

    reconciliation with, 2, 27, 94, 262

    relations with, 25, 237

    deterioration in, 173–74

    union with, 94, 262

    war with, prospect of, 1–2

    authority of, 263

    chronology of events in, 24

    constitution of, 215

    “corruption” of, 240n

    as “country,” 17, 78

    dominions of, 301n

    government of. See under British Government

    as “home,” 10, 18, 150, 159, 161, 168, 178, 192, 237, 308–09, 331, 337

    imperialism of, 17, 27, 122

    loyalty to, 284

    mentioned, 362

    military installations in, 283n

    as “mother country,” 77n, 150, 237, 317

    newspapers of, 76n

    officials of, 170n, 229

    opposition to, 239, 316, 318

    people of, 239n

    politics in. See under British Politics

    resistance to, 172

    sovereignty of, 237, 308

    subjects of, 194, 196, 360

    treason trials in, 300

    Great Lakes, 233

    Greenleaf, Benjamin

    Council, election to, vetoed, 270n, 279n, 280n

    Greenleaf, Stephen

    British officers, waits on, 222

    British troops, quartering of, oversees, 65, 70

    Brown sues, 101n

    identified, 224n

    Manufactory House, clearance of, attempts, 96–97, 100n

    Greenwich, 221n

    Grenadiers, 65

    Grenville, George

    American writings, denounces radicalism in, 171n

    FB’s “Respect” for, 212

    as Grafton administration, critic of, 171n

    “Grenvillean system,” 31

    Hillsborough, criticizes, 201

    House of Commons, speeches in, 168

    about, 170n

    printed, 171n, 202n, 207n

    House of Lords, resolutions of, criticizes, 17

    identified, 53n, 286n

    mentioned, 95n, 213n

    name misspelt, 214n

    supporters of, 11

    as Temple, patron of, 193, 213

    Grenvillites, 11, 306n

    Guilford, Earl of, 50n, See under North, Lord

    Haddock, Richard, 245n

    Haddock’s Bagnio, 243–44, 245n

    Halifax, Earl of

    letters to, filed, 41

    Halifax, N. S.

    British commander at, 222, See also Dalrymple, William

    British fleet arrives from, 63, 69

    British garrison at, 78n, 82n

    British regiments at

    Boston, arrive in, 63, 93, 223

    Boston, deployed to, 77, 85, 317, 329

    Boston, expected in, 329, 343

    British troops withdrawn to, 32, 282, 285, 292, 295–96, 304

    mentioned, 82n, 123n, 225, 284n

    Vice Admiralty Court at, 6, 224–25, 228n

    Hall, Hugh

    identified, 219n

    mentioned, 218

    Hallowell, Benjamin

    American Board of Customs

    appointed commissioner of, 193

    represents, 210

    correspondence of, carries to London, 247

    Treasury

    attends, 210

    examined by, 57n

    Hancock, John

    Adams, J.

    and, 137

    represented by, 110

    biographers of, 138n

    as Boston selectman, 197–98, 215

    Council, election to, vetoed, 270n, 279n, 280n

    Customs commissioners, pursued by, 5, 350n

    employees of, 6, 110

    legal pursuit of, 5–6, 137, 157n

    and Liberty, seizure of, 137

    mansion of, 74

    Quincy, D., courtship and marriage, 137–38n

    Sewall, settles differences with, 137–38n

    as smuggler, 5

    and Temple, 193

    treason, pursued for, 137

    trial of, 6–7, 110, 137, 138n, 142n, 156, 225

    Hancock’s Wharf, Boston, 34

    Handbills

    “To Fellow Citizens and Countrymen,” as enclosure, 257

    Hanging, 214n

    Hanoverian Succession, 359

    Happiness

    Boston, of, 317

    FB, of, 203

    Massachusetts Council, of, 346

    Hardwick, Mass., 278n

    Hardwicke Papers, 51n, 144n

    Harrison, Joseph

    and “B. W.” affair, 218

    and Liberty riot, 167

    Hartford, Conn., 68

    Harvard College, 32–34, 206n, 220, 221n, 235n, 268n, 290n, 326

    commencement, 326

    Harwich, Lord, 50n

    Harwich, Mass., 278n

    Hatfield Selectmen

    Boston selectmen, letter to

    as enclosure, 81

    Parliament, presented to, 81

    Hatfield, Mass., 81n, 278n, 373n

    Hawke, Edward

    identified, 373n

    letter to, listed, 369

    Hawley, Joseph

    Council, election to, refuses, 270n, 275

    FB’s views on, 275

    as Northampton representative, 279n

    Otis Jr., disagreements with, 275

    patriotism of, 279n

    Health and Ill-Health

    illness, 54n, 110, 221n

    recovery, 94

    spa treatment, 94

    wellbeing, 5, 93–94, 125, 181, 222, 238n

    Henry VIII, King

    treason statutes of, 12, 15, 17, 208, 302

    Henshaw, Joshua

    as Boston selectman, 197, 215n

    Council, election to, vetoed, 279n, 280n

    Hercules, 218n

    Hill, John

    Council

    election to, 189, 190n, 319n

    papers of, as co-signatory, 318

    as councilor, 106n

    as justice of the peace, 101n

    Hill, Wills. See under Hillsborough, Earl of

    Hillsborough, Earl of

    Admiralty, letters from, published, 57n

    assembly

    FB’s messages and speeches to, FB sends copies, 278, 295, 299

    proceedings of, FB reports on, 273–79

    summoning of

    FB reports on, 253

    FB reviews plans for, 161–62, 267–68

    attorney general and solicitor general of England and Wales, letter to, cited, 117n

    Barrington

    FB, letters from, transmitted by, 281

    friendship with, 92

    as interlocutor, uses, 102n, 118, 204, 235, 240, 281

    similarity in views, 196

    and Bernard Letters, xxiii–xxv, xii, 51n, 52n, 53n, 56n, 58n, 174–77, 178n, 182, 247n, 248, 249n, 322, 348, 353, 356, See also BERNARD, FRANCIS: BERNARD LETTERS

    Bollan

    censures, 37

    criticized by, 36

    meets with, 31, 34, 347–48

    Boston

    demands obedience from, 5, 107

    and “state” of, 85

    Boston Evening-Post, FB sends copies, 217

    Boston Gazette

    FB sends copies, 93, 174, 205, 209, 217, 239, 243

    printers of, prosecution of, FB recommends, 173–74

    Boston merchants, meetings of, FB reports on, 257

    Boston News-Letter, FB sends copies, 89, 257

    Boston overseers of the poor, deposition of, Danforth sends, 347

    Boston Post-Boy and Advertiser, FB sends copies, 106, 299, 310

    Boston selectmen, circular to Massachusetts towns from, FB sends, 76

    Boston town meeting

    letters to FB from, FB sends copies, 106

    votes and resolves of, FB sends copies, 299

    Bowdoin, accusations of, FB refutes, 127–30

    Bowdoin, letters from, 324–28

    cited, xxiv, 25–26, 130, 175, 350n, 351n

    received, 328

    British criticism of, 10, 17, 20, 36, 201, 207n, 264

    British troops

    deployment of, issues orders for, 4

    quartering of

    Council’s obstructions to, FB reports on, 79–82, 95–101

    preparations for, FB reports on, 63–68

    withdrawal of

    discusses with Gage, 282

    favors, 32

    circulars from, 263–65

    about, 30, 59n

    listed, 59n, 370

    Coffin, declaration of, FB sends, 165, 172

    colonial government, opinions on, 6

    colonial government, reform of

    cabinet, recommends to, 154, 203–04, 230n, 242n

    FB’s proposals for, 141

    considers, 154

    promotes, 56, 203

    colonial policymaking

    conciliation in, favors, 264

    influence on, 10, 20, 31, 38, 348

    pragmatism in, 230n

    punitive measures in, favors, 10, 13, 30, 196, 203–04, 230n, 348

    Convention of Towns

    FB reports on, 71–77

    petition of, refuses to accept, 76

    resolves of, FB sends copies, 76

    correspondence with

    about, 57n, 65, 76, 81, 89, 100, 106, 109, 114, 129, 132, 136, 146, 163, 165, 174, 182, 188, 213, 217, 239, 253, 255, 257, 264, 268, 273, 278, 291n, 293, 299, 311,

    Bollan requests copies of, 348

    delayed, 268

    features of, 32, 214n

    inconsistencies in, 118–19

    investigation into, proposed, 261n

    numbering of, 41–42

    Parliament, presentation to, discussed, 181, 249

    on publication of, 39, 119

    as series, 41

    as source of information, 171n

    Whigs, reviewed by, 36–37, 39, 168, 200

    Council

    address to FB from

    FB sends copy, 268–69

    Gage sends, 318

    address to Gage from, FB sends copies, 106, 318, 343, 352n

    censures, 59n, 85, 142–43, 153

    minutes of, FB sends copies, 65, 81, 100, 106, 352n

    opposition of, FB reports on, 86–90

    Parliament, petitions to, FB reports on preparation of, 130–33

    proceedings of

    American Board of Customs, return of, FB reports on, 103–04

    Council, address to Gage from, FB reports on, 104–05

    Hillsborough, concerning instructions from, FB reports on, 103

    official papers, publication of, FB reports on, 86–90

    quartering of troops, concerning, FB reports, 79–82, 95–101

    troops, request for withdrawal of, FB reports on, 266–67

    royal appointment of

    favors, 6, 13

    FB recommends, 8, 59n, 113, 181–82, 183n, 185–88, 191, 199, 300

    proposes, 230n

    “unjustifiable behaviour” of, 142

    Council, letters from, 328–52

    Bollan delivers and transmits, 347, 350n, 357

    cited, xxiv, 24–26, 30, 36, 44, 89, 100n, 106n, 106n, 106n, 109n, 133n, 133n, 175, 249n, 279n, 357n

    despatched, 296

    preparation of, 278

    published, 35, 357

    councilors, lists of, FB sends, 188

    Customs commissioners, views on, 161n

    Danforth, letters from, 352–58

    cited, xxiv, 24–26, 30, 34, 36, 89, 106n, 109n, 133n, 175, 249n, 279n, 357n

    received, 357

    and de Grey, 50n

    DeBerdt

    and, 115

    misleads, 163n

    views of, 117n

    FB

    baronetcy for

    announces, 146n, 234

    approves, 232

    FB accepts honor, 179–80, 252

    FB expresses gratitude, 253–55

    patent, pays for, 118, 179–80, 205

    letters to Gage from

    FB sends copies, 289

    Gage sends copies, 287

    mispresentations by, Bowdoin alleges, 324–28

    orders to Goldthwait from, FB sends copy, 100

    relocation of, options for, discussed with, 181

    as scapegoat, considers, 31, 119, 153, 201, 348, 351n

    supports, 178n

    FB aims to influence, 174, 198, 255n

    FB as governor

    attitude toward, 13

    concerns with, 222

    conduct as, FB defends, 162

    conduct of, approves, 7, 9, 13, 31, 59n, 85, 116, 118, 232, 348

    departure of

    anxieties concerning, 125

    arrangements for, informed of, 299

    discussed, 259, 310

    departure, arrangements for, FB reports on, 252

    firmness, urges, 153

    instructions to. See also Hillsborough, Earl of: governors, instructions to

    assembly, official correspondence, not to communicate to, 177

    assembly, summoning of, 203, 234

    assembly, to dissolve, 175, 300, 349n

    Circular Letter, for rescinding of, 59n

    FB acknowledges receipt of, 161, 164, 252–53

    “illegal and unconstitutional Acts,” respecting, 115

    leave of absence suspended, 93, 102, 125, 223

    Liberty riot, to investigate, 2, 6, 8, 204, 208

    mentioned, 5

    province magistracy, reform of, 6, 114

    recall, for, 182, 233–35

    Townshend duties, partial repeal of, 263–65

    treason, to investigate, 8

    about, 28, 117n, 204, 208–9, 228, 261n, 273n

    FB receives, 28

    troops, deployment of, concerning, 72, 83, 329

    prudence, urges, 264

    recalls, 31, 146n, 154, 232–35, 240, 279n

    FB writes to, 93, 125, 174, 258, 285, 290

    FB, reports from, evaluates and considers, 9, 117–19, 154

    FB’s correspondence with Dalrymple, FB sends copies, 224n

    FB’s views on, 14, 28, 262

    Gage, instructions to

    troop deployment, concerning, 4, 77

    cited, 49n

    Gage, letters from

    Bollan transmits copy to Boston, 322, 249n

    cited, 287, 289

    Council comments on, 356

    enclosures to, 294

    as enclosures, 248

    FB sends copies, 293

    published, xxiii, 26, 57n, 178n

    Gage, letters to

    cited, 49n, 78n, 283n

    FB sends copies, 293

    Gage, letters to FB from

    FB sends copies, 268

    Gage sends copies, 294

    governors, correspondence of, carefully reads, 10

    Hancock, prosecution of, FB reports on, 137

    handbills, FB sends copies, 257

    hard-liner, reputation as, 10, 30, 230n

    Hatfield selectmen, letter to Boston selectmen from, FB sends copy, 81

    House of Representatives

    answers to FB’s messages and speeches, FB sends copies, 278, 299, 310

    FB’s messages and speeches to, FB sends copies, 278, 299, 310

    petition to king from

    delays presenting, 7, 115–16, 117n, 162, 163n, 207n, 300

    explains delay in presenting, 115–16

    presents, 351n

    receives, 115

    transmission of, censures, 59n

    petition to remove FB

    Cushing sends, 361

    DeBerdt delivers, 361

    proceedings of

    FB reports on, 273–79, 295–303, 308–15

    FB sends copies, 280

    resolves and resolutions of, FB sends copies, 278, 299

    House of Representatives, resolves and resolutions of, FB sends copies, 299, 301n

    Hutchinson

    instructs FB to liaise with, 253

    successor to FB, nominates as, 311n

    views of, FB reports, 27

    identified, 49n, 50n

    “illegal and unconstitutional Acts,” investigation of

    FB reports on progress, 164–65

    instructions respecting, 115

    and Imperial Crisis, 39, 50n, 204, 230n, 264

    instructions from, as enclosures, 234–35

    justices of the peace

    new appointments, FB reports on, 111–14, 144–46, 165

    justices of the peace of Boston

    letters to FB from, FB sends copies, 100

    obstructions by, FB reports on, 97–98

    king’s speech to Parliament (8 Nov. 1768)

    defends, 116

    sends FB, 117, 160

    letters from, 84–86, 115–19, 142–43, 153–54, 207–09, 231–35

    about, 59n, 114, 160, 163n

    Board of Trade, considered by, 310

    cited, 7, 9–10, 13, 53n, 59n, 95n, 106n, 109n, 114n, 117, 127n, 138n, 146n, 154n, 160n, 163n, 164, 182, 183n, 207n, 235n, 241n, 253n, 255n, 259n, 264, 279n, 319n, 348n, 349n, 351n

    copies transmitted to Boston, xxiv

    Council

    discussed by, 129, 317, 352

    read to, 101n, 163n, 258, 329

    enclosures to, 160n, 242n

    Hulton, FB gives extract to, 103

    listed, 364, 366–69

    Parliament, presented to, 39, 59n, 143, 153, 323n

    private, 118–19, 231

    published, 39

    quoted, 7, 182

    received, 28, 85, 117, 119, 125, 143, 146, 153, 160–61, 163n, 179, 182, 204, 208, 228n, 232, 235, 252, 254, 264, 273n

    as replies, 65, 76, 81, 85, 89, 146, 182

    letters to, 63–68, 71–77, 79–82, 86–89, 95–101, 103–09, 111–14, 127–33, 144–46, 161–66, 173–82, 185–88, 209–14, 216–18, 238–40, 252–53, 253–58, 266–68, 271–79, 291–93, 295–303, 308–15

    about, xxiii, 3, 6, 8, 11–12, 33, 52n, 59n, 178n, 183n, 197, 261n, 291n, 293n, 303n, 318, 348n, 350n

    Adams, S., commentaries by, 58n

    attorney general of England, referred to, 115

    Barrington discusses, 281

    Board of Trade, considered by, 136, 146, 163, 165, 174, 188, 253, 268, 273, 278, 293, 299

    Bollan transmits copies to Boston, 35, 247–48, 249n, 322, 348n

    Boston, copies transmitted to, 245

    Bowdoin, criticized by, 25, 325–28

    cited, 3–4, 6–9, 13, 21, 25, 32–33, 45, 51n, 68n, 71, 76n, 84n, 85, 86n, 89n, 91, 95n, 110, 114n, 117n, 127n, 130n, 136, 138, 141, 142n, 143n, 146n, 153, 154n, 156, 161n, 165, 166n, 169n, 175, 178n, 179n, 182, 198, 201n, 204n, 207n, 209n, 213n, 217n, 223, 224n, 225, 228n, 231n, 238n, 244, 245n, 249n, 252n, 255n, 259n, 273n, 279n, 291n, 301n, 306n, 323n, 328n, 348n, 349n, 350n, 351n, 352n, 357, 362n

    Council, criticized by, 8, 51n, 301n, 348n, 328–52, 328–52, 353, 357n, 362n

    enclosures to, 76, 129, 130n, 169, 172, 245n, 270, 319, 325, 349n, 351n, 352n

    as enclosures, 190–91, 249n, 322, 349n

    filed, 41, 268, 322

    king, presented to, 85, 142, 153, 182, 208

    listed, xxv, 86n, 117n, 216, 363–72

    not found, 253, 273

    Parliament, presented to, 11–12, 16, 29, 51n, 52n, 59n, 63–65, 75–76, 79–81, 103–06, 128–32, 320

    private, 179, 188, 209, 212, 254

    published, xxiii, xxv, 36, 39, 54n, 56n, 58n, 59n, 101n, 106n, 109n, 114n, 133n, 178n, 200, 247n, 322, 347, See also BERNARD, FRANCIS: BERNARD LETTERS

    quoted, 1, 19, 27–28, 232, 283, 300, 349n

    received, 65, 76, 81, 85, 89, 100, 106, 109, 114–15, 132, 136, 142, 146, 153, 162, 165, 174, 188, 209n, 217, 239, 253, 257, 268, 273, 278, 293, 299, 310

    as replies, 28, 103, 119, 125, 134, 161, 164, 179, 208, 235, 252, 254

    Liberty riot, cessation of investigation into, informed of, 134

    Mackay

    letters from, FB sends copies, 293

    letters to, FB sends copies, 293

    Massachusetts Circular Letter, rescinding of, instructions on, 59n

    Massachusetts Gazette, FB sends copies, 278

    on Massachusetts, crisis of government in, 85

    memorial to, mentioned, 95n

    newspapers, FB sends copies, 199, 217

    nonimportation movement, FB reports on, 255–58

    official correspondence, publication of, FB reports on, 86–90

    and Ohio River colony, 59n

    Oliver’s anecdote, FB sends, 217

    Parliament

    addresses to king from, sends FB, 160n, 117, 207

    debates in, informs FB about, 153–54

    presents FB’s correspondence to, 11–12, 15–16, 115, 142

    discussed, 180–81

    plans for, 10, 13, 117–19, 182

    proposes resolutions on Massachusetts to, 11, 144

    resolutions of, sends FB, 208

    on parliamentary authority, enforcement of, 263

    political writing, FB reports on, 216, 239

    Pownall, J.

    FB’s correspondence with, reviews, 118

    as friend of, 120n, 143

    meets with, 117

    printers, prosecution of, FB recommends, 173–74, 238n

    Providence Gazette, FB sends copies, 239, 243

    province law officers, roles of, FB explains, 134–35

    province magistracy, reform of

    FB recommends, 59n

    proposes, 6, 114

    royal instruction

    as enclosure, 235

    sends, 235

    Sayre

    and, 115

    letter from, cited, 163n

    as secretary of state

    appointment, 41, 50n

    career, 10, 38

    resignation, 38

    sedition, evidence concerning, FB reports on, 8

    Sewall, FB discusses, 134–35

    Shelburne, discusses FB with, 51n

    Silvester, declaration of, FB sends, 165, 169

    tea duty, retention of, favors, 30–31

    Temple, libels by, FB reports on, 209–13

    Townshend duties, partial repeal of

    announces plan for, 263–65

    treason, investigation of

    FB reports on, 271–73

    instructions concerning, about, 28, 117n, 204, 209, 228, 273n

    treason, trials for, views on, 204

    troop transports, arrival of, FB reports on, 63

    troops, landing of, FB reports on, 79

    and Virginia, governorship of, 103n

    Virginia, lieutenant-governorship of

    on offer, withdrawal of, 118

    Whig party criticizes, 38, 201

    Hingham, Mass., 106n

    His Majesty in Council, 232n, 351n, See also Privy Council

    and commissions, power to supersede, 113

    orders-in-council, provincial legislation, for disallowing, 112

    His Majesty’s Government. See also King, The; Government, Royal; Crown

    His Majesty’s Ships (HMS). See under name of vessel; Royal Navy

    Historians

    and historiography, 8, 14, 21–22, 24, 28, 37–38, 56n, 89, 149

    History

    American folk memory, 4

    colonial America, of, xv

    course of, 39

    Hobbes, Thomas

    Cive (1651), cited, 178n

    Holt, John

    identified, 238n

    mentioned, 237

    Honors, 180, 187, 250, 254

    Hood, Samuel

    Boston, “prejudice against,” 58n

    British troops, withdrawal of

    FB, consults with, 296–97, 303, 306

    correspondence with, about, 284

    FB requests passage to England, 283–84

    FB writes to, 284n

    identified, 373n

    letters from, received, 283

    letters to, 283–84

    cited, 13, 33, 178n

    listed, 366, 371

    replies, 283

    Stephens, letters to

    Parliament, presented to, 144, 320

    published, xxiv, xxv, 37, 58n, See also Letters to Hillsborough (1769)

    Vice Admiralty, as judge of, 302n

    Hope, HMS, 123n

    Horse Riding, 94

    Houghton Library, xv

    House of Commons

    adjournments, 322n

    American affairs, debates, 16–20, 29, 153, 320–22

    American correspondence, debates, 16–19

    Bollan, petition from

    considers, 321, 324n

    as enclosure, 322

    mentioned, 260

    presented, 16

    printed, 261n

    clerks of the papers

    Bernard Letters, copy, xxiv, 20–22, 24–25, 39, 57n, 175, 246n, 247n, 248, 324n

    mentioned, 34–35, 57n, 349n

    divisions in, 19, 321

    FB’s correspondence, considers, 16–20, 29, 34–35, 362n

    government majorities in, 10

    House of Lords

    address to the king from

    approves, 24, 144, 204n, 228n, 238n, 261n, 322n, 357n

    considers, 15, 19, 153

    debates, 20

    receives, 12

    votes on, 20

    resolutions of

    adoption of, 24

    approves, 144, 204n, 228n, 238n, 261n, 322n, 357n

    considers, 15, 19, 144, 153

    debates, 19–20

    receives, 12

    votes on, 20

    journals of, 178n, 182, 183n, 349n

    king, address to

    approves, 209n, 228n

    as enclosure, 117, 160n

    and king’s speech (8 Nov. 1768), 9

    leaders of, 11, 52n, 175, 182, 273n

    Massachusetts Council, petition from

    cited, 133n, 322n, 351n

    preparation of, 129

    presentation of, 320–21

    presented, 15–16

    read, 16

    summary of, 132–33

    members. See under Parliament: members of

    members’ privileges, 174

    mentioned, 52n, 168, 204n, 261n, 286n, 323n

    Quartering Act (1765), amendments to, debates, 231n, 261n

    resolutions of, 144n, 151n

    rumors concerning, 242–43

    Strangers’ Gallery, 20

    Townshend duties, repeal of, debates, 322

    votes of, printed, 330, 337

    and Wilkes controversy, 10, 16, 19, 22, 78, 195

    House of Lords

    factions in, 11

    journals of, about, xxiv

    king, address to

    adoption of, 209n, 228n, 261n, 322n, 357n

    as enclosure, 117, 160n

    FB’s disappointment with, 226

    mentioned, 153

    recommendations of, 12

    and king’s speech (8 Nov. 1768), 9, 11

    library of, xxiv

    Massachusetts Council, petition from

    cited, 133n, 322n, 351n

    preparation of, 129

    mentioned, 186

    Quartering Act, final reading of, 231n

    resolutions of, on Massachusetts

    adoption of, 24, 143, 151n, 204n, 228n, 238n, 242n, 261n, 322n, 357n

    criticism of, 144, 160, 188, 236–37

    as enclosure, 143, 261n

    mentioned, 153

    Wilkes controversy, debates on, 238n

    House of Representatives

    in abeyance, 346

    acting governor’s salary grant, does not vote, 303n

    and Adams, S., 26, 28, 32, 298–99, 303, 361

    Adams, S., in, 296, 301n

    agent of

    candidates for, 29

    and Council agent, 29

    effectiveness of, 7

    instructs, 361

    mentioned, 76, 115, 261n

    represents, 362

    answers to FB’s messages and speeches

    Council, considered by, 298

    discussed, 274–75, 277, 295, 298, 342

    as enclosures, 274, 277–78, 299, 310

    and governor’s salary, 303n

    printed, 277

    quoted, 300n, 301n, 303n

    radicalism of, 277, 298, 301n, 303n, 308

    royal authority, challenge, 300n, 310n

    Bernard Letters, reviews, 300

    Boston members, influence of, 268n, 274, 277, 280

    British troops, presence of, protests, 300

    business of

    pending, 309

    suspends in protest, 295–96

    clerk of, 26, 28, 32, 296, 298–99, 301n, 303, 361

    as author, 49n

    as compiler, 301n

    colonial assemblies, circular to (11 Feb. 1768)

    about, 39

    controversy over, 171n

    Parliament, denounced by, 11

    radicalism of, 11

    rescinding of, 39, 59n, 175, 342, See also Rescinding Controversy

    votes and divisions on, 39, 59n

    committees of, 235n, 277

    and constitution, 112

    and Council, 207n, 301n, 342, 353

    Crown officers, misrepresented by, 300

    dissolution of. See under Assembly (the Council and the House of Representatives): dissolution of

    elections to (1769), 274, 280

    elections to, procedures for, 85

    FB

    on abuses of power by, 359–61

    conduct of

    censures, 300, 303n, 359–62

    considers, 28, 300

    conspiracy by, suspects, 4

    criticism by, reviews, 359–60

    defies, 33

    impeachment and removal of, considers, 32, 38, 58n, 174, 259, 301n, 359, 361–62

    in conflict with, 346

    letters to Gage from, reads, 271n

    misrepresented by, accusations respecting, 300, 360–61

    troops, blames him for bringing, 300

    FB intends to confront, 259

    FB lacks influence over, 340

    FB lacks support in, 123, 171, 274

    FB recommends censure of, 309

    FB’s correspondence, copies of, requests, 174

    FB’s enemies in, 163n

    friends of government in, 24, 36, 250, 274, 280

    numbers, 274

    Gage, conduct of, censures, 300

    and governor’s salary grant, 5, 33, 277, 279n

    Hillsborough

    letters to Council from, publishes, 296

    letters to FB from, request, 59n

    independence, aspires to, 308

    Journals

    printed, 174

    votes expunged, 39

    king, petitions to

    compared to petitions of the Council, 131–32

    FB, for removal of, 32, 38, 174

    cited, 32, 38, 58n

    dismissed, 362

    mentioned, 10, 38, 58n, 301n

    presented, 361

    Townshend duties, for repeal of, 115, 163n

    mentioned, 76n

    not presented, 7, 207n

    presentation of, delayed, 115–16, 117n, 163n, 300

    transmission of, 115

    transmission of, protocol concerning, 59n, 163n

    loyalty, proclaims, 299

    mentioned, 3

    messages and speeches to. See also Assembly (the Council and the House of Representatives): speeches and messages to

    Board of Trade, considered by, 299

    cited, 301n

    discussed, 295, 298, 359

    as enclosures, 275, 299, 310

    and governor’s salary, 303n

    Hillsborough, FB sends copies to, 278, 299

    itemizing public business, 301n

    quoted, 301n

    as rejoinders, 277

    moderation of, 75, 171

    and Otis Jr. See under Otis, James, Jr.: House of Representatives

    Parliament, condemned by, 204n

    parliamentary authority, challenges, 308

    and parliamentary supremacy, denial of, 203

    parliamentary taxation

    exemption from, claims, 297–98, 299, 302n, 305

    on, 160n, 302n

    political composition of, 274

    Pownall. T., defended by, 261n

    proceedings of

    (31 May–15 Jul. 1769), 32–33, 56n, 59n, 234, 251, 252n, 267, 268n, 271n, 274–78, 279n, 289, 290n, 295–96, 297–98, 300n, 301n, 302n, 303n, 308, 310n, 311n, 361

    discussed, 308–10, 310n

    suspended, 32, 235n, 289, 295–96

    (1770), 303n, 310n

    (1771), 52n

    as enclosures, 280

    Hillsborough, FB sends copies, 280

    printed, 295

    public finances, delays annual appropriations for, 308–09

    rescinding of votes, procedures respecting, 297

    resolves and resolutions of

    (7 Jul. 1769)

    about, 299–300, 301n

    authorship of, 297–98

    discussed, 297, 305, 308

    printed, 296, 301n, 306n

    publication of, 303, 305

    radicalism of, 298–300, 305, 308

    Board of Trade, considered by, 299

    British troops, for withdrawal of, 296–97, 300

    as enclosures, 278, 299, 301n, 302n

    Hillsborough, FB sends copies to, 278, 298–99, 301n

    mentioned, 307

    Pownall, J., FB sends copies to, 296

    quoted, 302n

    “Rights of Englishmen,” proclaims, 303n

    royal authority, views on, reported, 277

    separate agent, appoints, 49n, 51n, 52n

    Speakers of, 49n, 261n, 274, 276, 296–97, 303, 305, 307, 321, 361, See also Cushing, Thomas

    “standing army” in Boston, protest, 300

    Townshend Acts, repeal of, campaign for, 163n

    troops, quartering of

    accounts presented, 270

    expenses of, 80, 83, 270

    avoid paying, 298

    requistion for, 271, 332

    troops, withdrawal of

    debates, 275–76

    requests, 295–97, 300

    Virginia resolves, considers, 276–77

    votes and divisions

    business, suspension of (8–10 Jun. 1769), 277

    circular letter to colonial assemblies (21 Jan. 1768), proposing, 39, 59n

    Circular Letter, rescinding of, 175

    Whig party in, 26, 28, 32–33, 175, 179n, 249, 274, 276–77, 280, 301, 303, 308–09

    Hubbard, Thomas

    Council

    election to, 189, 190n, 319n, 352n

    papers of, as co-signatory, 268n, 318, 347

    votes in, 106n, 132

    as councilor, 133n

    politics of, 4

    royal council, appointment to, proposed, 191

    Hudson River, 126

    Hulton, Elizabeth

    identified, 106n

    Hulton, Henry

    as commissioner of Customs, 140, 188n

    Hillsborough, letter to FB from, FB copies extract of, 103

    identified, 106n

    wife of, 105, 106n

    Hussey, Richard

    House of Commons, speech in, 17

    identified, 52n

    Hutchinson, Elisha

    as importer, 257n

    Hutchinson, Thomas. See also Chief Justice of Massachusetts; Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts;

    as acting governor, 190n, 235, 308–09

    assembly, lacks support in, 33

    assembly, relations with, 291, 309

    instructions concerning, 234

    preparations for, 276, 297, 309

    prospects of, 33

    salary, 32–33, 252, 276, 291, 303n

    salary, views on, 276

    strategy of, 290–91

    American Board of Customs

    letters to, 139–40

    as co-signatory, 140

    quoted, 111n

    Treasury, read by, 140

    views on, 140

    assembly, business of, favors conclusion of, 309

    Bernard Letters, reaction to, 26–27

    Boston Gazette, printers of, prosecution of, 177

    on Bowdoin, 89, 90n

    British troops

    retention of, favors, 303

    withdrawal of, favors, 303

    as chief justice, 100n, 177, 190n, 291n

    Rex v. Corbet (1769), 302n

    on Convention of Towns, 311n

    Cooper, W., FB discusses, 311–12

    correspondence of, 29

    correspondence with, about, 235n, 291

    Council

    election to, 190n

    on opposition in, 133n

    on politics of, 90n

    restoration to, proposed, 186, 189

    on English liberties, “abridgement of,” 348n

    on Erving, 133n

    FB

    relationship with, 27

    as successor to, 33, 232, 234, 290–91, 311n

    views on, 27

    FB consults with, 103, 109, 156, 213, 303

    as FB, adviser and confidant to, 8, 141, 164, 188n, 252–53, 271, 276, 309

    and FB

    differences, 27, 291

    friendship, 27

    misunderstandings, 291

    unpopularity of, 357

    as governor, salary grant, 252

    and Hillsborough, 311n

    identified, 49n

    Jackson, letters to, cited, 68n, 224n, 230n

    as justice of the peace, 165

    legal training, lack of, 100n

    letter from, received, 291

    letters to, 290–91, 311–12

    cited, 33, 291

    listed, 371–72

    as replies, 291

    libel, views on, 213

    as lieutenant governor, 190n

    mentioned, 357

    Palmer, letters to, cited, 311n

    as “pensioner,” 206n

    plans to “drive off,” 171–72

    plans to “seize,” 168

    Pownall, T., letters to, cited, 179n

    provincialism of, 27

    on Quartering Act, 230n

    royal council, appointment to, proposed, 191

    Sewall and Customs commissioners, dispute between, intervention in, 6, 110, 111n, 156, 157n, 193

    and Sewall, 225

    “TH,” referred to as, 45

    and treason commission, 28

    on troops, arrival of, 65

    and troops, withdrawal of, 32

    unknown, letters to

    cited, 90n

    quoted, 90n

    unpopularity of, 164, 171–72

    Whately, letters to, cited, 55n

    Williams, letter to, cited, 55n

    Hutchinson, Thomas, Jr.

    as importer, 257n

    Hutchinson-Oliver Letters (1773), 29

    “Hyperion” (anti-government writer)

    identity of, 169n

    quoted, 170n

    Illness. See under Health and Ill-Health: illness

    Immigrants, 160n

    Imperial Administration. See also British Colonial Policy

    internal disputes, 154–58

    Imperial Authority, 263

    Imperial Crisis, 2, 4, 13–14, 30, 33, 119, 252, 286

    historiography of, 8–9, 14, 21–22, 24, 28, 37–38, 56n, 89, 149

    Imperial Government. See under British Government

    Importers, 256, 257n, 289, 292

    Imports. See also Nonimportation

    British manufactures, 30, 132

    duties on, 228

    Great Britain, from, 256

    Impressment, 302n, 316

    resistance to, 302n

    Inches, Henderson

    as Boston selectman, 197, 215

    Independence, 4, 11, 19, 33, 94, 117, 236, 238n, 308

    Indian Affairs

    superintendent of, 221n

    Informers, 8, 100n, 136, 156–57, 164, 167–69, 171–73, 177, 334

    Inns, 344

    Insurrection. See also Rebellion

    allegations of, 117, 164, 166n, 198, 205

    about, 171n, 200

    British government, considered by, 117, 123, 316

    considered, 103n

    refuted, 77n

    not expected, 303

    Parliament, resolutions of, concerning, 12

    Intelligence. See under Espionage

    Intimidation

    as political tactic, 108, 146, 210

    Ireland

    British regiments from

    arrival expected, 4, 68n, 78n, 93, 100, 317

    arrival of, 65, 121

    departure of, 77

    deployment of, 4, 82n, 83

    orders respecting, 329

    quartering of, 69, 100, 101n

    transports for, 123n

    lord lieutenant of, 301n

    mentioned, 361

    Jackson, Joseph, 215

    as Boston selectman, 197–98

    Jackson, Richard

    Americans, as friend of, 28

    as Beresford, interlocutor with, 230

    Bernard Letters, FB comments on, 249

    British politics, FB requests news of, 241–42

    correspondence with, about, 28, 242, 247, 262–63

    FB

    differences of opinion with, 262

    recall of discussed, 262

    relocation of, advises on, 227

    Hutchinson, letters from, cited, 68n, 224n, 230n

    identified, 95n

    letters to, 241–42, 246–48, 261–63

    about, 246

    cited, 144, 248n, 249

    listed, 364, 370

    quoted, 28, 51n

    as replies, 204

    newspaper extracts, FB sends copies, 263

    Sons of Liberty, radicalism of, FB reports on, 262

    Jackson, William

    as importer, 257n

    Jamaica, 227

    planters of, 53n

    Jamaica Farm, 65, 224n

    Jamaica Plain, 69n, 176, 223, 224n

    James II, King, 207n

    Johnson, Messrs.

    letter to, listed, 372

    Johnson, Sir William

    identified, 221n

    mentioned, 220

    Jokes, 326

    Jones, Elisha

    mentioned, 127n

    Journal of the Times, 216

    “Junius” (anti-government writer), 10, 29n, 50n, 55n, 58n, 177, 238n

    Juries, 134, 177, 207n, 208, 228, 302n

    Justice, 2, 7, 17, 78, 105, 108, 115–16, 120, 134, 176, 192, 197, 232, 240, 285, 316–17, 321, 329, 331–32, 336, 345–46

    Justices of the Peace

    authority, lack of, 134

    commissions, reform of, 6, 18, 111–14, 350n

    in crowds, 145

    FB, censured by, 107–08

    mentioned, 340

    misrepresentations of, 35, 300

    neglect of duty, 13

    new appointments, 111–14, 144–46, 165

    Parliament, censured by, 320, 357n

    popularity of, 113

    Quartering Act, responsibilities under, 71–72, 78–79, 98–99

    as Sons of Liberty, 112, 114n

    troops, quartering of, refuse to assist in, 97–99

    in Whig party, 145

    Justices of the Peace of Boston

    letters from

    as enclosures, 100

    Parliament, presented to, 100

    signatories, 101n

    King Street, Boston, 65

    King, The. See also Crown; George III, King; King-in-Parliament,

    abuses his power, 168, 299

    and American bishop, appointment of, 147

    and American Colonies

    conciliation with, favors, 10, 204

    petitions from, and redress of grievances, 299

    protocol for preparation and transmission, 115, 279n

    Americans, assuages, 30

    appointments at king’s pleasure, 186, 226, 345

    authority of, 274, 285, See also Government, Royal: authority of

    opposition to, 33

    provincial commissions, to supersede, 145, 340, 346

    resistance to, 194

    reverence for, 226

    Boston

    on “Disobedience” of, 7, 9, 11, 117

    petition from, mentioned, 27

    rebellion in, fears, 9, 85, 117

    representations of, ignores, 28

    British troops, quartering of

    opposition to, disappointment at, 142

    his “Cause,” 280

    Convention of Towns, petition from

    about, 76n

    mentioned, 75, 161n

    transmission of, 76

    Council, petitions from, cited, 351n

    criticism of, 167–69

    dominions of, 147, 265n, 266, 301n, 315

    favor of, 230, 234, 271

    FB

    baronetcy for, creates, 28, 118, 232n

    correspondence of, presented with, 85, 142, 153, 182, 208

    petition from, mentioned, 92

    FB as governor

    abuses of power by, informed of, 359–61

    conduct of, approves, 7, 55n, 59n, 154, 232

    offers “highest approbation,” 240

    misrepresentions by, informed of, 58n, 343, 354, 360–61

    FB as representative of, 20, 64, 209, 275, 346

    and Crown salary, 125

    as vicarious target, 199, 299, 362

    and friends of government, encouragement to, 187

    Hillsborough

    doubts, 10

    proposals of, rejects, 204

    His Majesty’s pleasure, 115, 341, See under King, The: royal commands

    in His Majesty’s service, 98, 105, 154, 193, 287, 290

    honor of, 185, 187

    House of Representatives, loyalty of, pledged, 299

    House of Representatives, petitions from

    FB’s removal, for, 174, 259n, 261n, 362

    cited, 32

    mentioned, 38, 58n, 301n

    not presented, 7

    Townshend duties, for repeal of,

    mentioned, 76

    presentation delayed, 163n

    transmission of, 115

    transmission of, protocol concerning, 59n, 163n

    interest of. See also under Crown

    irreverence toward, 262–63

    king’s troops. See under British Army

    loyalty to, 93, 145, 197, 299, 300n

    Massachusetts Council, petition from

    about, 129

    as enclosure, 325

    FB misrepresents, 51n

    prayer of, 131

    about, 129–30, 204n

    Bowdoin explains, 325–26

    FB misrepresents, 129, 342

    preparation of, 89, 341–42

    presentation of, 51n, 129, 351n, 357n

    receives, 123

    and Massachusetts, king’s counsel in, 134–36

    Massachusetts, as monarch of, 144

    mentioned, 33, 302n

    and Militia Bill (1768), 195

    ministers of. See under British Government: ministers

    and ministers, 50n

    munificence of, 255n

    opinions of, 263

    orders of. See under His Majesty in Council: orders-in-council

    Paoli, sympathizes with, 202n

    Parliament

    address from

    adoption of, 144, 153, 196n, 209n, 228n, 238n, 273n, 306n, 320, 322n

    criticized, 51n

    debated, 207n

    as enclosure, 160n, 207

    mentioned, 13, 16, 19–20

    presentation of, 209n

    quoted, 12

    recommendations of, 12, 15, 204n, 208, 323n

    “King’s Friends” in, 11

    speech to, (8 Nov. 1768), 7

    about, 117, 160

    American reactions, 158–59

    Boston, news of arrives in, 188

    debated, 78, 170n

    as enclosure, 117

    FB receives, 158

    as historical turning point, 9

    mentioned, 9, 11

    printed, 118n, 160n

    quoted, 117

    reactions to, 33, 116

    speech to (9 May 1769), as enclosure, 263

    peace, king’s, 1

    power of, 79

    predecessors of, 359, 361

    prerogatives of, 359

    as prosecutor. See also Crown: prosecutions

    receptions of, 241n

    repudiation of, 167

    requisitions of, 77, 79, 275, 292, 330–31, 342

    resistance to, 145

    rights of, 87, 345

    royal commands, 115

    on assembly, communication of official correspondence to, 88

    and British troops, deployment of, 267, 288–89

    and British troops, quartering of, 79–80

    FB created baronet, 234

    FB recalled, 234, 258, 262

    on General Court, removal of, 234

    Hutchinson, FB to advise, 234, 310

    mentioned, 64

    official correspondence, respecting copying of, 348

    Parliament, resolution of, expects obedience to, 208

    treason, investigation of, to undertake, 207–08, 226

    royal “Ear,” 300

    royal licence from, granting leave of absence

    cited, 235n

    as enclosure, 234–35

    royal observations reported

    on Boston, “state” of, 198, 214

    on FB’s conduct, 7, 85, 232, 240

    on FB’s “Prudence,” 116

    seal of, 112, 340

    subjects of, 116, 234, 359

    Virginia, address from, proposed, 279n

    writs of. See under Crown: writs of

    King-in-Parliament

    authority of, 168

    defense of, 32, 284

    King’s Bench, Court of, 208

    King’s Chapel, Boston, 70, 149n, 219

    Kittery, Maine, 106n

    L’Estrange, Roger

    identified, 238n

    Seneca’s Morals (1764), 238n

    Lake Superior, 220–21, 233

    Last Attempt (brig), 247

    Speech of Th–m–s P–wn–ll, Esq, 261n

    Latitudes

    measurements of, 220

    Launceston, HMS, 65

    Law

    admiralty, 5, 137, 302n

    America, of, 237

    British troops, and quartering of. See under Quartering Act (1765): provisions of

    “Chicanery” in, 112

    disobedience of, 9, 76, 84, 112, 117, 167–68, 194, 196, 216

    enforcement of, 18, 70, 118, 263, 267, 360

    England, of, 237

    evasion of, 4, 112, 173, 195, 267, 298

    imperial. See under, Parliament, Legislation; Trade Laws

    interpretation of, 329, 332, 340, 344–45

    law and order issues, 63, 84, 153, 181, 185, 197, 223

    Massachusetts, of, 136, 203, 267, 309, See also General Court, Legislation

    mentioned, 148, 206, 215, 327

    “mob Law,” 256

    obedience to, 2, 118, 217, 234, 360

    treason, of, 272

    Law Courts. See also Superior Court of Massachusetts

    disruptions to, 360

    mentioned, 362

    Lawyers, 6, 97, 110, 115, 134–37, 156, 177, 193, 224–25, 252

    Lead

    duties on, 228n

    Leeward Islands, 227

    Legge, William. See under Dartmouth, Earl of

    Legislation

    editorial policy and citation of, 45

    Legislation, British. See under Parliament, Legislation

    Legislation, English. See under Parliament of England

    Legislation, Scottish. See under Parliament of Scotland, Legislation

    Lennox, Charles. See under Richmond, Duke of

    “Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania” (John Dickinson), 244

    Letters to Hillsborough (1769)

    advertised, xxiv

    Bernard Letters, prints, 324n

    Bollan, petition of, printed in, 261n

    cited, 100, 106, 109, 114, 129, 132, 133n, 318, 322, 328, 347, 350n, 358n, 362

    Council, letter to Hillsborough from, printed in, 56n

    Council, petitions to Parliament from, printed in, 130n, 133n

    Council’s commentaries in, 36

    listed, 365–66, 367

    on sale, 26

    Letters to the Ministry (1769)

    advertised, xxiv, 36

    Bernard Letters, prints, 57n, 59n

    cited, 57n, 58n, 65, 76, 81, 89, 143, 153, 179n, 323n

    Dorr, comments by, 37n

    listed, 363–64, 367

    Lexington, Battle of, 123n

    Libel

    and Baldwin, 238n

    FB accused of, 58n

    in newspapers, 87, 129, 177, 212–13, 239, 243–44, 285, 309–10

    authorship of, 9, 124n, 157, 171n, 176–77, 199–200, 201n, 205, 209–13, 219, 241n, 243–44, 245n

    prosecutions for, 345

    in England, 177

    obstacles facing, 25, 58n, 177, 251

    and Wilkes, trial of, 10, 16, 50n, 195, 238n, 324n

    Liberty

    American colonists, of, 177, 261n, See also Rights: American colonists, of

    defense of, 321

    “Overflowings” of, 112

    Wilkes, as champion of, 195

    Liberty (sloop)

    seizure of, 5, 137, 139, 336, 350n

    Liberty Riot

    accounts of

    exaggerations in, 350n

    Parliament, presented to, 16, 36

    aftermath of

    about, 19

    and American Board of Customs, 140, 316

    causes of, 316

    conspiracy to incite, 316, 343, 350n

    Council, considered by, 134, 138n, 315–16, 338

    criminality of, 315

    investigation into

    abandoned, 134

    by Council, postponed, 338

    extended, 117n, 204, 208, 273n, See also Hillsborough, Earl of: FB as governor: instructions to: treason, to investigate

    FB, instructions to, respecting, 2, 6, 8, 204, 208

    perpetrators unknown, 214, 315

    rioters, prosecution of

    abandoned, 134, 137, 208

    attorney general, considered by, 2, 134, 138n, 316, 345

    Liberty Tree, Boston, 34, 112, 239

    Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. See also Hutchinson, Thomas

    as acting governor, 234, 276, 357

    salary, 279n

    Council, and membership of, 186, 321

    mentioned, 27, 103, 156, 164, 168, 171–72, 253, 276, 297, 303, 308–09

    Lillie, Theophilus

    as importer, 257n

    Lincoln, Benjamin

    Council

    does not vote, 106n

    election to, 189, 190n

    royal council, appointment to, proposed, 191

    as councilor, 106n

    politics of, 133n, 355

    royal council, appointment to, proposed, 191

    Lincoln, Eng., 53n

    Lincolnshire, 230

    Lisle, David

    American Board of Customs

    accused of misconduct by, 157

    charged with misconduct by, 193

    as solicitor to, 155, 157n

    Boston, lawlessness in, complains of, 157n

    mentioned, 193

    Piscataqua, relocates to, 157

    Sewall

    exploited by, 157

    meets with, 110, 155

    provides information to, 111n, 193

    suspension of, 156–57

    Treasury

    exonerated by, 157

    memorials to, cited, 157n

    London

    American Colonies, mail to and from, 130n, 232, 248, 252–54, 257, 273, 282, 299, 304

    American Colonies, opinions on, 123

    American friends in, 28–29, 38, 144

    bathhouses and brothels, 244, 245n

    Bernard Letters sent from, 21, 26, 247n

    Bollan in, xxiv

    Council records in, xxiii

    Customs commissioners leave, 157n

    demonstrations in, 50n

    FB’s enemies in, 177

    letters from, mentioned, 222

    letters from, published, 160, 171n, 174, 201n, 202n, 205, 206n, 207n, 232n, 273n, 306n

    Massachusetts newspapers sent to, 174, 216

    mentioned, 1–2, 7, 14, 30, 32, 35, 85, 122, 129, 149n, 157, 182, 208, 210, 235, 320, 347, 361

    merchants of, 49n, 117n, 323n

    news from, 7, 123

    newspapers, digests of reprinted, 123, 174, 195

    pamphlets published in, xxiv, xxv, 37, 52n, 55n, 57n, 58n, 59n, 202n

    Paxton in, 155

    Rogers, visit of, 122–23, 127n

    London Gazette

    cited, 232n

    Massachusetts newspapers, extracts printed in, 6

    London Gazetteer

    cited, 178n

    London, Bishop of, 147, 149

    London, City of

    Aldermen of, 52n, 194, 196n, 286n, 323n

    elections in, 195

    Lord Mayor of, 15, 22, 52n, 323n

    Parliament, members of, 52n, 286n, 323n

    Long Wharf, Boston, 65

    Longitudes

    measurements of, 220

    Lord Chief Justice of England, 50n, 52n

    Loring, Joshua

    as justice of the peace, 166n

    Lowndes, Charles, 193

    Loyalists

    mentioned, 114n, 169n, 173n, 226n, 373n

    Loyalty, 93, 145, 197, 299, 315, See Crown: loyalty to

    Luke, Gospel of

    cited, 124n

    quoted, 122

    Lyde, Nathaniel Byfield, 53n, 247

    Lydia (brig)

    case concerning, 157n, 158n

    Lynde, Benjamin, Jr.

    Council

    election to, 190n

    restoration to, proposed, 189

    as justice of the Superior Court, 190n

    royal council, appointment to, proposed, 191

    Mackay, Alexander

    British troops, withdrawal of

    FB, consults with, 283, 285, 287–88, 292, 296–97, 303, 306

    Gage, discusses with, 287

    proposal for, informs FB of, 283

    correspondence with, about, 283n

    Gage

    letters from

    cited, 283n

    as enclosures, 282

    listed, 371

    received, 286

    as replies, 282

    letters to

    by express, 296

    cited, 302n, 306n

    orders from, mentioned, 282

    writes to, 306

    Gage writes to, 282

    identified, 283n

    letters from

    Board of Trade, considered by, 293

    cited, 283n, 293n

    as enclosures, 293

    received, 292

    letters to, as enclosures, 293

    mentioned, 123n, 283n

    Magistrates. See under Justices of the Peace

    Magna Carta (1215), 303n

    Mail

    Boston to England, 57, 199, 258n, 278, 299

    by Boston Packet, 57

    delayed, 304

    mentioned, 18

    Boston to London

    Thames, carried by, 130n

    Wolf, carried by, 253, 257, 273

    Boston to New York, 243, 296

    Bayard, delivered by, 68

    mentioned, 265–66, 296

    Boston to Portsmouth, N.H., 290

    England to Boston, 160, 232, 248, 254

    Delays in, 194

    England, from

    by packet, 92, 194

    England, to

    by packet, 63, 121, 195, 200, 240, 243, 296, 304

    New York to England, 243, 296

    Mankind

    intelligence of, 230

    Manufactory House, Boston, 73, 100–01, 224

    as barracks, 2, 63–65, 83, 329, 331, 333

    clearance of, attempted, 4, 96–97, 100, 101n

    occupation of, 96

    Manufactures

    British imports, 132

    Manufacturing, 30, 72, 206

    Marblehead, Mass., 256

    Marlborough, Duke of, 261n

    Martialis, M. Valerii (Martial)

    Epigrams, 214n

    quoted, 212

    Martin, HMS, 65

    Martinque

    governor of, 373n

    Maskelyne, Nevil, 221n

    Mason, George

    as witness, 167, 169

    Massachusetts

    astronomy, contribution to, 233

    and Boston, 75

    boundary disputes. See under Boundary Disputes between Massachusetts and

    and British Empire, 132

    British government’s views on, 9, 11, 17, 28, 31, 35, 50n, 122, 208, 343

    British regiments

    and deployment of, 337

    and quartering of, 288, See also Government of Massachusetts: Quartering Act, obligations under

    and withdrawal of, 277, 289, 294, 317

    charter of (1629), 166n, See also Province Charter (1691)

    climate of, 157n

    colonists of, 30

    constitution of, 6, 351n, See under Government of Massachusetts: constitution

    as “country,” 26, 97, 113, 126, 157n, 158, 167, 227, 305, 346

    courts. See under Law Courts

    disorders in. See under Civil Disorder

    FB does not return to, 33, 362

    FB leaves, 2, 34, 225, 303n, 362

    FB prepares to leave, 5, 27, 35, 200, 223, 234, 249, 259

    finances of. See under Public Finances

    fortifications in, 352n

    friends of government in, 185, 210

    Gage visits, 315

    gentlemen of, 3, 185

    governors of. See under Governors, Colonial: Massachusetts

    interests of, 321

    “internal Police” of, 300

    and King-in-Parliament, 274

    laws of, 267

    lawyers, 49n, 97, 136–37, See also Lawyers

    legislature. See under General Court

    loyalty of, 286n

    magistrates. See under Justices of the Peace

    mentioned, 201, 221n, 235n, 279n

    merchants. See under Merchants

    misrepresentations of, 21, 175, 178, 197–98, 316–17, 326, 324–28, 337, 328–52, 362

    mobs. See under Crowd Action

    newspapers of, 58n, 76n, 123, 175–76, 195, 201n, 213n, 350n

    officeholders, about, 136, 141

    oppression of, 105, 178n

    and Parliament, 35, 131, 153, 177, 200, 208

    resolutions of, concerning, 11–13, 126, 144, 153, 196, 238n, 242n, 300

    peace and order in, 173, 181

    people of, 26, 246

    and FB, 33–34, 37

    FB, no confidence in, 347

    inflamed, 248

    rights and liberties, 132

    as subjects, 327, See also King, The: subjects of

    politics. See under Politics

    province agent. See under Province Agent

    public buildings, 96, 333, 344, See also Faneuil Hall, Boston; Manufactory House, Boston; Town House, Boston,

    radicalism in, 14

    reimburses, British, 51n

    royal charter. See under Province Charter (1691)

    settlers of, 172

    shipping. See under Shipping

    silver mines, 86n

    social elite, membership of Council for, proposed, 186

    “state” of, 27, 36, 102, 115, 140, 153, 182, 234, 239n, 262, 276, 283–84, 315

    and taxation, 302n

    towns. See under Towns

    treason in

    accusations of, 196

    commission proposed, 28

    investigations of, 12, 194, 228

    treasury of. See under Province Treasury

    trials in, 204

    valuation of estates, 341

    vindication of, 36

    welfare of, 141, 267

    Whig party. See under Whig Party

    Massachusetts Gazette

    cited, 258n

    Council, minutes of (26 Sept. 1768), prints, 89n, 349n

    as enclosure, 278, 349n

    mentioned, 214n

    Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News-Letter

    Council, address to Gage from, prints, 318n

    Hatfield selectmen, letter to Boston selectmen from, prints, 81

    Parliament, presented to, 81

    Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Weekly News-Letter

    cited, 57

    Letters to the Ministry, advertises, xxiv

    Matthew, Book of

    cited, 56n

    Medford, Mass., 106n

    Men. See also Boston: gentlemen of

    ability, of, 225, 269, 280

    brave, 119, 167

    in crowds, 167

    desparados, 69, 167–68, 360

    elite, 90n, 105, 109n, 185

    employees, 6, 110, 137

    officeholders, 135

    officeseekers, 187

    “prudent” and “sensible” sort, 104, 269

    radicalized, 19, 104, 206, 263

    as representatives, 194, 274, 280

    “respectable” sort, 185

    “self-interested” sort, 316–318

    Merchants

    Boston, of, 5, 89, 114n, 219n, 256, 373n, See under Boston Merchants

    report of meetings, as enclosure, 257

    British army, lease premises to, 141

    FB, meet with, 160n

    Great Britain, of, 22, 30, 49n, 52n, 117n, 151, 261n, 323n

    and Stamp Act, repeal of, 52n

    identified, 3, 5, 49n, 89, 110, 132, 172

    New York City, of, 257

    and nonimportation, adoption of, 256–57n

    adoption of, disputes concerning, 257n, 258n

    Rhode Island, of, 256

    Scotland, from, 114n, 256, 257n

    Sons of Liberty among, 256, 292

    and trade laws, evasion of, 286n

    West Indies, of, 22

    and Whig party, 110, 256, 257n

    “younger traders,” 256

    Mermaid, HMS, 65, 82n, 123n

    Middlesex, Eng., 22, 50n, 194–95, 196n

    Milton, John

    Samson Agonistes (1671) cited, 57n

    Mineral Spring, 94

    Minnesota, 221n

    Minty, Christopher, 5, xv

    Mississippi River, 221n

    Mobs. See under Crowd Action

    Molineux, William

    as “Paoli,” 200

    Monk, Lawrence

    identified, 373n

    letter to, listed, 367

    Montagu, Charles Greville

    as governor of South Carolina, 95n

    identified, 151n

    Montresor, John

    Gage, letters to FB from, delivers, 64, 68–69

    identified, 68n

    military preparations, assists with, 64, 72, 83

    Mount Desert Island Grant

    confirmation of, 204n

    mentioned, 203

    Mount Desert Island, Maine, 160n

    Murray, James (Boston)

    identified, 114n

    as justice of the peace, 111, 114, 145, 146n

    Music, 65

    Narrative of Facts Relative to American Affairs (J. Pownall), 52n

    Native American Peoples

    mentioned, 127, 220

    Navigation Acts

    mentioned, 218n

    repeal of, 15, 31, 297, 305

    proposed, 218n, 305

    Nettleham, Barontecy of, 230, 231n

    New England

    Anglican clergy of, 149n

    in Church of England, 149

    Customs commissioners from, 188n

    Dominion of, 207n, 310n

    Parliament’s supremacy, attitudes toward, 203

    settlement of, 53n

    Vice Admiralty Court, 49n, 166n, 225, 244

    New Jersey, 56, 94, 148, 304

    FB’s fondness for, 94

    governor of, 95n

    mentioned, 125

    and nonimportation, 257

    New Jersey Assembly

    and governor’s salary grant, 94

    New Romney, Eng., 95n

    New York Assembly

    proceedings of, as enclosure, 160

    resolutions on taxation, 159, 277, 279n

    radicalism of, 160n

    New York, City of

    American bishop, as residence for, 148

    Boston, mail to and from, 64, 68, 158, 243, 265–66, 296

    Boston, rumors concerning revolt in, 64

    British garrison at, 78n, 266, 294

    England, mail to and from, 243, 296

    letters from, published, 258n

    mentioned, 270, 294, 303, 332

    merchants of, 257

    newspapers, 159–60, 211

    “Journal of the Times,” serialize, 137, 216

    and nonimportation, 257

    New York, Province of

    agent of, 53

    Anglicans of, 218

    attorney general of, 252

    boundary dispute with Massachusetts, 179n

    colonists of, 30

    mentioned, 126

    Newbury, Mass., 69, 256

    Newport, Eng., 50n

    Newspapers. See also individual titles

    Great Britain, of, 76n

    as historical source, 45

    New-York Chronicle

    Bernard Letters, prints, 54n, 106n, 109n, 114n, 365n

    listed, 365–66

    New-York Gazette

    king’s speech (8 Nov. 1768), prints, 160n

    New-York Gazette and Post Boy

    mentioned, 238n

    New-York Gazette, and Weekly Mercury

    Bernard Letters, prints

    listed, 365–66

    “Whip for the American Whig,” discussed, 218n

    New-York Gazette, or the Weekly Post Boy

    “American Whig,” discusses, 218

    cited, 219n

    Convention of Towns, proceedings of, prints, 161n

    as enclosure, 160

    New-York Journal

    cited, 217n

    mentioned, 238n

    Nonimportation

    about, 257n

    agreements

    adoption of, 256–57, 258n

    discontent with, 257n

    in American Colonies, 30, 257

    opposition to, 257

    popular support for, 33

    transgressions, 256–57, 289, 292

    North America

    continent of, 148, 181, 194, 266, 347, 355, See also American Colonies

    and empire, prospect of, 167–68

    mentioned, 17, 229, 263, 264n, 317, 344

    North Atlantic Station, 373n

    North Briton (1769)

    cited, 79n

    North Carolina, 114n

    North Ministry

    governors’ salaries, provision for, 252

    North, Lord

    administration of, 38, 50n, 58n, 191, 196n, 252

    on Boston, treason of, 273n

    as chancellor of the Exchequer, 11, 30

    and FB, 153

    House of Commons

    Council’s petition, favors presentation of, 323n

    as leader of, 11, 117, 175, 182, 273n

    presents American correspondence to, 11–12, 15, 117, 144, 175, 182

    identified, 50n

    mentioned, 218n

    as prime minister, 58n

    Northampton, Mass., 279n

    Northwest Passage, 221n

    Nova Scotia

    British regiments sent from Ireland, 82n, 83

    government of, 94, 226n

    mentioned, 225

    Officeholders

    disqualification of, 202

    Ohio River, 59n

    Old Granary Burial Ground, Boston, 73n

    Old State House, Boston, 71n, See under Town House, Boston

    Oliver, Andrew. See also Province Secretary of Massachusetts

    Adams, S., anecdote concerning, 218n

    American Board of Customs

    letter to, 139–40

    as co-signatory, 140

    Treasury, read by, 140

    views on, 140

    anecdote of, as enclosure, 217

    Council

    disrespected by, 88

    election to, 190n

    reads oath to, 87

    restoration to, proposed, 186, 189

    FB, as adviser to, 8, 141, 164, 188n, 271, 273n

    Hillsborough, letter to FB from

    reads, 128

    and Hutchinson-Oliver Letters (1773), 29

    as justice of the peace

    appointed, 165

    declines to act, 145

    as lieutenant governor, 190n

    mentioned, 357n

    as province secretary, 190n

    Council, excluded from business of, 278

    Council, minutes and papers of

    attests, 357

    maintains, 86–88, 90n, 103, 175, 357

    House of Representatives, communicates with, 277–78, 296

    office, his, 278, 330

    salary, 252

    transmits official papers to Britain, 199

    reputation of, 88

    royal council, appointment to, proposed, 191

    stamp distributor, resignation as, 176

    Oliver, Peter

    Council

    election to, 190n

    restoration to, proposed, 189

    as justice of the Superior Court, 190n

    royal council

    appointed to, 191

    appointment to, proposed, 191

    Orders-in-Council, 294, See under His Majesty in Council: orders-in-council

    Otis, James, Jr.

    and Adams, S., 32, 280

    Boston Gazette, writes for, 176

    as Boston representative. See Otis, James, Jr.: House of Representatives, in

    Boston town meeting, as moderator of, 194

    at Convention of Towns, 75

    Cushing, T., criticizes, 171

    FB, discusses forged letter with, 199, 201n

    Hawley

    as ally of, 275

    influenced by, 275

    identified, 100n

    impeachment and trial of, proposed, 194–95

    Manufactory House, occupation of, as counsel on, 97

    radicalism of, 178n

    Rex v. Corbet (1769), defense counsel in, 302n

    Worthington, views on, 285

    Otis, James, Sr.

    Council, election to, vetoed, 270n, 279n, 280n

    Hutchinson, rivalry with, 206

    patriotism of, 279n

    Owls Head, Maine, 126

    Paine, Timothy

    Council

    does not vote, 106n

    election to, 189, 190n, 278n

    not elected to, 274, 280n

    votes in, 106

    royal council

    appointed to, 191

    appointment to, proposed, 191

    Paint

    duties on, 228n, 263

    Painters, 167

    Painters and Engravers, iv, 23, 53n, 66, 74, 152, 184

    “Palinurus” (anti-government writer), 211, 213

    Palinurus (Trojan), 214n

    Palmer, William

    Hutchinson, letter from, cited, 311n

    Panton, Henry

    killing of, 302n

    “Paoli” (anti-government writer), 200–01, 213n, 244

    Paoli, Pasquale

    identified, 201n

    mentioned, 200–01

    reputation of, 202n

    Paper

    duties on, 52, 141, 168, 200, 209, 211, 216–18, 239, 243, 257, 263, 281, 303, 327, 336, 349–50

    Papers of Francis Bernard (Colin Nicolson), 42, 59

    Parker, James, 218–19, 238n

    Parliament

    “all acts of,” American Colonies’ submission to, challenged, 297–98, 305

    America, friends of, 17–20, 22, 29

    American affairs

    commentators on, 29

    debates on, 9–23, 85, 123, 151, 153, 262

    anticipated, 117n, 118–19, 123

    colonies await information on, 14, 20, 237, 242

    knowledge of, 135, 144, 272

    mentioned, 146, 153, 200, 207n

    sources for, 51

    news of expected, 241

    inquiry into, proposals for, 11, 36, 78, 85, 272

    American affection for, 116

    American Colonies

    concessions to, 122

    hostility toward, 17, 123

    “Indulgence” of, 122, 130

    intervention in, proposed, 93, 122, 237, 269

    neglect of, 30

    petitions from presented, 163n

    taxation of, 297–98, 305, 341, See also Parliamentary Taxation; Townshend Duties

    American correspondence

    debates, 324n

    Hillsborough’s plans to present, 10, 13, 117–18, 182

    list of, printed, 24, 178n

    mentioned, 77n, 349n

    presented, 11, 13, 39, 144

    Boston, transmitted to, 35

    published, 37

    reading of, 16, 323n

    American representation in, 14, 94, 236

    authority of, 298, See also Parliamentary Authority

    Bernard Letters presented to, xxiv, 247n

    Boston town meeting

    proceedings of, presented to, 106, 273n

    resolutions respecting, 12

    and Boston, disobedience of, 229

    and British politics, 250

    Convention of Towns

    proceedings of, presented to, 76

    resolutions censuring, 12

    debates of

    colonial newspapers, reported in, 7, 177, 183n, 207

    reporting of, restrictions on, 177–78, 183n, 196n, 202n, 281

    divisions in, 19

    factions in, 11, 17, 22, 52n, 54n, 151, 153, 183n, 286n, 323n

    FB’s conduct praised in, 201n

    FB’s correspondence

    considered by, 129

    debates, 2, 9, 16–19, 142, 153

    presented to, xxiv, 12–13, 15, 25, 65, 76, 81, 85, 89, 109, 114–15, 117, 129, 132, 153, 175, 180, 201

    about, 12, 182, 247n

    consequences of, 180, 182, 245, 281

    enclosures in, 65, 76, 81, 89

    listed, 51n, 182, 183n

    publication of, about, 183n

    reading of, 16

    Gage’s correspondence presented to, 320

    government majorities in, 10–11

    Hillsborough’s correspondence presented to, 143, 153, 320

    Hood’s correspondence presented to, 320

    irreverence toward, 262–63

    king, address to

    colonial newspapers, printed in, 209n

    considers, 117

    criticized, 51n

    as enclosure, 207

    FB disappointed with, 160

    recommendations of, 208

    summary of, 12

    king’s speeches to

    (8 Nov. 1768), 7, 11, 33, 59n, 78, 116–17, 160, 188

    debated, 170n, 171n, 207n

    as historical turning point, 9

    reprinted, 160n

    (9 May 1769)

    as enclosure, 263

    Massachusetts Council

    censures, 355

    petitions from

    cited, 351n

    content summarized, 132–33

    debated, 321, 323n

    as enclosure, 320, 322n

    FB, misrepresented by, 341–42, 355, 360

    mentioned, 25

    prayer of, 131, 325–26, 342

    preparation of, 8, 130, 132, 326, 355

    presentation of, 15–16, 16, 129–30, 133, 323n

    as potential ally of, 36

    proceedings of, presented to, 81, 100, 106, 130n, 318

    Massachusetts, resolutions respecting

    adoption of, 24, 143–44, 150, 151n, 153, 188, 204n, 228n, 238n, 242n, 261n, 322n, 324n, 357n

    American reponses to, 160

    anticipated, 126, 159

    criticism of, 13, 143–45, 194, 196, 236, 260

    as enclosure, 144, 208

    FB disappointed with, 160

    further action proposed, 202, 208, 226, 262

    provisions of, 28

    reactions to, 33, 196

    reponses to, 236–37, 260, 262, 300

    summary of, 11–12

    Massachusetts, “state” of, considers, 360

    members of, 22

    America, hostility to, 174

    American colonists, critical of, 11, 168, 170, 171n

    American liberties, defend, 11, 15, 17–19, 29, 35–36, 236, 261

    and FB’s correspondence, 12, 21, 153

    on FB’s correspondence, 16–19

    identified, 49n, 50n, 52n, 53n, 95n, 283n, 286n, 306n, 323n

    knights of the shire, about, 22

    letters to America from, 94, 305

    mentioned, 22

    in opposition, 35–36, 201

    privileges of, 20, 174–75, 323n, See also Parliament: privileges, breach of

    speeches of, 170n, 171, 202n, 204, 260–61, 321, 323–24

    mentioned, 229, 307

    official papers, confidentiality of, 180

    opposition to, 340

    opposition to government in, 10, 16–18, 20

    power of, 206, 236, See also Parliamentary Authority

    American “pretensions” respecting, 298

    denied, 308

    omnipotence of, 226

    privileges, breaches of, 175, 177, 237

    Quartering Act, amendment of, proposed, 229

    resentment of, 122

    sessions of, 30, 35, 168, 174, 229, 263–64, 272

    and sovereignty, 32, 168, 284, See also Parliamentary Authority

    speeches in, 168, 201

    supremacy of, 11, 17, 30, 170n, 203, 218n

    Townshend duties, repeal of

    intended, 263–64

    legislates, 38

    treason trials in England, debates, 273n, 302n

    Wilkes

    censures, 10, 13, 50n, 51n, 78, 195, 243

    expels, 194–95, 273n

    Parliament of England, Legislation

    acts, citation of, 45

    Bill of Rights (1689), 300

    Encouragement of Trade Act (1663), 218n, 305

    Governors of Plantations Act (1698)

    provisions of, 362

    Suffragan Bishops Act (1534)

    cited, 149n

    mentioned, 147

    Treason Act (1543), 12, 16–17, 51n, 208

    Parliament of Ireland

    acts, citation of, 45

    Parliament of Scotland

    acts, citation of, 45

    Parliament, Legislation

    Act for Repealing Revenue Act (1770), cited, 265n

    acts, citation of, 45

    American Declaratory Act (1766), parliamentary supremacy and, 17, 20, 170n

    American Revenue Act (1767). See also Townshend Acts

    cited, 95n, 204n, 228n

    Crown salaries, provisions for, 33, 92–93, 227, 250–51, 252n

    provisions of, 310n

    repeal of, 29, 31, 35, 93, 123, 151, 203, 250, 306n, 348

    American revenue acts

    mentioned, 341

    origins of, 121

    repeal of, proposed, 14–15, 20, 25, 29, 31, 38, 51n, 121, 129–30, 204n, 297, 300, 305, 325–26, 342, 348

    American test act, proposed, 203

    American treason trials in England, proposed for, 174, 177

    colonial government, reform of, required for, 6, 113–14, 162, 188, 203

    governors’ powers, act to extend, 341

    justices of the peace’s commissions, annulling, 114

    Massachusetts assembly, suspension of, required for, 161

    Massachusetts Government Act (1774), 191

    Massachusetts magistracy, reform of, required for, 348n

    Mutiny Act (1769), as enclosure, 230

    Navigation Acts

    cited, 124n

    repeal of, 15, 31, 297, 305

    Piracy Act (1717), 302n

    privilege in America, punishing breaches of, proposed for, 174

    Quartering Act (1765)

    amendments to, 78n, 230n

    amendments to, proposed, 77, 229, 231n, 305

    cited, 101n, 204n, 349n, 352n

    intentions of, 332

    interpretations of, 333–34, 344–45, 360

    mentioned, 310n, 329, 332

    opposition to, 98–99, 229, 305, 330

    provisions of, 3–4, 63, 79, 82n, 97–99, 101n, 268n, 271, 329, 331–32, 344

    repeal of, 203

    Quartering Act (1768), cited, 230n

    Quartering Act (1769)

    cited, 231n, 261n

    as enclosure, 229–30

    mentioned, 260

    sedition, punishing, proposed for, 174

    Stamp Act (1765)

    mentioned, 10, 92

    repeal of, 17, 52n, 78, 168, 239n, 251, 261n

    Parliamentary Authority

    American Colonies

    in, 263

    in ecclesiastical matters, 148

    submission of, 31, 208, 305

    opposition of, condemned, 170n, 171n

    challenges to, 14, 18, 32, 123, 131, 159, 204n

    defenders of, 211, 243, 274, 285, See also Friends of Government

    defiance of, 167–68, 200

    enemies of, 120

    enforcement of, 93, 203, 263

    extension of, 174

    FB supports, 236

    and legislative supremacy, principle of, 11, 17, 20, 30, 93, 151, 170n, 203, 218, 261n, 306n

    denied, 297–98, 305

    news from London concerning, about, 123

    opposition to, 111–12, 206, 211

    taxation, and. See under Parliamentary Taxation

    Parliamentary Taxation

    all taxes, repeal of, 121

    American Colonies, of. See also Townshend Duties

    American opinions on, about, 15

    and British policymaking, 11, 31

    and civil lists, 250

    exemption from, 128–29, 297–98, 325–26

    inequity of, 132

    inexpediency of, 30

    no plans for futher taxes, 263

    opposition to, 2

    Parliament debates, 19–20

    resistance to, 194

    and self-government, 299

    as subjugation, 121, 167–68

    American episcopate, for, 149

    “external” and “internal” taxes, 20, 261n, 298

    legislative authority of

    American acknowledgement of, 121

    challenged, 160n, 204n

    denied, 168

    unlimited, 226

    precedents in, 121

    Townshend duties. See under Townshend Duties

    and trade duties, 130, 252n, 298

    Partridge, Oliver

    as FB’s business agent, 126, 127n

    identified, 373n

    letter to, listed, 372

    Partridgefield, Mass., 127n

    Passaic River, 126

    Patriotism, 257, 279n

    Patronage, 6, 49n, 135–36, 187, 224–26

    Paxton, Charles

    as “Charley Froth,” 244

    as commissioner of Customs, 140, 188n

    FB contacts, 213

    FB writes to, 155

    FB, as advocate for, 158n

    FB’s views on, 155

    letter to, cited, 158n

    newspaper libel on, 124n, 243–44

    and Sewall, 155, 244

    on Temple, 210, 213n

    Peerage, 50n, 52n, 103n

    Pemberton, Samuel, 197

    as Boston selectman, 198, 215

    Pennsylvania, 53n, 233

    Pennsylvania Assembly, 170n

    Pennsylvania Chronicle

    Account of Corsica, prints extracts, 202n

    Penobscot Bay, Maine, 233

    Penobscot River, 126

    People, The

    American Board of Customs, hostility to, 139

    assemblies of. See Crowd Action

    Bernard Letters, inspect and read, 248

    British troops

    and quartering of, 231n, 343

    and relations with, 121

    and resistance to, 172

    common “talk,” 1–2, 8, 69, 121, 212, 247, 256, 260, 262, 309

    and Council, 93

    factionalism of, 115

    FB, no confidence in, 347

    “ill temper” of, 92, 115

    illegal combinations of, 11, 196

    lower orders of, 289, 292

    “respectable” sort, 185

    Perth Amboy, N. J., 148

    Peru, Mass., 127n

    Petty, William, 50n, See under Shelburne, Earl of

    Philadelphia

    American bishop, as residence for, 148

    British garrison at, 266, 294

    mentioned, 233, 322

    and nonimportation, 257

    “Philanthrop” (anti-government writer), 244, 245n

    “Philanthrop” (Jonathan Sewall), 244

    Phipps, Constantine John

    House of Commons, speech in, 19

    identified, 53n

    Pitt, William

    administration of, 50n

    and Barré, 53n

    Chatham, Earl of, created, 50n

    as lord privy seal, 50n

    ministry, forms. See also under Chatham Ministry

    Pitts, James

    Council

    and address of, presentation of, 265–66

    as councilor, 133n

    election to, 189, 190n, 319n, 352n

    leads opposition in, 270n

    papers of, as co-signatory, 268n, 318, 347

    votes in, 106n, 132

    politics of, 4

    Plantation Office, 42, 191

    Plantations. See under American Colonies

    Point Shirley, Mass., 317

    Political Writing

    about, 7, 9, 137, 200, 210, 213, 244

    reported by FB, 173–79, 210, 216, 237, 239, 242–45, See also Enclosures: out-letters

    Politics

    British government views on, 123

    conspiracy theories, 196, 206

    food, of, 169n

    gender perspectives, 337

    office-seekers in, 113

    political writing. See under Political Writing

    popular power. See also People, The

    power, distribution of, 273–80, 284–86

    provincial elections (1769), 273–79

    radicalism in. See under Radicalism

    social divisions in, 185

    tactics

    campaigning, 210, 274–75, 280, 284–85, 309

    intimidation, 97, 146, 210, 284, 311

    patronage, 113–14, 135–36, 187, 224, 312

    “Tavern Politicians,” 87

    Pomeroy, John

    mentioned, 123n

    Popham, Edward

    Bernard Letters, transcripts of, obtains, 22

    and Bollan, 58

    identified, 53n

    Popular Party. See under Whig Party

    Portsmouth, N.H., 290

    Powell, Jeremiah

    Council, election to, 189, 190n

    Pownall, John

    Adams, S., influence of, FB discusses, 216

    America, options for settling in, discussed, 126

    American Board of Customs, “supplement” concerning, FB sends copy, 160

    anonymous letter, sends, 120

    assembly

    proceedings of, FB reports on, 259

    on punitve measures against, 203

    Bernard Letters

    arrival of, FB reports on, 248–49

    publication of, FB reports on, 251

    Boston Evening-Post, FB sends copies, 122, 218n

    Boston Gazette, FB sends copies, 244

    Boston Post-Boy and Advertiser, FB sends copies, 160

    Boston selectmen, FB discusses, 215

    Boston, partial withdrawal of troops from, proposes, 203

    on Boston, “state” of, 120

    Bradshaw, correspondence with, published, 57n

    British colonial policy

    conciliation in, favors, 202

    discussed, 249–52

    punitive measures, favors, 202–03

    views on, 202–04

    British government, prepares briefing note for, 52n

    British intervention, FB urges

    “to crush the Faction,” 140–42

    British politics, discusses, 204

    British troops, arrival of, FB reports, 121

    colonial government, reform of

    Hillsborough’s plans for, discusses, 203

    paper on, FB sends, 141

    correspondence with

    about, 6, 120, 144, 201n, 203, 280n

    allusions in, 306n

    Council

    address to FB from, FB sends, 270

    opposition from, FB reports on, 258–59, 268–70

    reform of

    discusses, 6, 142

    FB proposes, 269–70

    royal appointment of, advocates, 120, 203

    FB

    baronetcy for

    discussed, 250

    urges, 203

    departure of, arrangements for, reported, 258

    as friend to, 10

    hemp cultivation, discussed, 127

    Hillsborough’s support, reassures him of, 119n–20n

    and land grants of, 127n

    reassures, 49n

    Rogers as interlocutor with, 127

    FB as governor

    conduct of

    approves, 119

    discussed, 125

    leave of absence, discussed, 126, 199, 205, 237, 279

    relocation of, options for, discussed, 125

    treason, investigations of, discussed, 251

    FB replies to, 144

    FB writes to, 95n, 280n

    Gage and Mackay, FB’s correspondence with, FB sends copies, 293

    Hillsborough

    discussions with

    FB, concerning, 13, 143

    FB’s correspondence, concerning, 117–18

    Massachusetts Council, reform of, 13, 203

    on his support for FB, 119–20

    views on, 120n

    identified, 49n

    Imperial Crisis

    proposals for settling, discusses, 202–03

    king’s speech (8 Nov. 1768)

    American reactions to, FB reports, 158–59

    letters from, 119–20, 143–44, 202–04

    about, 56n, 142

    cited, 10, 13, 119n, 120n, 151n, 154n, 161n, 188, 196n, 201n, 228n, 230n, 238n, 242n, 252n

    enclosures to, 238n

    listed, 366–67, 368

    quoted, 201n

    received, 120, 144, 182, 198, 203, 236, 250

    letters to, 120–27, 140–42, 158–61, 198–202, 235–38, 242–45, 248–52, 258–59, 268–70, 279–80, 284–86

    about, 246

    cited, 5–7, 9, 14, 21, 24, 27, 32, 53n, 54n, 118n, 127n, 133, 160n, 171n, 178n, 188, 207n, 213, 216n, 218n, 244, 258n, 293n, 302n, 306n

    enclosures to, 204n, 237, 245n

    as enclosures, 244, 306n

    FB sends copies, 237, 244

    listed, 245n, 364–72

    private, 121, 141, 158, 198, 243, 248, 250, 269, 284

    quoted, 7, 24, 26, 32, 120n, 144, 198n

    as replies, 144, 161n, 198, 203, 236, 250

    secret, 199–200

    Mount Desert Island Grant, confirmation of, urges, 203

    Narrative of Facts Relative to American Affairs (1768), 52n

    New York Assembly, resolutions of, FB reports on, 159

    New York councilors, removal of, proposes, 203

    newspaper extracts, FB sends, 237

    New-York Gazette, or Weekly Post-Boy, FB sends copies, 160

    Otis Jr., FB discusses, 199

    Parliament

    American representation in, FB recommends, 236

    on FB’s correspondence, presentation of, 182, 204n

    intervention of, hopes for, FB reports on, 243

    resolutions of

    FB expresses disappointment with, 236–37

    FB, sends copies to, 144, 238n

    his disappointment with, 143–44, 202

    reactions to, FB reports on, 160, 236–37

    views on, 143–44

    Pownall, T., FB discusses, 199–200, 201n

    Providence Gazette

    FB sends copies, 237

    radicalism in, FB reports on, 237

    Quartering Act, repeal of, on conditions for, 203

    retirement plans, 127n

    Rogers, published letter of, FB discusses, 121–22

    seditious plots, FB reports on, 198–200

    “strong” letter, transmits, 201n

    Temple

    evidence of his duplicity, FB sends, 244

    machinations of, FB reports on, 159, 199–200, 285

    newspaper libel, as author of, FB reports on, 243

    Townshend Revenue Act, repeal of

    on conditions for, 203

    proposals for, 251

    on treason trials, 49n, 120

    Whig party, dominance of, FB discusses, 32, 284

    Pownall, Thomas

    Administration of the Colonies (1768), 29

    American affairs, as commentator on, 29

    American policy, conciliation in, advocates, 19–20

    Americans, as friend of, 19–20

    Appeal to the World, Boston sends, 58n

    and Bollan, 29

    British government

    on American policy of, 56n

    and, 30, 56n, 204n

    Cooper, correspondence with, about, 201n

    correspondence with, about, 260

    Danforth, letter to, quoted, 56n

    DeBerdt, commends, 52n

    and FB, mutual distrust, 29, 199–200, 201n, 261n

    and Hillsborough, 30

    Hillsborough, FB’s correspondence with, proposes inquiry into, 261n

    House of Commons, speeches in, 18–20, 29, 53n, 261n, 323n

    printed, 260

    Hutchinson, letters from, 179

    identified, 53n

    “Junius,” suspected author of, 29

    letters from, received, 259

    letters to, 259–61

    cited, 29, 53n

    enclosures to, 263

    listed, 370

    as replies, 204n, 259

    Massachusetts, reputation in, 29, 261n

    Parliament

    proceedings of, discussed, 260

    resolutions of, reviews, 18

    province agent, as candidate for, 260

    Quartering Act, amendments to, proposes, 229, 230n, 261n

    Townshend Revenue Act, repeal of, advocates, 29, 261n

    treason trials, opposes, 261n

    treason, investigations into, discussed, 259–60

    Whig party, corresponds with, 201n

    wife of, 261n

    Press, Liberty of, 58n

    Prestonpans, Battle of, 283n

    Printers, xxiv, 25, 89, 159, 169, 173, 176–79, 209–10, 214, 219, 237–39, 243, 246, 248, 256, 296–97, 301, 349, See also Gill, John; Edes, Benjamin

    and Bernard Letters, xxiv, 8, 21, 25–26, 38, 174–75

    identified, 238n

    importers

    and, 257n

    threaten legal action, 256

    mentioned, 239, 245n

    prosecution of, 25, 173, 176–77, 211, 237

    avoided, 38, 58n

    sedition of, 8, 173–74

    and Whig party, 25, 350n

    Privy Council. See also His Majesty in Council

    and FB, recall of, 235

    House of Representatives, petition for FB’s removal

    considers and dismisses, 32, 38, 362

    receives, 361

    King’s Council, as. See under His Majesty in Council

    Massachusetts, inquiry into, 193

    mentioned, 95n, 113

    Mount Desert Island grant, confirms, 204n

    provincial commissions, continues, 312n

    secretary of state, letters from, 42

    Propaganda, 162

    Providence Gazette

    “Advantage of Independence”

    discussed, 238n

    quoted, 238n

    Bernard Letters, prints, 54n, 106n, 109n, 130n

    listed, 363, 365–66

    cited, 114n

    as enclosure, 237, 239

    Hillsborough, FB sends copies, 239

    printers of, 238n

    “Son of Liberty,” 240n

    Providence, R.I., 243

    Province Agent. See also DeBerdt, Dennys; House of Representatives: agent of

    election of, 359

    mentioned, 14, 51n, 52n, 53n, 133

    Province Charter (1691), 5–6, 27, 85, 87, 93, 114, 122, 132, 166, 186, 188, 203, 300, 303, 310, 341, 345–46, 350, 354

    forfeiture of, 203, 227

    provisions of, 277

    reform of, 144

    Province House, Boston, 65, 68, 71, 176, 178, 198, 224, 278, 363, 366, 368, 371

    Province Secretary of Massachusetts. See also Oliver, Andrew

    Council, membership of, proposed, 186

    and Council, papers of, 86–87, 103

    deputy, 330, See also Cotton, John

    as “King’s Secretary,” 88, 277

    mentioned, 87, 330

    Province Treasurer of Massachusetts, 213

    Province Treasury

    appropriations for, 64, 311n

    depleted, 309

    disburse funds, authority to, 220

    Public Finances

    crisis in, 32, 309

    Public Houses, 4, 63, 97–98, 100, 230n, 267, 344, 349n, See also Taverns

    Public Welfare, 250

    Quartering Act (1765)

    amendments proposed, 77, 229, 305

    amendments to, 78n, 230n

    cited, 101n, 204n, 349n, 352n

    colonial attitudes to, 305

    continuation of, 230, 231n, 261

    contravention of, 101n

    intentions of, 332

    interpretations of, 333–34, 344–45, 360

    mentioned, 310n, 329, 332

    opposition to, 98–99, 229, 305, 330

    provisions of, 3–4, 63, 79, 82n, 97–99, 101n, 268n, 271, 289, 305, 329, 331–32, 344, 349n

    quoted, 82n

    repeal of, 203

    Quartering Act (1768)

    cited, 230n

    Quebec, 225

    governor of, 373n

    Queen Street, Boston, 24

    Queen’s College, Mass., 362n

    Quincy, Dorothy, 137, 138n

    Quincy, Edmund

    mining operations, 86n, 101n

    Quincy, Samuel

    as attorney general of Massachusetts, 138n

    as office-seeker, 137

    Radicalism

    in Boston, 1, 9, 168, 171–72, 215, 239, 284, 305, 308

    criticism of, 171

    in England, 22, 177

    in Massachusetts, 11, 14, 28, 122, 153, 160, 185, 228, 277, 298, 301n, 303n, 349n

    Rebellion, 3, 9, 19, 72, 102, 183, 195, 213, 345, See also Insurrection

    Reeve, Richard

    identified, 193n

    mentioned, 193

    Sewall, letter to, cited, 158n

    Regulars, 1, 123, 175, 204, See under British Army

    Remick, Christian

    blockade of Boston Common, watercolor, 74

    view of Boston Common, watercolor, 74

    Republicanism, 167

    Requisitions. See Parliament: requisitions of

    Rescinding Controversy

    assembly, FB dissolves, 300

    FB’s role in, about, 342

    Hillsborough, instructions from

    about, 39, 59n

    cited, 59n

    Parliament, discussed in, 17, 171n

    “rescinders” and election (1769), 274, 278n

    and Whig party, 175

    Revere, Paul

    British roops landing in Boston, engraving of, 66

    Revolt. See under Insurrection

    Revolutionary War. See under War of Independence,

    Rewards, 134

    Rex v. Corbet (1769), 302n

    Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 245n

    Rhode Island, 28, 256, 301n

    Rights

    American colonists, of, 31, 34, 132, 323n

    baronial, 187

    charters, deriving from, 132, 300, 341, 361

    civil, 135, 354

    claims of, 130–31

    constituents, of, 50n

    constitutional, 204n, 300

    Crown, of, 122, 135, 209–10

    duties and, 156

    expression, of, 194

    and freedom, 168

    Governor and Council, of, 344

    governors, of, 70, 337

    king, the, of, 168–69, 226, 284, 345

    law, under, 194, 267

    legislative autonomy, of, 31, 279n, 299

    and liberties, 34, 132, 302n, 354

    Massachusetts, province of, of, 321, 354

    mentioned, 20

    nature, of, 302n

    Parliament, of, 121, 168, 203

    people, the, of, 76n, 354, 357

    petition, of, 87, 299, 323n, 342

    and privileges, 132, 341

    questions of, 261n

    religious, 148

    revolution, of, 308

    taxation of, 121, 129, 168, 170n, 279n, 299, 302n

    trial, of, 194

    Rippon, HMS, 34, 283–84, 299, 312

    Rittenhouse, David, 233

    Robertson, James

    British troops, accounts of, presents, 289

    FB, letters to Gage from, carries, 294

    identified, 271n, 373n

    letters from

    cited, 289n, 293n

    listed, 371

    mentioned, 270

    Robinson, John

    American Board of Customs, transmits FB’s views to, 109

    as commissioner of Customs, 140

    Privy Council, reports to, 193

    Rockingham, Marquess of

    administration of, 51n

    supporters of, 11, 17, 52n, 151, 153, 183n, 286n, 323n

    Rockinghamites, 11, 17, 151, 323n

    Rogers, Nathaniel

    Boston Evening-Post, letter in, 123

    Boston, arrives in, 127n

    candor of, 122

    FB, discusses imperial crisis with, 122

    on Grenville, 170n

    as importer, 257n

    in London, 122–23

    Parliament, “Resentment” of, fears, 122

    Pownall, J.

    as interlocutor with, 126–27

    letter to FB from, delivers, 125

    Townshend duties, repeal of

    reports British opinion on, 120–25

    Townshend Revenue Act, repeal of, prudence may acheive, 123

    Roman Republic, 201n, 213n, 310n, 351n

    Romans, Book of, 170n

    Romney, HMS, 65, 82n, 123n, 139, 316, 350n

    Ropes, Nathaniel

    Council

    does not vote, 106n

    election to, 189, 190n, 278n

    not elected to, 274, 280n

    votes in, 106n

    royal council, appointment to, proposed, 191

    Rosier, John

    Bernard Letters, prepares transcripts of, 34, 57n

    identified, 57n

    Rowe, John

    as Boston selectman, 197

    Roxbury, Mass., 222

    Royal Charter of Massachusetts. See under Province Charter (1691)

    Royal Family, 116, 117n

    Royal Navy

    Boston harbor

    arrive in, 69

    deployment in, 65, 68n, 81, 82n, 123n, 284n, 344, 350n

    movements in and out of, 82n

    deployment of, 65, 82n, 220–21, 284n

    officers mentioned, xxiv, xxv, 19, 37, 58n, 68n, 69, 70n, 79, 144, 284, 302n, 303, 320, 331, 373n

    withdrawal of, 295

    Royall, Isaac

    Council

    election to, 189, 190n, 319n, 352n

    papers of, as co-signatory, 268n, 318, 347

    as councilor, 106n, 133n

    politics of, 4, 132

    Ruddock, John

    as Boston selectmen, 197–98, 215

    as justice of the peace, 101n

    Ruggles, Timothy

    as Hardwick representative, 278n

    Russell, James

    Council

    election to, 189, 190n, 319n, 352n

    papers of, as co-signatory, 268n, 318, 347

    as councilor, 106n

    politics of, 4, 133n, 355

    royal council

    appointed to, 191

    appointment to, proposed, 191

    Salaries. See also Crown: salaries

    Salem, Mass., 69, 106n, 162, 163n, 234, 256, 286n

    Salmon, Stuart, 5, xv, 82

    Samson Agonistes (John Milton), 57n

    Sanders, Thomas. See under Saunders, Thomas

    Satire, 214n

    Saunders, Thomas

    Council, election to, vetoed, 270n, 279n, 280n

    Savile, Sir George

    on FB, 19

    House of Commons

    Bollan, petition of, presents, 321

    speech in, 19

    identified, 53n, 323n

    Sayre, Stephen

    DeBerdt, aids, 115, 117n, 163

    Hillsborough, letter to, cited, 117n, 163n

    House of Representatives, petition to king from, delivers to Hillsborough, 115, 117n

    identified, 117n

    Schaeffer, John Martin, 160n

    Scotland

    merchants of, 257

    Parliament of. See under Parliament of Scotland

    Scotsmen, 256

    Scott, James, 57n, 171n, 178n

    Seabury, Samuel

    American episcopate, and controversy over, 218, 219n

    “B. W.” letter

    and, 219

    discussed, 218

    correspondence with, about, 218

    identified, 219n

    letter from, received, 218

    letter to, 218–19

    listed, 369

    Seasons, 1–3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 27, 36, 38, 54, 82n, 93, 100, 123, 126, 158, 161, 163n, 167, 175–76, 193, 195, 199, 201, 205, 222, 229, 251, 268n, 285, 288, 345, 349n

    Secker, Thomas

    as archbishop of Canterbury, 373n

    death, 149

    identified, 150n

    Secretary at War

    mentioned, 6, 49n, 195, See also Barrington, Lord

    Secretary of State. See also Conway, Henry Seymour; Hillsborough, Earl of; Shelburne, Earl of; Richmond, Duke of

    Secretary of State (Colonial Department). See also Hillsborough, Earl of

    Admiralty Board, letters from, 225

    assembly, dissolution of, as “Wanton Act,” 296

    authority, exceeds, 171n

    Bollan meets with, 347–48

    Bowdoin writes to, 326

    British troops, deployment of, orders for, 4, 72, 288

    clerks of, 41–42, 293n

    correspondence with

    about, xxiv, 2, 41–42, 241

    arrears in, 110

    assembly, communication to, instructions respecting, 177

    confidential letters copied, 247

    discussed, 361

    correspondence with, about

    Parliament, debated in, 19

    printed, 8

    identified, 49n, 50n

    in-letters, filing system, 42

    Massachusetts Council, communications with, about, 357

    mentioned, 31, 34, 36, 38, 41, 56n, 76, 117n, 171n, 203, 361

    office of, 21

    Secretary of State (Northern Department)

    mentioned, 238n

    Secretary of State (Southern Department). See also Shelburne, Earl of

    identified, 50n, 51n

    mentioned, 144, 177

    Sedition

    allegations of, 2, 69, 162, 164–66, 173, 194, 216

    about, 21, 39, 176, 182, 311n

    considered, 226

    refuted, 215

    evidence of, 165–74

    about, 8, 198

    considered, 117, 272

    and high crimes and misdemeanors, 194

    Hobbes on, 178n

    investigations of, 164–65

    Parliament, resolutions of, concerning, 12, 174

    prosecutions for considered, 58n, 177

    “trumpeters of,” 8, 173, 238

    Seizures

    at Boston, 139, 336, 350n

    Select Letters on the Trade and Government of America (Francis Bernard), xxv

    Selkrig, James, 257n

    Selkrig, Robert, 257n

    Seneca (Lucius Annaeus Seneca)

    De Vita Beata, 238n

    Seneca’s Morals (L’Estrange), 238n

    Senegal, HMS, 65, 82n, 123n

    Servants, 175, 291, 347

    Sewall v. Hancock (1768–69), 6–7, 110, 137, 156, 225, See also Hancock, John: trial of

    Sewall, Jonathan

    Adams, J.

    and, 137

    offers position to, 137

    American Board of Customs

    complaints made by, 154–55, 157n, 158n

    FB unware of, 154

    compromise with, reaches, 6, 156

    correspondence with, 156

    dispute with

    about, 5–6, 110, 136, 156–57

    FB reports on, 154–58

    and Hutchinson’s intervention, 111n

    his competency questioned by, 110, 154–55, 157, 158n, 193

    Lydia case, his opinion in, criticized by, 157

    memorials of, reads, 157

    misrepresentations by, investigates, 110, 154–55, 193

    supplies correspondence to, 193n

    American Board of Customs, letter to, cited, 158n

    as attorney general of Massachusetts, 136, 166n

    as “Candidus,” 124n, 244

    career of, 136

    FB

    as adviser to, 100n, 141

    as critic of, 244

    meetings with, 110, 154–56

    patronized by, 6, 135–36, 224–26

    as protégé of, 6

    relationship with, 6, 27

    sidelined by, 166, 225, 273n

    supported by, 137, 157, 228

    FB seeks replacement for, 225

    FB’s disappointment with, 6, 135, 166n, 273n

    Hancock, relationship with, 137, 138n

    Hancock, trial of

    prosecutions, abandons, 6, 110, 137

    as prosecutor in, 5–7, 110, 137, 156, 225

    House of Representatives, resolves of, criticized in, 300

    Hutchinson

    meets with, 156

    relationship with, 111n, 156

    identified, 49n, 138n

    illness of, 110

    informers, protects his, 156–57

    as laywer, 136

    Lisle

    information received from, 111n, 193

    misrepresented by, 157

    loyalty of, 6–7, 135, 225, 273n

    morale of, 156

    newspaper libel on, 243

    offices of, 136, 141

    Paxton, criticized by, 155

    as “Philanthrop,” 7, 244

    as political writer, 7

    Reeve, letter from, cited, 158n

    replacement for, 225n

    resign, threatens to, 154, 157n, 193

    as solicitor general of Massachusetts, 136

    treasonable activities, investigations into, concerns over, 228

    Venner

    correspondence with, about, 193n

    information received from, 111n, 155–56, 158n, 192–93

    letter from, cited, 158n

    letters to, as replies, 193n

    misrepresented by, 157

    Venner and Lisle, meets with, 110, 155

    and Vice Admiralty Court

    advocate general, appointed, 136, 158n

    as advocate general, 6, 110, 136–37, 156, 166n

    as judge, 6, 224–25

    leave of absence, requests, 225

    Whig party, as source of information on, 137

    Whig sympathies of, 6, 158n

    Shakespeare, William

    The Tempest, quoted, 338, 350

    Sheffield, Mass., 278n

    Shelburne, Earl of

    advises FB on prosecuting libels, 177

    as Barré, patron of, 53n

    and Bernard Letters, xxv, 58n

    correspondence with

    about, 41

    numbering of, 41–42

    FB, lacks “intimacy” with, 281

    Hillsborough

    compared to, 10

    discusses FB with, 51n

    House of Representatives to prosecute libels, urges, 179n

    identified, 50n

    Jackson, as interlocutor with, 227

    letters to

    Adams, S., commentaries by, 58n

    Bollan transmits copies to Boston, 35

    cited, 160n, 171n, 177, 179n

    filed, 41

    Parliament, presented to, 11, 50n

    published, xxv, 36, 39, 58n

    on Parliament, resolutions of, 144

    Rogers, meets with, 123

    as secretary of state

    American policy, relinquishes responsibility for, 50n

    Grafton administration, views on, 51n

    Sheriffs, 70

    Shipping

    Batteaux, 220–21

    brigantines, 247, 258

    Halifax, from, 123n

    Halifax, to, 82n

    London, to, 299, 304

    mentioned, 93, 125, 160, 199, 232, 247–48, 254, 258, 278, 283, 299, 304

    schooners, 236

    sloops, 139, 220–21, 336, 350n

    transports, 65, 121, 123n

    warships, 139, 299, 316, See under name of vessel

    Ships’ Captains, 53n, 57n, 124n, 130n, 247, 253, 257, 258n, 273

    Shirley, William

    and Bollan, 29, 51n

    as governor, 29

    Shopkeepers, 37, 213

    Sicily, 201n

    Silver, 86n

    Silvester, Richard

    declaration of, 166–69

    Board of Trade, considered by, 165

    cited, 8, 166n, 207n, 213n

    as enclosure, 165, 169

    identified, 169n

    seditious speeches, reports on, 167–69

    wife of, 167

    Silvester, Richard, Mrs, 167

    Simpson, Jonathan, 257n

    Smith, Henry

    FB, meets with, 69, 70n, 79

    Governor and Council, meets with, 331

    letters to

    cited, 68n, 82n

    listed, 364

    mentioned, 68n, 70n

    Smith, John, 57n

    Smith, Sidney L.

    engraving by, 74

    Smugglers

    prosecution of, 136

    pursuit of, 286n

    Soldiers

    mentioned, 63, 65, 70, 73, 79n, 97–99, 112, 146, 168–69, 217, 237, 267, 298, 305, 332, 344, 360

    prosecutions of, 146

    Solicitor General of England and Wales

    Hillsborough, letter from, cited, 117n

    Sons of Liberty

    Barré depicts Americans as, 53n

    Boston, of, 171n, 262

    crowd action, organize, 334

    FB’s views on, 16, 18, 96, 113, 134, 249, 269

    identified, 171n, 172

    as justices of the peace, 112

    and merchants, 256, 292

    Parliament, proceedings of, reactions to, 260, 262

    political writing of, 55n, 239n

    Pownall, T., correspond with, 199

    prosecution of, 134

    resistance, proclivity for, 204

    sedition of, 170n, 181, 237

    Wilkes, congratulate, 195

    South Carolina

    governors of, 95n, 151n

    governorship of, FB declines, 5, 94, 95n, 151

    mentioned, 231n

    South End, Boston, 167

    Southampton, Eng., 306n, 323n

    Sovereignty, 27, 186–87, 250, 308

    Spa, 94

    Sparhawk, Nathaniel

    Council

    election to, 189, 190n, 319n

    papers of, as co-signatory, 318

    as councilor, 106n

    Specie

    shortage of, 132

    Speech of Th–m–s P–wn–ll, Esq. late g–v–rn–r of this province, in the H––se of C–m––ns, in favor of America (1769), 260

    Spooner, Walter

    Council, election to, vetoed, 270n

    Spooner, Walter

    Council, election to, vetoed, 280n

    Springfield, Mass., 278n

    Spry, William

    as governor of Barbados, 227

    identified, 183n, 242n

    St. Domingue

    governor of, 373n

    St. George, Flag of, 34

    St. George’s Fields’ Massacre, 78

    St. James’s Chronicle

    cited, 232n, 238n

    St. James’s Palace, 241n

    St. John’s, Nfld., 221n

    Stables, 218n

    Stamp Act (1765)

    distributors, 112

    mentioned, 10, 92, 168

    repeal of, 17, 239n

    British responses to, 52n, 78

    Stamp Act Crisis, 7, 9, 42, 53, 176, 213

    Stamp Act Riots, Boston (1765)

    commemoration of, 112, 174

    mentioned, 176

    Stanley, Hans

    identified, 306n

    Navigation Acts, American opposition to, views on, reported, 305, 306n

    Stephens, Philip

    correspondence with, about, 225

    identified, 373n

    letters to, 224–26

    cited, 6, 244

    listed, 369

    Sewall, continuation of, FB recommends, 224–26

    Steuart, Charles

    Coffin, letter from, cited, 173n

    Stewart, Robyn Leith, 5, xv

    Stoddard, William

    as justice of the peace, 101n

    Strasbourg, 160n

    magistrates of, 159

    Strasbourg, Master and Council

    letters from cited, 160n

    letters to, as enclosure, 160

    Suffolk County, Mass., 224n, 311–12

    “Sui Imperator” (anti-government writer), 169n

    Sultana, HMS, 123n

    Sun, 233

    Superior Court of Massachusetts

    justices of, restoration to Council proposed, 186

    Sutherland, Scot., 283n

    Tain, Scot., 283n

    Taunton, Mass., 106n

    Taverns, 223

    Taxation.

    America, of. See under Parliamentary Taxation

    “external” and “internal” taxes, 20, 261, 298

    innovations in, 10

    Parliament, by. See under Parliamentary Taxation

    provincial taxes, 172, 309

    representation, without, 236

    Taylor, John, 257n

    Tea

    Bohea, 169n

    boycott of, 169n

    duties on, 30–31, 33, 38, 303n

    retention of, 38, 264

    salaries from, 138n, 228n, 251–52

    “hyperion” tea, 169n

    Temple, John

    activites of, FB’s suspicions concerning, 159

    American Board of Customs

    complains to Treasury about, 193

    estrangement from, 140, 193, 206

    about, 49n, 124n, 161n, 193

    opposition to, “principal Mover” in, 200

    Bowdoin, E., marriage to, 49n, 89

    and Bowdoin, J., 200, 207n, 241n

    Bradshaw, letters to, cited, 161n

    as “Candidus,” 124n, 201n

    career of, 49, 193

    and Cockle, dismissal of, 286, 373n

    as commissioner of Customs, 188n

    dismissal of, FB urges, 206

    FB, accuses, 286, 373n

    FB, as enemy of, 89, 210, 214n, 285

    and Fisher, K., 244

    and Folger, dismissal of, 161n

    and Grenville, 213, 285, 286n

    newspaper libels, involvement in, suspected, 9, 157, 199–200, 205, 209–13, 219, 241n, 243–44, 245n

    Fenton, with, 212, 243, 245n

    no evidence for, 200, 201n

    as “Palinurus,” 211

    as “Paoli,” 201n

    as “Philanthrop,” 244

    populace, spared condemnation by, 139

    and Sewall, 157

    Toovey, deposition of, publishes, 285

    Treasury

    complains to, 161n

    letters to, cited, 161n

    memorials to

    about, 193

    cited, 193n, 201n

    Trecothick, letter from, not found, 286n

    and Whig party, 9, 49n, 193, 200, 244

    Temple, Robert, 245n

    Terrick, Richard, 149n

    Terror, 194

    The Tempest (Shakespeare), 338, 350n

    Thomas, Peter D. G.

    on Hillsborough, 204, 264

    on Pownall, T., 56n

    on Quartering Act, 230n

    on Townshend duties crisis, 1

    Thompson, Samuel, 284n

    “Timothy Tickle” (Anglican writer), 218

    “To the Sons of Liberty” (article), 55n

    Toovey, Sampson

    deposition of

    about, 286n

    printed, 286

    Tories

    in America, 114n, 285n

    in England, 54n, 238n

    mentioned, 274, 286

    Town House, Boston, 3, 65, 68, 71n, 172, 235n, 268n, 295

    British regiments quartered in, 70–71

    doorkeeper, 70

    Towns. See also named town

    Boston, criticize, 75

    British troops in, quartering of, proposed, 84

    and Convention of Towns, 12, 75, 77n, See also Convention of Towns

    as corporations, 98

    representatives of mentioned, 279n, See also under named town

    Townshend Acts (1767). See also Townshend Duties

    and British policy, 11

    and Crown salaries, 92

    listed, 11

    opposition to, 11, 136, 160, 227, 250

    repeal of, 14–15, 29, 163n, 171n, 203, 250

    as compromise, 251

    delayed, 150–51

    Townshend Duties. See also Parliament, Legislation: Revenue Act (1767)

    collection of, 19

    Crown salaries from, no prospect of, 227

    enacted, 228n

    opposition to, 76n, 170n

    repeal of, 7, 29–31, 38, 204, 264

    British opinion on, 120–25, 150–53

    compromise over considered, 121–22

    tea duty, 31, 33, 38, 303n

    retention of, 30, 38, 264

    salaries from, 92, 138n, 228n, 251–52

    tea duty, retention of, 30

    Townshend Revenue Act (1767). See under Parliament, Legislation: Revenue Act (1767), See also Townshend Duties

    Townshend, Charles

    America, knowledge of, 250

    American civil list, plans for, 5, 92, 250–51

    Townships, 126, 127n, 218n

    Trade Duties, 130, 252n, 298, See also